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Proposed Rule

Revised Proposal for Revisions to the Schedules of Civil Penalties for a Violation of a Federal Railroad Safety Law or Federal Railroad Administration Safety Regulation or Order

Action

Revised Proposal For Revisions To Schedules Of Civil Penalties, With Request For Comments.

Summary

FRA is issuing for comment a revised proposal (New Proposal) that, if adopted, would amend, line-by-line, FRA's schedules of civil penalties (“Schedules”) issued as appendices to FRA's rail safety regulations, as well as other guidance, in order to reflect more accurately the degree of safety risk associated with a violation of each regulatory requirement and to ensure that the civil monetary penalty amounts are consistent across all FRA safety regulations. The New Proposal represents a revision of FRA's December 2006 proposal to amend the Schedules for the same purposes (December 2006 Proposal or Initial Proposal).

 

Table of Contents Back to Top

Tables Back to Top

DATES: Back to Top

Written comments must be received by October 21, 2010. Comments received after that date will be considered to the extent possible without incurring additional delay or expense.

ADDRESSES: Back to Top

Comments: Comments related to this Docket No. FRA 2006-25274, Notice No. 2, may be submitted by any of the following methods:

  • Fax: 202-493-2251.
  • Mail: U.S. Department of Transportation, Docket Operations, M-30, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20590.
  • Hand Delivery: U.S. Department of Transportation, Docket Operations, M-30, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20590, between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m. Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays.
  • Federal eRulemaking Portal: Go to http://www.regulations.gov. Follow the online instructions for submitting comments.

Instructions: All submissions must include the agency name and docket number or Regulatory Identification Number (RIN) for this rulemaking. Note that all comments received will be posted without change to http://www.regulations.gov including any personal information provided.

Docket: For access to the docket to read background documents or comments received go to http://www.regulations.gov at any time or to U.S. Department of Transportation, Docket Operations, M-30, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., Washington, DC, between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Back to Top

Edward Pritchard, Director, Office of Safety Assurance and Compliance, Office of Railroad Safety, FRA, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20590 (telephone 202-493-6247), edward.pritchard @dot.gov; or Brian Roberts, Trial Attorney, Office of the Chief Counsel, FRA, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., Mail Stop 10, Washington, DC 20590 (telephone 202-493-6052), brian.roberts@dot.gov.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Back to Top

Table of Contents for Supplementary Information Back to Top

I. General Background

II. Proceedings to Date, Provision of Opportunity for Comment, Comparison of Initial and New Proposals

A. Initial Proposal

B. Subsequent Changes in the Minimum and Ordinary Maximum Civil Penalties

C. Provision of Opportunity for Comment, With Comparison of the Initial and New Proposals

III. FRA's New Proposed Approach to Reevaluating the Schedules of Civil Penalties

IV. Rankings of the Rail Safety Regulatory Provisions and the Hours of Service Laws in the New Proposal

A. Motive Power and Equipment Regulations (MP) (49 CFR Parts 215, 218 (Partially), 223, 224, 227, 229, 230, 231, 232, 238, and 239 (Partially))

B. Track and Workplace Safety Regulations (49 CFR Parts 213 and 214)

C. Grade Crossing Signal Systems and Signal and Train Control Regulations (49 CFR Parts 233, 234, 235, and 236)

D. Operating Practices Regulations (49 CFR Parts 217, 218 (Partially), 219, 220, 221, 222, 225, 228, 239 (Partially), 240, and 241) and the Hours of Service Laws (49 U.S.C. Chapter 211)

V. Response to Public Comment on the Schedules Proposed in December 2006

A. Concerns Related to Respondents That Are Small Businesses

B. Concerns About Initially Proposed Penalty Amounts for Violations of 49 CFR Parts 222, 225, and 229

C. Concerns Related to Respondents Who Are Cited as Individuals

D. Concerns About Effects on FRA's Confidential Close Call Reporting Project

E. Concerns About Proposed Monetary Increases in the Civil Penalty Amounts

I. General Background Back to Top

FRA last published comprehensive, line-by-line final revisions to the Schedules of its safety regulations on December 29, 1988. 53 FR 52918. The revisions reflected the higher maximum penalty amounts made available by the enactment of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 1988 (100). With the exception of the penalties relating to the hours of service laws (49 U.S.C. chapter 211), the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 1988 raised the maximum penalty for any ordinary violation from $2,500 to $10,000 (“the ordinary maximum”) and to $20,000 for a grossly negligent violation or a pattern of repeated violations that has created an imminent hazard of death or injury or caused death or injury (“the aggravated maximum”). Therefore, FRA published amendments to the Schedules in order to “give effect to the full range of civil penalties * * * permitted to be assessed for violation of specific regulations.” 53 FR 52918. These amendments revised not only the maximum civil penalty amount for any violation, but also the individual line-item penalties for specific sections or subsections of the regulations.

The Rail Safety Enforcement and Review Act (“RSERA”) (102), which was enacted September 3, 1992, increased the maximum penalty for a violation of the hours of service laws, from $1,000 to $10,000 and in some cases to $20,000, making these penalty amounts uniform with those of FRA's other regulatory provisions. RSERA also increased the minimum penalty from $250 to $500 for all of FRA's regulatory provisions.

Since the publication of the Schedules in 1988, FRA has periodically adjusted its minimum and its ordinary or aggravated maximum penalty to conform to the mandates of the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990. 28 U.S.C. 2461 note, as amended (“Inflation Act”). The Inflation Act requires that an agency adjust by regulation each maximum penalty, or range of minimum and maximum penalties, within that agency's jurisdiction periodically to reflect inflation. In the Inflation Act, Congress found a way to counter the effect that inflation has had on the penalties by having the agencies charged with enforcement responsibility administratively adjust the penalties. Currently FRA's minimum penalty is $650, the ordinary maximum is $25,000 and the aggravated maximum is $100,000 (for when a “grossly negligent violation or pattern of repeated violations has caused an imminent hazard or death or injury to individuals, or has caused death or injury”).

The Inflation Act requires only that the minimum, the ordinary maximum, and the aggravated maximum civil penalty for a violation be adjusted, not that the guideline penalty amounts for a specific type of violation (e.g., a section of a particular regulation) be adjusted. As a result, FRA has not adjusted the line-item guideline penalties found in the Schedules in conjunction with its adjustments of the minimum, maximum and aggravated maximum civil penalties. FRA's practice has been to issue Schedules assigning to each section or subsection of the regulations specific dollar amounts for initial penalty assessments. These Schedules (and all line-item penalty amounts found within them) are statements of agency policy that specify the penalty that FRA will ordinarily assess for the violation of a particular section or subsection of a safety regulation, and are published to inform members of the regulated community of the amount that they are likely to be assessed for a given violation within the range of $650 to $25,000. The Schedules are “meant to provide guidance as to FRA's policy in predictable situations, not to bind FRA from using the full range of penalty authority where extraordinary circumstances warrant.” 49 CFR part 209, appendix A. Thus, regardless of the amounts shown in the Schedules, FRA continues to reserve the right to assess, within the range established by the rail safety statutes (49 U.S.C. chapter 213) or by regulation pursuant to the Inflation Act, an amount other than that listed in the Schedules based on the circumstances of the alleged violation. 73 FR 79698, Dec. 30, 2008.

II. Proceedings to Date, Provision of Opportunity for Comment, and Comparison of Initial and New Proposals Back to Top

A. Initial Proposal

FRA published 25 proposed Schedules with a request for comments on December 5, 2006, which first presented the agency's intention of once again comprehensively revising the civil penalty amounts. 71 FR 70590. In this Initial Proposal, FRA explained its approach to reevaluating the Schedules and explained the severity scale that was developed for setting line-item penalty amounts in the Schedules. The severity scale's penalty amounts were assessed within the statutory range for civil penalties at that time, which was from the minimum of $550 to the ordinary maximum of $11,000, as follows:

Severity level (explained in the Initial Proposal and below) Ordinary violations Willful violations
Level A $8,500 $11,000
Level B 6,500 9,000
Level C 5,000 7,500
Level D 3,000 4,500
Level E 1,500 2,500

B. Subsequent Changes in the Minimum and Ordinary Maximum Civil Penalties

Subsequently, in 2007, pursuant to the requirements of the Inflation Act, FRA recalculated the ordinary maximum penalty and raised it from $11,000 to $16,000. 71 FR 51194, Sept. 6, 2007. Then, on October 16, 2008, the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008 (Pub. L. 110-432, Div. A) (“RSIA”) was enacted; Section 302 of the RSIA increased the ordinary and aggravated maximum penalty amounts to $25,000 and $100,000, respectively. In a final rule published on December 30, 2008, FRA adjusted its minimum penalty from $550 to $650 pursuant to Inflation Act requirements. 73 FR 79698. In that rule FRA also evaluated whether it needed to increase the ordinary and aggravated maximum penalties pursuant to the Inflation Act; however, the enactment of the RSIA statutorily changed the ordinary and aggravated maximum penalties to $25,000 and $100,000, respectively, and therefore rendered any inflationary adjustments to either figure unnecessary. Instead, FRA adopted $25,000 as the ordinary maximum and $100,000 as the aggravated maximum required by the RSIA. (See also correcting amendment to the Schedule for 49 CFR part 232. 74 FR 15387, April 6, 2009.)

C. Provision of Opportunity for Comment, With Comparison of the Initial and New Proposals

Given the large statutorily mandated increase in the ordinary maximum civil penalty from $11,000 to $25,000 after publication of the Initial Proposal, FRA is offering the public an opportunity to review and comment on the new higher civil penalty amounts assessed for violations on each severity scale level in the New Proposal. [1] In the New Proposal, FRA is issuing another set of proposed Schedules and seeking comments from the general public. Comments on the new proposed Schedules will be useful to the agency's decision making process.

FRA has also slightly modified the severity scale in the New Proposal from the severity scale in the Initial Proposal. In the New Proposal, FRA has used a targeted enforcement approach for establishing the civil penalties for ordinary (non-willful) violations of railroad safety regulations. As part of the targeted enforcement approach, ordinary violations occurring at the middle and lower levels of the severity scale are assessed smaller civil penalties in relation to the ordinary maximum while the highest penalty amounts are assessed for ordinary Level A violations where serious injuries, deaths, or other railroad accidents or incidents are most likely to occur. FRA did not take a targeted enforcement approach for establishing the civil penalty amounts for willful violations in the New Proposal. Instead, the civil penalty amounts for willful violations increase up the severity scale in steady dollar amounts, not in graduated percentage increases like the civil penalties for ordinary violations.

Higher penalty amounts for violations of Federal railroad safety laws and regulations are necessary because many of FRA's civil penalties have not been changed in real terms for many years. As a result, inflation has somewhat eroded the deterrent effects of most of FRA's civil penalties because the amounts have not been increased to account for the effects of inflation. While many of the penalty amounts in the New Proposal would represent large increases in penalty amounts even after adjusting for inflation, some penalty amounts for violations would remain unchanged (e.g., 49 CFR 219.205(b), 222.49(b), 229.71, and 239.301(c)(1)) if adopted by FRA because of the uniform rating of FRA's existing penalties on the severity scale. The new penalty amounts in this New Proposal will maintain the deterrent effects of FRA's rail safety penalties, aiding the success of FRA's mission to make the United States rail system safer.

FRA has also reexamined how it had ranked individual rail safety violations on the severity scale in the Initial Proposal. Upon second review of the severity scale rankings, FRA is proposing to move certain regulatory provisions to higher or lower levels on the severity scale in order to refine the agency's application of the severity scale to the various violations. For example, FRA is proposing to raise the severity scale ranking of 49 CFR 219.3 (“Application: Railroad does not have required program”), in this New Proposal from a “C” level penalty to a “B” level penalty. This change is necessary because the failure of a railroad covered by 49 CFR part 219 to have an alcohol and drug testing program is more likely than not to cause a rail equipment accident/incident or other accident/incident involving death, injury, or occupational illness rather than just substantially increase the likelihood that one of these events could occur. Conversely, in this New Proposal, FRA would lower the severity scale ranking of 49 CFR 225.35 (“Access to records and reports”), from an “A” level penalty to a “D” level penalty. This proposed change in severity scale level reflects FRA's judgment that denying its inspectors access to records and reports required by 49 CFR part 225 is not extremely likely to lead to a railroad accident/incident or other accident/injury including death, injury, or occupational illness, but could slightly increase the likelihood of one of the above mentioned occurrences if FRA is not provided access to accident reporting records and reports. FRA expects that these proposed changes to the severity scale rankings of some of its violations in the Initial Proposal better refine the agency's application of the Severity Scale to the various violations.

In addition, FRA is proposing minor changes to its Schedules in this New Proposal to correct errors and omissions and to reflect more accurately FRA's current enforcement practices. Such errors include obvious spelling or typographical errors that were caught during the review process. Omissions corrected include line-item penalties for any existing section or subsection that had been inadvertently omitted from an existing Schedule, such as 49 CFR 213.110. Other proposed minor revisions to the Schedules include, but are not limited to, adding or deleting a suggested penalty for a violation (e.g., 49 CFR 213.109(c), 214.343(a)(2), 220.38, and 240.201(b)), rewording a line-item description for a violation (e.g., 49 CFR 219.23(f) and 233.9), renumbering violation subsections (e.g., 49 CFR 214.343(b)(1), 236.587, 236.905(d), and 236.913(j)), and adding or revising footnotes to the Schedules (e.g., 49 CFR parts 214, 232, and 239). For example, FRA is proposing to add a footnote 3 to the Schedule for 49 CFR part 214 to clarify that FRA will consult the suggested penalty amounts under 49 CFR 214.343 (“Training and qualification, general:”) when assessing penalties for the training violations in 49 CFR 214.345 through 214.355, as the suggested penalty amounts for these sections had been left blank in previous versions of part 214's penalty schedule. FRA is hopeful these proposed minor changes updating its Schedules would provide a more accurate picture to the regulated community of FRA's actual enforcement practices.

New suggested penalty amounts have also been proposed for violations of subparts that had not been mentioned in the existing penalty schedules: 49 CFR part 218, subpart E (“Protection of Occupied Camp Cars”); 49 CFR part 228, subpart D (“Electronic Recordkeeping”); 49 CFR part 232, subpart G (“Electronically Controlled Pneumatic (ECP) Braking Systems”); and 49 CFR part 236, subpart I (“Positive Train Control Systems”) are also included. FRA is also suggesting new penalty amounts for 49 CFR part 227 (“Occupational Noise Exposure”) which was not ranked in the severity scale in the Initial Proposal because the final rule creating part 227 was published on October 27, 2006, but not effective until February 26, 2007. 71 FR 63066. In addition, FRA will also be accepting comments on the new penalties in 49 CFR part 237 that were published in a bridge safety standards final rule on July 15, 2010 and will become effective on September 13, 2010. 75 FR 41282.

Further, FRA is proposing to add language to 49 CFR part 228, appendix A, to state its proposed guideline penalty amounts for both non-willful and willful violations of the hours of service laws (49 U.S.C. chapter 211). In addition, this New Proposal would also add or change language in the portion of 49 CFR part 209, appendix A, entitled “Penalty Schedules: Assessment of Maximum Penalties,” to reflect the new minimum, ordinary maximum, and aggravated maximum civil penalties of $650, $25,000, and $100,000 respectively. Finally, FRA is also proposing to add the language “or orders” in two places within this portion of part 209, appendix A to update the language to reflect FRA's already existing policy of establishing civil penalty schedules and recommended civil penalty amounts applicable to violations of various orders issued by FRA (such as emergency orders under 49 U.S.C. 20104) when necessary to advance the agency's safety mission.

III. FRA's New Proposed Approach to Reevaluating the Schedules of Civil Penalties Back to Top

The Federal Railroad Administrator is authorized as the delegate of the Secretary of Transportation to enforce the Federal railroad safety statutes (49 U.S.C. chapters 201-213) regulations, and orders, including the statutory civil penalty provisions at 49 U.S.C. chapter 213. 49 CFR 1.49. FRA currently has 26 parts of regulations that contain Schedules. [2] With this New Proposal, FRA is proposing to amend each of the line-item guideline penalty amounts contained within the Schedules for each of the regulations and to add guideline penalty amounts for violations of the hours of service laws to 49 CFR part 228, appendix A (collectively, Penalty Guidelines). In reevaluating the penalty amounts in the Schedules, FRA has developed a new proposed severity scale (“New Proposed Severity Scale”) for setting the line-item penalty amounts for each violation of the safety regulations and for violations of the hours of service laws. The severity scale FRA is proposing to adopt in this New Proposal is described in the following section.

New Proposed Severity Scale for Setting Line-Item Penalty Amounts in FRA Penalty Guidelines

FRA's rail safety regulations and the rail safety statutes are intended either to prevent a railroad accident/incident or to mitigate the consequences if one were to occur. For the most severe ratings on the scale, FRA concentrated on the degrees of likelihood that an accident/incident [3] will occur or that graver consequences of an accident/incident will occur as a result of failing to comply with the section. The following New Proposed Severity Scale is intended to reflect this focus:

Level A-Very High Probability—Failure of a railroad to comply with this section or subsection of the Code of Federal Regulations (“CFR”), this FRA order, or this rail safety statute is extremely likely to result in one or more of the following events, but does not create an imminent hazard of death or injury to individuals or cause an actual death or injury [4] :

1. Rail equipment accident/incident

2. Other accident/incident (including death, injury, or occupational illness) [5]

FRA is proposing to issue a penalty guideline for Level “A” of $19,500 for an ordinary violation and $25,000 for a willful violation of the regulation, order, or statute.

Level B— High Probability—Failure of railroad to comply with this section or subsection of the CFR, this FRA order, or this rail safety statute is more likely than not to result in the occurrence of:

1. Rail equipment accident/incident; or

2. Other accident/incident (including death, injury, or occupational illness).

FRA is proposing to issue a penalty guideline for Level “B” of $13,000 for an ordinary violation and $20,500 for a willful violation of the regulation, order, or statute.

For the following levels, FRA is not only addressing the likelihood that noncompliance will or could contribute to an accident or aggravated consequences if an accident occurred, but also the importance of maintaining compliance in order to prevent violations of these regulatory or statutory sections or subsections from becoming leading accident causes in the future.

Level C— Moderate Probability—Failure of railroad to comply with this section or subsection of the CFR, this FRA order, or this rail safety statute substantially increases the likelihood that one of the following will occur:

1. Rail equipment accident/incident; or

2. Other accident/incident (including death, injury, or occupational illness).

FRA is proposing to issue a penalty guideline for Level “C” of $9,500 for an ordinary violation and $17,000 for a willful violation of the regulation, order, or statute.

Level D— Minor Probability—Failure of the railroad to comply with this section or subsection of the CFR, this FRA order, or this rail safety statute slightly increases the likelihood that one of the following will occur:

1. Rail equipment accident/incident; or

2. Other accident/incident (including death, injury, or occupational illness).

FRA is proposing to issue a penalty guideline for Level “D” of $5,500 for an ordinary violation and $10,000 for a willful violation of the regulation, order, or statute.

Level E— Minimal Probability—Failure to comply with this section or subsection of the CFR, this FRA order, or this rail safety statute does not materially increase the likelihood that a rail equipment accident/incident or other accident/incident will occur, except in special circumstances, such as if the noncompliance is willful or widespread. Nevertheless, noncompliance with any one of these provisions undercuts the effectiveness of the Federal railroad safety program, and could compromise the safety of rail operations.

Example: Violation of § 225.13—Late Reports—Submitting a late accident/incident report to FRA does not increase the likelihood that a rail equipment accident/incident or other accident/incident will occur. Widespread noncompliance with that provision, however, could lead to inaccuracies in Federal accident databases, which in turn could delay FRA's response to emerging safety problems.

FRA is proposing to issue a penalty guideline for Level “E” of $2,500 for an ordinary violation and $5,000 for a willful violation of the regulation, order, or statute.

Like the Initially Proposed Severity Scale, the New Proposed Severity Scale shows, there are five different levels of probabilities, ranging from “A” (the most severe) to “E” (the least severe of the types of violations). In developing the rankings (“A” through “E”), FRA concentrated on the degrees of likelihood that an accident/incident will occur or that graver consequences will occur as a result of the failure to comply with the particular section or subsection of the safety regulations or with the statute. Using the New Proposed Severity Scale, FRA then assigned a ranking (from “A” to “E”) to each of the provisions of the particular rail safety regulations and to the hours of service statute, which the agency has responsibility for administering and enforcing. The resulting proposed line-item penalty amounts for violations of each of the sections or subsections of the safety regulations affected and for violations of the hours of service laws reflect FRA's determination, based on safety data and industry knowledge, of how likely the violation of a particular provision is to result in a rail equipment accident/incident or another type of accident/incident. Due to the increase in the ordinary maximum from $11,000 to $25,000 since the Initial Proposal, the new proposed civil penalty amounts have increased in most instances, but in some cases the new proposed civil penalty amount would remain the same (e.g., 49 CFR 219.205(b), 222.49(b), 229.71, and 239.301(c)(1)) if adopted by FRA. Nonetheless, a determination by FRA that violation of a provision does not increase the likelihood that a rail equipment accident/incident or other accident will occur, however, does not mean that the provision is inconsequential to the effectiveness of the Federal railroad safety program or to the overall safety of railroad operations.

Currently, each Schedule is in the form of a table consisting of three columns with one or more footnotes. Like the initially proposed Schedules, the new proposed Schedules would continue to be structured in this fashion and to provide guideline penalty amounts for two categories of violations: Ordinary (non-willful) and willful. Each new proposed Schedule lists the CFR section or subsection in the left-hand column, sometimes with additional designations to distinguish different types of violations (penalty codes) of the section or subsection in order to facilitate the assessment of civil penalties. The only exception continues to be 49 CFR part 231; the left-hand column of the new proposed Schedule lists the FRA defect codes [6] for that part, and not the corresponding CFR sections. The reason for this continues to be the fact that the defect codes are organized by the type of safety appliance, which makes them easier to use, than the section numbers of part 231, which are organized primarily by car or locomotive type. Nevertheless, if necessary, every defect code can be traced to a specific regulatory provision in part 231 or statutory provision in 49 U.S.C. chapter 203, or both. The corresponding penalties for each violation are listed in the middle and right-hand columns: The guideline penalty amount for an ordinary violation and then the guideline penalty amount for a willful violation. The ordinary penalties apply to railroads or other respondents, except individuals, while the “willful” column applies to willful violations committed by railroads or individuals.

The following chart summarizes the new proposed guideline amounts for ordinary and willful violations by severity level:

Severity level under new Proposal Ordinary violations Willful violations
Level A $19,500 $25,000
Level B 13,000 20,500
Level C 9,500 17,000
Level D 5,500 10,000
Level E 2,500 5,000

IV. Rankings of the Rail Safety Regulatory Provisions and the Hours of Service Laws in the New Proposal Back to Top

Although the railroad industry's overall safety record has improved over the last decade, significant train accidents/incidents continue to occur. As a result, the FRA's safety program is being guided by careful analysis of accident/incident, inspection, and other safety data. FRA has also directed both its regulatory and compliance efforts toward the areas that involve the highest of safety risks, in order to reduce the number and severity of accidents/incidents caused by a failure to comply with those safety regulations. Therefore, the goal of the new proposed line-item penalty amounts for each of the Schedules and the new proposed penalty amount for violations of the hours of service statute is to reflect the different degrees of probability that a violation of a particular regulatory section or subsection, order, or statute will result in a rail equipment accident/incident or other accident/incident, in order to improve the overall safety of railroad operations.

A. Motive Power and Equipment Regulations (MP) (49 CFR Parts 215, 218 (Partially), 223, 224, 227, 229, 230, 231, 232, 238, and 239 (Partially))

In reevaluating the current line-item penalty amounts for each of the CFR sections or subsections found in 49 CFR parts 215, 218 (partially), 223, 224, 227, 229, 230, 231, 232, 238, and 239 (partially) of the CFR, FRA took into consideration, among other factors, the nationwide list of “Top 10” MP defects. The defects are listed in the table below, in descending order, according to the number of times that each defect was determined to have caused a rail equipment accident/incident, excluding highway-rail grade crossing accidents/incidents that are also classified as rail equipment accidents/incidents (“train accidents”), between January 2005 and December 2009.

Journal (roller bearing) overheated—(143) Damaged flange or tread (build up)—(60)
Pantograph defect (locomotive)—(121) Coupler retainer pin/cross key missing—(57)
Side bearing clearance insufficient—(86) Rigging down or dragging—(49)
Broken rim—(80) Other coupler/draft system defects; Worn Flange (tie)—(38)
Truck bolster stiff—(67) Center sill broken or bent—(36)

The CFR sections or subsections that relate to these defects have received higher proposed rankings in the Schedules compared to other MP defects and as such now carry higher penalty amounts. For example, a violation of 49 CFR 215.103(d)(3), which involves a defective wheel rim with a crack of one inch or more, received a proposed “A” severity ranking (and a proposed guideline penalty amount of $19,500) because of the high safety risk that the defect will cause a broken rim that, in turn, causes a derailment. In addition, FRA applied the New Proposed Severity Scale in order to determine the degrees of likelihood that any type of accident/incident will occur as a result of noncompliance with the regulations.

B. Track and Workplace Safety Regulations (49 CFR Parts 213 and 214)

In recent years, most of the serious accidents/incidents (train collisions or derailments resulting in a release of hazardous materials or harm to rail passengers, rail employees, or the general public) resulted from human factor or track causes. Over the last five years, 31.9 percent of train accidents were caused by track defects. In an effort to reduce track accidents, FRA is focusing its track inspections on the areas of highest risks and encouraging inspectors to recommend enforcement action on the kinds of violations that are considered leading causes of track-caused train accidents. Therefore, in evaluating the line-item penalty amounts for all the sections or subsections, FRA took into consideration the leading causes of track-related train accidents when applying the New Proposed Severity Scale to the Track Safety Standards. For example, violations of 49 CFR 213.53 “Gage” received a new proposed “A” ranking (and new proposed penalty guideline amounts of $19,500 for an ordinary violation and $25,000 for a willful violation) because improper gage is one of the leading causes of track-related train accidents.

In ranking the sections or subsections of 49 CFR part 214 (“Railroad Workplace Safety”), FRA took into consideration not only the probability that an accident/incident could result if a violation occurred, but also the fact that the accident/incident could result in serious injury or death. One example of the rankings for part 214 is the ranking for the second type of violation of 49 CFR 214.103, coded 214.103(ii), “Failure to use fall protection.” This violation designated 214.103(ii) received a proposed ranking of “A” (and a proposed guideline penalty of $19,500 for an ordinary violation and $25,000 for a willful violation) because the violation could result in serious injury or death, as evidenced by the several bridge worker fatalities in the past 10 years due to the failure to use fall protection.

C. Grade Crossing Signal Systems and Signal and Train Control Regulations (49 CFR Parts 233, 234, 235, and 236)

FRA applied the New Proposed Severity Scale to each of the sections in 49 CFR parts 233, 234, 235, and 236, in order to determine the appropriate proposed rankings for each of the sections or subsections of the regulations. In the area of signal and train control (S), FRA followed the New Proposed Severity Scale, which concentrates on the potential for an accident/incident resulting from noncompliance. S systems are vital to the safe functioning of the general railroad system because train crews and highway motorists rely on the accuracy of the information provided by these systems to make safe movements on the railway system and through highway-rail grade crossings. While there are relatively few train accidents and highway-rail grade crossing accidents/incidents associated with S causes that have occurred in recent years, the consequences of an S accident can be catastrophic. Therefore, it is imperative that the Schedules put into effect by FRA reflect the levels of risks associated with the violation of these CFR sections or subsections, in order to prevent future S accidents.

D. Operating Practices Regulations (49 CFR Parts 217, 218 (Partially), 219, 220, 221, 222, 225, 228, 239 (Partially), 240, and 241) and Hours of Service Laws (49 U.S.C. Chapter 211)

Over the five years from January 2005 to December 2009, human-factor-related causes accounted for 34.2 percent of all train accidents. A review of the FRA's Office of Railroad Safety database indicated that in 2009 the top four human factor causes contributing to train accidents were improperly lined switches; employees absent on, at, or ahead of a shoving movement; failure to control during a shoving movement; and failure to comply with restricted speed or its equivalent when not in connection with a block or interlocking signal. These top causes are often involved in violations of such regulations as 49 CFR part 220 (“Railroad Communications”). A review of the top four causes for human factor train accidents between January 2005 and December 2009 showed that these causes accounted for 1,812 reportable train accidents/incidents (including 13 employee fatalities, 463 employee injuries, and over $96 million in damages). Therefore, when applying the New Proposed Severity Scale to the regulatory provision or statute, FRA considered all of this safety information in order to ensure that each new proposed line-item penalty amount reflected the likelihood that noncompliance would result in a train accident/incident, or that graver consequences would occur as a result of failing to comply with the statute or section or subsection of the regulations.

V. Response to Public Comment on the Schedules Proposed in December 2006 Back to Top

As previously stated, the existing Schedules are statements of agency policy, which FRA has authority to amend or replace without having to provide prior notice and opportunity for comment under the Administrative Procedure Act, 5 U.S.C. 553(b)(3)(A). Nevertheless, FRA provided members and representatives of the regulated community and the general public with an opportunity to comment on the proposed line-item penalty amounts published on December 5, 2006. FRA received six comments on the Schedules proposed in December 2006. FRA has considered the comments received and now responds to the questions and concerns raised in them.

A. Concerns Related to Respondents That Are Small Businesses

The Small Railroad Business Owners of America (“SRBOA”) commented that FRA's December 2006 proposed civil penalty policy does not adequately take into account the interests of small businesses. The commenter suggested that doubling certain civil penalties for smaller railroads is unfair, especially because most of the accidents/incidents occur on larger railroads. The commenter also asked that FRA provide additional training and assistance to smaller railroads in comprehension and application of the rail safety regulations.

In addition, the American Short Line and Regional Railroad Association (“ASLRRA”) commented that the proposed statement of agency policy ignores the effect that proposed amounts would have on small railroads. ASLRRA suggested that FRA move instead, towards a sliding scale system of civil penalties based on the class of track under 49 CFR part 213 that is involved in the violation. In the alternative, ASLRRA suggested that FRA take the time to codify a second, lower schedule of penalties for small railroads.

In response to these concerns, FRA would like to emphasize appendix C to 49 CFR part 209, where FRA has published its policy statement concerning small business entities. FRA understands that small entities in the rail industry have significantly different characteristics from larger carriers and shippers. Therefore, FRA has developed programs to respond to compliance-related inquiries of small entities, and to ensure proper handling of civil penalty and other enforcement actions against small businesses. FRA inspectors provide training on the requirements of all railroad safety statutes for new and existing small businesses upon request. Also, it is FRA's policy to maintain frequent and open communications with the national representatives of the primary small entity associations and to consult with these organizations before embarking on new policies that may impact the interests of small businesses. Additionally, FRA has posted all of its manuals electronically for compliance with the rail safety disciplines at http://www.fra.dot.gov.

FRA employs an enforcement policy that addresses the unique nature of small entities in the imposition of civil penalties and resolution of those assessments. Pursuant to appendix A to 49 CFR part 209, it is FRA's policy to consider a variety of factors in determining whether to take enforcement action against persons, including small entities, who have violated the safety laws and regulations. In general, the presence of both good faith and prompt remedial action on the part of the small entity militates against taking a civil penalty action, especially if the violation is an isolated event. Once FRA has assessed a civil penalty, FRA may adjust or compromise the initial penalty claim based on a wide variety of mitigating factors. The mitigating criteria that FRA applies are found in the railroad safety statutes at 49 U.S.C. ch. 213 and in the Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act of 1996 (Pub. L. 104-121) (“SBREFA”); these factors include the severity of the safety or health risk presented; the existence of alternative methods of eliminating the safety hazard; the entity's culpability; the entity's compliance history; the entity's ability to pay the assessment; the impact an assessment might exact on the entity's continued business; and evidence that the entity acted in good faith. 49 CFR part 209, appendix C.

FRA's enforcement policy with respect to small entities is flexible and comprehensive, but FRA's first priority in its compliance and enforcement activities is public and employee safety. FRA notes that an accident on a small railroad could have the same consequences as an accident on a large railroad. Therefore, small railroads are responsible for compliance with the railroad safety statutes and regulations.

Finally, the Small Railroad Business Owners' Association of America (“SRBOA”) commented that FRA's civil penalties were higher than those used by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (“FMCSA”) for enforcing commercial motor vehicle driver and trucking safety, and suggested that FRA should impose civil penalties for smaller railroads only if discussing the situation with them does not work first.

As explained above, FRA's rail safety inspectors take into account a variety of factors in determining whether to take enforcement actions. They have the option of citing the railroads for defects, which in their judgment do not merit civil penalties before citing them for violations, which do carry civil penalty recommendations. Also, FRA does not believe it is appropriate to compare FRA's rail safety penalties to FMCSA's penalties for driver and trucking safety. The safety considerations in the trucking and rail industries are very different. An accident involving a train is potentially far more catastrophic and costly than a similar accident involving a truck. For example, one railroad tank car could contain many truckloads of hazardous material, and one train could consist of many such railroad tank cars.

B. Concerns About Initially Proposed Penalty Amounts for Violations of 49 CFR Parts 222, 225, and 229

The Association of American Railroads (“AAR”) stated that, in several cases, the penalties proposed in December 2006 are disproportionate to the severity of the violation. Specifically, AAR took exception to penalties proposed for noncompliance with 49 CFR parts 222, 225, and 229.

With regard to part 222 (the train horn rule), AAR contended that a “D” level penalty for a violation of § 222.21(b) is unsubstantiated, as the sounding of a horn for more than 20 seconds will not increase the likelihood of an accident or incident.

FRA provides that the train horn rule focuses on public and community interests. To remain true to the intention of the rule, FRA must take the interests of the community into account when determining the penalty amount that a violation merits. FRA believes that it is important that sufficient warning be provided to the motorist who needs time to recognize the audible signal, understand its message, initiate a reaction, and take appropriate action when at a grade crossing. See 71 FR 47618, Aug. 17, 2006. If the train horn is sounded more than 25 seconds before the train enters the train crossing, motorists might well begin to doubt the credibility of the train horn as an indicator of the train's immediacy to the grade crossing. As a result, motorists will be more likely to take the risk of traveling through the crossing even when the train horn is sounded.

The rule text for § 222.21(b) also provides a “good faith” exception for the required length of time that the horn is sounded. The section permits additional flexibility by stating that the engineer shall not be in violation of § 222.21(b) if the engineer sounds the horn not more than 25 seconds before the crossing, if in good faith the engineer cannot precisely estimate the arrival time of the train at the crossing. FRA has determined that the interests of avoiding an accident or incident as well as the interests of the community have been taken into account in assessing violations of § 222.21(b) as a proposed “D” level penalty with the exception of “failure to sound the horn at least 15 seconds and less than1/4-mile before a crossing,” which is assessed as a proposed “C” level penalty.

Additionally, AAR stated that routine sounding of the horn at a grade crossing within a quiet zone, pursuant to § 222.45, will not increase the likelihood of an accident or incident.

With regard to AAR's comment on § 222.45, although sounding the train horn in a quiet zone may not substantially increase the likelihood of an accident the first time or the first few times, trains that routinely sound their horns at quiet-zone grade crossings might cause motorists to doubt the credibility of signs marking a grade crossing as a quiet-zone grade crossing and whether a particular grade crossing is actually a quiet-zone grade crossing. Therefore, if routine violations of a quiet zone continue, motorists will begin to expect the warning of a train horn when a train is preparing to enter quiet-zone grade crossings where routine violations of the quiet zone occur. That could predictably lead to fatal accidents.

In addition, violations of § 222.45 increase the annoyance level of the communities surrounding the grade crossing. A fundamental feature of this rule was to balance driver and pedestrian safety with community noise concerns. Decreasing the civil monetary penalty would reduce the incentive to comply with the part and potentially increase noise for the surrounding communities. FRA maintains that the initial and new proposed “D” level penalty for a violation of § 222.45 sufficiently addresses the concerns that brought about the part 222 rulemaking. See 71 FR 47614, Aug. 17, 2006.

AAR also argued that a “B” level penalty for a violation of 49 CFR 225.13 was unmerited, as a railroad's filing of a report one day late would not be more likely to cause an accident or incident.

FRA has taken into consideration AAR's comments involving FRA's regulations on accident/incident reporting, 49 CFR part 225. FRA acknowledges the merits in AAR's comments with regard to § 225.13, and FRA has revised the proposed penalty ranking for a violation of § 225.13 from a “B” to an “E.” Upon reevaluating how part 225 violations were ranked on the severity scale in the Initial Proposal, FRA has lowered many of the proposed severity scale rankings for violations of this part. For example, FRA has determined to change the ranking of a § 225.11 violation (failure to submit monthly report of accidents/incidents) from a proposed “B” to a proposed “D” level penalty. At the same time, FRA has determined that a violation of § 225.9, failure to report certain accidents or incidents, immediately via telephone to the National Response Center, would be more detrimental to railroad safety, because the failure could prevent FRA from learning about the event and deciding whether or not the agency should commence an investigation. Even delayed notification could compromise such an investigation and prevent FRA from obtaining information that could identify safety problems that could cause future accidents or incidents. FRA has, therefore, changed the penalty amount from a proposed “E” to a proposed “C” level penalty.

Finally, AAR stated that a “C” level penalty for a violation of a provision of the Locomotive Safety Standards, 49 CFR 229.137(a)(3), was uncalled for, as the lack of a toilet in the lead locomotive will not “substantially increase the likelihood of an accident or incident.”

When FRA promulgated the notice of proposed rulemaking for the locomotive cab sanitation standards, FRA determined that serious health consequences may result if railroad employees are exposed to unsanitary conditions or lack access to facilities. In fact, it is widely known that exposure to human fecal matter or untreated sewage waste can lead to diarrheal diseases such as amebiasis, giardiasis, shigellosis, and viral diseases such as hepatitis. See 66 FR 137, Jan. 2, 2001. FRA notes that any one of these mentioned conditions would fulfill the reporting requirements under the definition of an “occupational illness” pursuant to 49 CFR 225.19(d) and therefore be considered an accident/incident within the meaning of the initially proposed Severity Scale and the New Proposed Severity Scale. FRA also notes that an engineer who contracts one of those diseases on duty might well be unable to operate his or her train safely.

C. Concerns Related to Respondents Who Are Cited as Individuals

The Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers and Trainmen (“BLET”) had a number of comments on civil penalties against individuals for rail safety violations. The BLET raised concern that FRA's conclusions on the data indicate a “lack of discipline by the workers.” Also, the commenter suggested that the December 2006 proposed statement of agency policy suffers from “the same infirmity as the railroad operating rules NPRM (notice of proposed rulemaking).” Overall, the BLET seemed very concerned with the effect that a larger penalty would have on an individual as opposed to a railroad.

FRA responds that civil penalties assessed against individuals pursuant to the rail safety statutes, regulations, and orders may be assessed administratively only if FRA determines that the individual's conduct was willful in nature. 49 U.S.C. 21304. “FRA considers a `willful' violation to be one that is an intentional, voluntary act committed either with knowledge of the relevant law or reckless disregard for whether the act violated the requirements of the law.” 49 CFR part 209, appendix A. FRA continues to hold that the higher penalties for a willful violation serve to deter an individual from engaging in this type of egregious behavior. Further, FRA assesses rail safety civil penalties against railroads at a substantially higher frequency than against individuals. As neither the Initial Proposal nor the New Proposal addresses the issues covered in “Railroad Operating Rules: Program of Operational Tests and Inspections; Railroad Operating Practices: Handling Equipment, Switches and Fixed Derails,” FRA declines to respond in this proposal to comments regarding that rulemaking, in which a final rule was published on June 16, 2008. 73 FR 33888.

D. Concerns About Effects on FRA's Confidential Close Call Reporting Project

The BLET also provided comments exhibiting a concern as to how the proposed penalty schedule in the Initial Proposal would impact FRA's Confidential Close Call Reporting Pilot Project (“Close Call Project”). The Close Call Project involves encouraging employees from its participating railroads to report “close call” incidents voluntarily and anonymously. A “close call” is an event in which a death, a personal injury, or property damage is narrowly averted. Thus, a “close call” presents an opportunity to improve safety practices in a situation or incident that has potential for more serious consequences by allowing the people involved to report the event in detail without fear of adverse consequences, thereby providing FRA with vital data about precursors to accidents or incidents that FRA might otherwise not receive. The information collected from the Close Call Project provides an opportunity to identify and correct weaknesses in a railroad's safety system before an accident/incident or other unsafe event occurs. The system can also be used to monitor changes in safety over time and to uncover hidden unsafe conditions that were previously unreported.

FRA does not agree with BLET's comment that the Initial Proposal would nullify the incentive for voluntary submission of information in this pilot program. The employees participating in the Close Call Project are protected from carrier discipline, decertification, and FRA enforcement action in the same manner regardless of whether the civil penalties are increased. Before a Close Call Project may be initiated, the employing railroad and the employees' union representatives sign a memorandum of understanding (“MOU”) that specifies each party's rights and responsibilities. Revising the Schedules would not impact any MOU that has been implemented, and would not affect any MOU that is to be implemented in the future, as they would not expand FRA's enforcement authority.

E. Concerns About Proposed Monetary Increases in the Civil Penalty Amounts

Commenters measured the change between the current penalties and the initially proposed penalties in nominal terms. That is, commenters calculated the price change between the initially proposed penalties and the current penalties without first adjusting the current penalty amounts for inflation. Inflation erodes the purchasing power of money over time. As previously stated in this New Proposal, the enforcement and deterrent effects of the current penalties have decreased over time as they had not been increased line by line to account for the effects of inflation. A better, “apples-to-apples” comparison would be to compare the proposed penalties to the inflation-adjusted, or real, current penalties. Adjusting for inflation allows comparison of the penalties using dollars with the same purchasing power.

Given that inflation-adjusted, current penalties serve as the proper baseline for measuring change, it is significant that many of the current penalties have not changed in nominal terms for many years.

As previously stated, in undertaking this effort to revise the Schedules comprehensively after many years, FRA is focusing on areas that pose greater safety risks, and maintaining enforcement in other regulatory areas per its authority to set penalty guidelines within the minimum, ordinary maximum, and aggravated maximum statutory penalties. With the New Proposal, some of the proposed penalty amounts if adopted by FRA will indeed show large increases, even after adjusting for inflation. [7] However, as previously stated, some newly proposed penalty amounts for violations would remain unchanged (e.g., 49 CFR 219.205(b), 222.49(b), 229.71, and 239.301(c)(1)). Again, the penalty amounts in the New Proposal reflect the reanalyzed risk basis for the penalty amounts and the new ordinary maximum statutory penalty. FRA believes that these new proposed Schedules will maintain and increase the effect of the civil monetary penalties, fostering a higher overall level of safety.

List of Subjects Back to Top

49 CFR Part 209

49 CFR Part 213

49 CFR Part 214

49 CFR Part 215

49 CFR Part 217

49 CFR Part 218

49 CFR Part 219

49 CFR Part 220

49 CFR Part 221

49 CFR Part 222

49 CFR Part 223

49 CFR Part 224

49 CFR Part 225

49 CFR Part 227

49 CFR Part 228

49 CFR Part 229

49 CFR Part 230

49 CFR Part 231

49 CFR Part 232

49 CFR Part 233

49 CFR Part 234

49 CFR Part 235

49 CFR Part 236

49 CFR Part 238

49 CFR Part 239

49 CFR Part 240

49 CFR Part 241

In consideration of the foregoing, FRA proposes to amend parts 209, 213, 214, 215, 217, 218, 219, 220, 221, 222, 223, 224, 225, 227, 228, 229, 230, 231, 232, 233, 234, 235, 236, 238, 239, 240, and 241 of subtitle B, chapter II of title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations to read as follows:

begin regulatory text

PART 209—[AMENDED] Back to Top

1. The authority citation for part 209 continues to read as follows:

Authority:

49 U.S.C. 5123, 5124, 20103, 20107, 20111, 20112, 20114; 28 U.S.C. 2461, note; and 49 CFR 1.49.

2. Appendix A to part 209 is revised to read as follows:

Appendix A to Part 209—Statement of Agency Policy Concerning Enforcement of the Federal Railroad Safety Laws Back to Top

Penalty Schedules: Assessment of Maximum Penalties Back to Top

As recommended by the Department of Transportation in its initial proposal for rail safety legislative revisions in 1987, the RSIA raised the maximum civil penalties for violations of the safety regulations or orders. Under the Hours of Service Act, the penalty was changed from a flat $500 to a penalty of “up to $1,000, as the Secretary of Transportation deems reasonable.” Under all the other statutes, the maximum penalty was raised from $2,500 to $10,000 per violation, except that “where a grossly negligent violation or pattern of repeated violations has created an imminent hazard of death or injury,” the penalty was raised to a maximum of $20,000 per violation.

The Rail Safety Enforcement and Review Act (RSERA), enacted in 1992, increased the maximum penalty from $1,000 to $10,000 and in some cases, $20,000 for a violation of the hours of service laws, making these penalty amounts uniform with those of FRA's other regulatory provisions and orders. RSERA also increased the minimum civil monetary penalty from $250 to $500 for all of FRA's regulatory provisions and orders. The Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990, 101, 104 Stat. 890, note, as amended by Section 31001(s)(1) of the Debt Collection Improvement Act of 1996 (Pub. L. 104-134, 110 Stat. 1321-373, April 26, 1996) (Inflation Act) required that agencies adjust by regulation each minimum and maximum civil monetary penalty within the agency's jurisdiction for inflation and make subsequent adjustments once every four years after the initial adjustment. Accordingly, FRA's minimum and maximum civil monetary penalties have been adjusted.

In 2008, the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008 (RSIA of 2008) was enacted raising FRA's civil monetary ordinary and aggravated maximum penalties to $25,000 and $100,000 respectively. FRA amended the civil penalty provisions in its regulations so as to make $25,000 the ordinary maximum penalty per violation and $100,000 the aggravated maximum penalty per violation, as authorized by the RSIA of 2008, in a final rule published on December 30, 2008 in the Federal Register. 73 FR 79700. The December 30, 2008 final rule also adjusted the minimum civil penalty from $550 to $650 pursuant to Inflation Act requirements. Id. A correcting amendment to the civil penalty provisions in 49 CFR part 232 was published on April 6, 2009. 74 FR 15388.

FRA's traditional practice has been to issue penalty schedules assigning to each particular regulation or order specific dollar amounts for initial penalty assessments. The schedule (except where issued after notice and an opportunity for comment) constitutes a statement of agency policy, and is ordinarily issued as an appendix to the relevant part of the Code of Federal Regulations. For each regulation or order, the schedule shows two amounts within the $650 to $25,000 range in separate columns, the first for ordinary violations, the second for willful violations (whether committed by railroads or individuals). In one instance—part 231—the schedule refers to sections of the relevant FRA defect code rather than to sections of the CFR text. Of course, the defect code, which is simply a reorganized version of the CFR text used by FRA to facilitate computerization of inspection data, is substantively identical to the CFR text.

Accordingly, under each of the schedules (ordinarily in a footnote), and regardless of the fact that a lesser amount might be shown in both columns of the schedule, FRA reserves the right to assess the statutory maximum penalty of up to $100,000 per violation where a grossly negligent violation has created an imminent hazard of death or injury. This authority to assess a penalty for a single violation above $25,000 and up to $100,000 is used only in very exceptional cases to penalize egregious behavior. FRA indicates in the penalty demand letter when it uses the higher penalty amount instead of the penalty amount listed in the schedule.

PART 213—[AMENDED] Back to Top

3. The authority citation for part 213 continues to read as follows:

Authority:

49 U.S.C. 20102-20114 and 20142; 28 U.S.C. 2461, note; and 49 CFR 1.49(m).

4. Appendix B to part 213 is revised to read as follows:

Appendix B to Part 213—Schedule of Civil Penalties1 Back to Top
Section 2 3 Violation Willful violation
1A penalty may be assessed against an individual only for a willful violation. The Administrator reserves the right to assess a penalty of up to $100,000 for any violation where circumstances warrant. See 49 CFR part 209, appendix A.
2In addition to assessment of penalties for each instance of noncompliance with the requirements identified by this footnote, track segments designated as excepted track that are or become ineligible for such designation by virtue of noncompliance with any of the requirements to which this footnote applies are subject to all other requirements of part 213 until such noncompliance is remedied.
3The penalty schedule uses section numbers from 49 CFR part 213. If more than one item is listed as a type of violation of a given section, each item is also designated by a “penalty code,” which is used to facilitate assessment of civil penalties, and which may or may not correspond to any subsection designation(s). For convenience, penalty citations will cite the CFR section and the penalty code, if any. FRA reserves the right, should litigation become necessary, to substitute in its complaint the CFR citation in place of the combined CFR and penalty code citation, should they differ.
Subpart A—General    
213.4(a) Excepted track2 $9,500 $17,000
213.4(b) Excepted track2 13,000 20,500
213.4(c) Excepted track2 13,000 20,500
213.4(d) Excepted track2 13,000 20,500
213.4(e):    
(1) Excepted track 13,000 20,500
(2) Excepted track 13,000 20,500
(3) Excepted track 13,000 20,500
(4) Excepted track 13,000 20,500
213.4(f) Excepted track 5,500 10,000
213.7Designation of qualified persons to supervise certain renewals and inspect track 9,500 17,000
213.9Classes of track: Operating speed limits 19,500 25,000
213.11Restoration or renewal of track under traffic conditions 9,500 17,000
213.13Measuring track not under load 13,000 20,500
Subpart B—Roadbed    
213.33Drainage 13,000 20,500
213.37Vegetation 9,500 17,000
Subpart C—Track Geometry    
213.53Gage 19,500 25,000
213.55Alignment 13,000 20,500
213.57Curves; elevation and speed limitations 13,000 20,500
213.59Elevation of curved track; runoff 13,000 20,500
213.63Track surface 13,000 20,500
Subpart D—Track Structure    
213.103Ballast; general 9,500 17,000
213.109Crossties:    
(a) Material used 5,500 10,000
(b) Distribution of ties 13,000 20,500
(d) Sufficient number of nondefective ties 9,500 17,000
(f) Joint ties 9,500 17,000
(g) Track constructed without crossties 9,500 17,000
213.110Gage restraint measurement systems:    
(a) through (b) Notification 9,500 17,000
(c) Design requirements 13,000 20,500
(g) through (i) Exception reports 9,500 17,000
(j) Data integrity 13,000 20,500
(k) Training 9,500 17,000
(l) Remedial actions 19,500 25,000
(m) PTLF 13,000 20,500
(n) Recordkeeping 9,500 17,000
(o) Inspection frequency 19,500 25,000
213.113Defective rails 19,500 25,000
213.115Rail end mismatch 9,500 17,000
213.118(a) CWR plan in effect 13,000 20,500
213.118(b) CWR plan filed with FRA 13,000 20,500
213.119Continuous welded rail:    
(a) CWR installation/adjustment procedures 13,000 20,500
(b) CWR fastening requirements 13,000 20,500
(c) CWR joint installation/maintenance procedures 13,000 20,500
(d) CWR rail temperature requirements 13,000 20,500
(e) CWR alinement 13,000 20,500
(f) Procedures for controlling train speed on CWR track 13,000 20,500
(g) CWR track inspections 13,000 20,500
(h) CWR joint bar inspections 13,000 20,500
(i) CWR training 13,000 20,500
(j) CWR records 9,500 17,000
(k) CWR manual at job site 9,500 17,000
213.121(a) Rail joints 13,000 20,500
213.121(b) Rail joints 13,000 20,500
213.121(c) Rail joints 19,500 25,000
213.121(d) Rail joints 13,000 20,500
213.121(e) Rail joints 13,000 20,500
213.121(f) Rail joints 13,000 20,500
213.121(g) Rail joints 13,000 20,500
213.121(h) Rail joints 13,000 20,500
213.122Torch cut rail 13,000 20,500
213.123Tie plates 9,500 17,000
213.127Rail fastenings 13,000 20,500
213.133Turnouts and track crossings, generally 9,500 17,000
213.135Switches:
(a) through (g) 13,000 20,500
(h) chipped or worn points 13,000 20,500
213.137Frogs 13,000 20,500
213.139Spring rail frogs 13,000 20,500
213.141Self-guarded frogs 9,500 17,000
213.143Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage 13,000 20,500
Subpart E—Track Appliances and Track-Related Devices    
213.205Derails 9,500 17,000
Subpart F—Inspection    
213.233Track inspections 9,500 17,000
213.235Switches, crossings, transition devices 9,500 17,000
213.237Inspection of rail 13,000 20,500
213.239Special inspections 9,500 17,000
213.241Inspection records 9,500 17,000
Subpart G—Train Operations at Track Classes 6 and Higher    
213.305Designation of qualified individuals; general qualifications 19,500 25,000
213.307Class of track; operating speed limits 19,500 25,000
213.309Restoration or renewal of track under traffic conditions 19,500 25,000
213.311Measuring track not under load 13,000 20,500
213.319Drainage 9,500 17,000
213.321Vegetation 9,500 17,000
213.323Track gage 19,500 25,000
213.327Alignment 19,500 25,000
213.329Curves, elevation and speed limits 19,500 25,000
213.331Track surface 19,500 25,000
213.333Automated vehicle inspection systems 19,500 25,000
213.335Crossties:
(a) Material used 9,500 17,000
(b) Distribution of ties 13,000 20,500
(c) Sufficient number of nondefective ties, non-concrete 9,500 17,000
(d) Sufficient number of nondefective, concrete ties 19,500 25,000
(e) Joint ties 19,500 25,000
(f) Track constructed without crossties 19,500 25,000
(g) Non-defective ties surrounding defective ties 19,500 25,000
(h) Tie plates 19,500 25,000
(i) Tie plates 19,500 25,000
213.337Defective rails 19,500 25,000
213.339Inspection of rail in service 19,500 25,000
213.341Inspection of new rail 19,500 25,000
213.343Continuous welded rail (a) through (h) 19,500 25,000
213.345Vehicle qualification testing (a) through (b) 19,500 25,000
(c) through (e) 19,500 25,000
213.347Automotive or railroad crossings at grade 13,000 20,500
213.349Rail end mismatch 13,000 20,500
213.351(a) Rail joints 19,500 25,000
213.351(b) Rail joints 19,500 25,000
213.351(c) Rail joints 19,500 25,000
213.351(d) Rail joints 19,500 25,000
213.351(e) Rail joints 13,000 20,500
213.351(f) Rail joints 19,500 25,000
213.351(g) Rail joints 19,500 25,000
213.352Torch cut rails 9,500 17,000
213.353Turnouts, crossovers, transition devices 19,500 25,000
213.355Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage 13,000 20,500
213.357Derails 9,500 17,000
213.359Track stiffness 19,500 25,000
213.361Right of way 9,500 17,000
213.365Visual inspections 19,500 25,000
213.367Special inspections 19,500 25,000
213.369Inspections records 9,500 17,000

PART 214—[AMENDED] Back to Top

5. The authority citation for part 214 continues to read as follows:

Authority:

49 U.S.C. 20103, 20107; 28 U.S.C. 2461, note; and 49 CFR 1.49.

6. Appendix A to part 214 is revised to read as follows:

Appendix A to Part 214—Schedule of Civil Penalties1 Back to Top
Section2 Violation Willful violation
1A penalty may be assessed against an individual only for a willful violation. In addition, there are certain sections of the penalty schedule for which no penalty is listed in the ordinary violation column. These sections may only be cited as willful violations. The Administrator reserves the right to assess a penalty of up to $100,000 for any violation where circumstances warrant. See 49 CFR part 209, appendix A.
2The penalty schedule uses section numbers from 49 CFR part 214. If more than one item is listed as a type of violation of a given section, each item is also designated by a “penalty code,” which is used to facilitate assessment of civil penalties, and which may or may not correspond to any subsection designation(s). For convenience, penalty citations will cite the CFR section and the penalty code, if any. FRA reserves the right, should litigation become necessary, to substitute in its complaint the CFR citation in place of the combined CFR and penalty code citation, should they differ.
3 See§ 214.343 (Training and qualification, general).
Subpart B—Bridge Worker Safety Standards    
214.103Fall protection:    
(i) Failure to provide fall protection $13,000 $20,500
(ii) Failure to use fall protection 19,500 25,000
214.105Standards and practices:    
(a) General:    
(1) Fall protection used for other purposes 9,500 17,000
(2) Failure to remove from service 9,500 17,000
(3) Failure to protect from deterioration 9,500 17,000
(4) Failure to inspect and remove 13,000 20,500
(5) Failure to train 13,000 20,500
(6) Failure to provide for prompt rescue 13,000 20,500
(7) Failure to prevent damage 9,500 17,000
(8) Failure to use proper connectors 9,500 17,000
(9) Failure to use proper anchorages 9,500 17,000
(b) Fall arrest system:    
(1)-(17) Failure to provide conforming equipment 9,500 17,000
(c) Safety net systems:    
(1) Failure to install close to workplace 9,500 17,000
(2) Failure to provide fall arrest if over 30 feet 13,000 20,500
(3) Failure to provide for unobstructed fall 13,000 20,500
(4) Failure to test 9,500 17,000
(5) Failure to use proper equipment 9,500 17,000
(6) Failure to prevent contact with surface below 13,000 20,500
(7) Failure to properly install 13,000 20,500
(8) Failure to remove defective nets 13,000 20,500
(9) Failure to inspect 13,000 20,500
(10) Failure to remove objects 5,500 10,000
(11)-(13) Failure to use conforming equipment 9,500 17,000
214.107Working over water:    
(a)(i) Failure to provide life vest 13,000 20,500
(ii) Failure to use life vest 13,000 20,500
(c) Failure to inspect 9,500 17,000
(e)(i) Failure to provide ring buoys 13,000 20,500
(ii) Failure to use ring buoys 17,000
(f)(i) Failure to provide skiff 9,500 17,000
(ii) Failure to use skiff 17,000
214.109Scaffolding:    
(a)-(f) Failure to provide conforming equipment 13,000 20,500
214.113Head protection:    
(a)(i) Failure to provide 13,000 20,500
(ii) Failure to use 13,000 20,500
(b) or (c) Failure to provide conforming equipment 9,500 17,000
214.115Foot protection:    
(a)(i) Failure to require use of 9,500 17,000
(ii) Failure to use 9,500 17,000
214.117Eye and face protection:    
(a)(i) Failure to provide 9,500 17,000
(ii) Failure to use 5,500 10,000
(b) Failure to use conforming equipment 9,500 17,000
(c) Use of defective equipment 9,500 17,000
(d) Failure to provide for corrective lenses 9,500 17,000
Subpart C—Roadway Worker Protection Rule    
214.303Railroad on-track safety programs, generally:    
(a) Failure of a railroad to implement an On-track Safety Program 19,500 25,000
(b) On-track Safety Program of a railroad includes no internal monitoring procedure 9,500 17,000
214.305Compliance Dates:    
Failure of a railroad to comply by the specified dates 9,500 17,000
214.307Review and approval of individual on-track safety programs by FRA:    
(a)(i) Failure to notify FRA of adoption of On-track Safety Program 2,500 5,000
(ii) Failure to designate primary person to contact for program review 2,500 5,000
214.309On-track safety program documents:    
(1) On-track Safety Manual not provided to prescribed employees 9,500 17,000
(2) On-track Safety Program documents issued in fragments 5,500 10,000
214.311Responsibility of employers:    
(b) Roadway worker required by employer to foul a track during an unresolved challenge 19,500 25,000
(c) Roadway workers not provided with written procedure to resolve challenges of on-track safety procedures 9,500 17,000
214.313Responsibility of individual roadway workers:    
(a) Failure to follow railroad's on-track safety rules 25,000
(b) Roadway worker fouling a track when not necessary in the performance of duty 25,000
(c) Roadway worker fouling a track without ascertaining that provision is made for on-track safety 25,000
(d) Roadway worker failing to notify employer of determination of improper on-track safety provisions 25,000
214.315Supervision and communication:    
(a) Failure of employer to provide job briefing 19,500 25,000
(b) Incomplete job briefing 13,000 20,500
(c)(i) Failure to designate roadway worker in charge of roadway work group 13,000 20,500
(ii) Designation of more than one roadway worker in charge of one roadway work group 9,500 17,000
(iii) Designation of non-qualified roadway worker in charge of roadway work group 13,000 20,500
(d)(i) Failure to notify roadway workers of on-track safety procedures in effect 13,000 20,500
(ii) Incorrect information provided to roadway workers regarding on-track safety procedures in effect 13,000 20,500
(iii) Failure to notify roadway workers of change in on-track safety procedures 13,000 20,500
(e)(i) Failure of lone worker to communicate with designated employee for daily job briefing 9,500 17,000
(ii) Failure of employer to provide means for lone worker to receive daily job briefing 13,000 20,500
214.317On-track safety procedures, generally:    
On-track safety rules conflict with this part 19,500 25,000
214.319Working limits, generally:    
(a) Nonqualified roadway worker in charge of working limits 13,000 20,500
(b) More than one roadway worker in charge of working limits on the same track segment 13,000 20,500
(c)(1) Working limits released without notifying all affected roadway workers 19,500 25,000
(2) Working limits released before all affected roadway workers are otherwise protected 19,500 25,000
214.321Exclusive track occupancy:    
(b) Improper transmission of authority for exclusive track occupancy 9,500 17,000
(b)(1) Failure to repeat authority for exclusive track occupancy to issuing employee 9,500 17,000
(2) Failure to retain possession of written authority for exclusive track occupancy 5,500 10,000
(3) Failure to record authority for exclusive track occupancy when issued 13,000 20,500
(c) Limits of exclusive track occupancy not identified by proper physical features 19,500 25,000
(d)(1) Movement authorized into limits of exclusive track occupancy without authority of roadway worker in charge 19,500 25,000
(2) Movement authorized within limits of exclusive track occupancy without authority of roadway worker in charge 19,500 25,000
(3) Movement within limits of exclusive track occupancy exceeding restricted speed without authority of roadway worker in charge 19,500 25,000
214.323Foul time:    
(a) Foul time authority overlapping movement authority of train or equipment 19,500 25,000
(b) Failure to repeat foul time authority to issuing employee 9,500 17,000
214.325Train coordination:    
(a) Train coordination limits established where more than one train is authorized to operate 13,000 20,500
(b)(1) Train coordination established with train not visible to roadway worker at the time 9,500 17,000
(2) Train coordination established with moving train 9,500 17,000
(3) Coordinated train moving without authority of roadway worker in charge 13,000 20,500
(4) Coordinated train releasing movement authority while working limits are in effect 13,000 20,500
214.327Inaccessible track:    
(a) Improper control of entry to inaccessible track 13,000 20,500
(5) Remotely controlled switch not properly secured by control operator 13,000 20,500
(b) Train or equipment moving within inaccessible track limits without permission of roadway worker in charge 13,000 20,500
(c) Unauthorized train or equipment located within inaccessible track limits 13,000 20,500
214.329Train approach warning provided by watchmen/lookouts:    
(a) Failure to give timely warning of approaching train 19,500 25,000
(b)(1) Failure of watchman/lookout to give full attention to detecting approach of train 13,000 20,500
(2) Assignment of other duties to watchman/lookout 19,500 25,000
(c) Failure to provide proper warning signal devices 9,500 17,000
(d) Failure to maintain position to receive train approach warning signal 13,000 20,500
(e) Failure to communicate proper warning signal 13,000 20,500
(f)(1) Assignment of nonqualified person as watchman/lookout 13,000 20,500
(2) Nonqualified person accepting assignment as watchman/lookout 9,500 17,000
(g) Failure to properly equip a watchman/lookout 9,500 17,000
214.331Definite train location:    
(a) Definite train location established where prohibited 13,000 20,500
(b) Failure to phase out definite train location by required date 9,500 17,000
(d)(1) Train location information issued by unauthorized person 13,000 20,500
(2) Failure to include all trains operated on train location list 19,500 25,000
(5) Failure to clear track 10 minutes before earliest departure time of train at last station prior to work location, or failure to remain clear until such train passed 13,000 20,500
(6) Train passing station before time shown in train location list 19,500 25,000
(7) Nonqualified person using definite train location to establish on-track safety 13,000 20,500
214.333Informational line-ups of trains:    
(a) Informational line-ups of trains used for on-track safety where prohibited 19,500 25,000
(b) Informational line-up procedures inadequate to protect roadway workers 19,500 25,000
(c) Failure to discontinue informational line-ups by required date 9,500 17,000
214.335On-track safety procedures for roadway work groups:    
(a) Failure to provide on-track safety for a member of a roadway work group 19,500 25,000
(b) Member of roadway work group fouling a track without authority of employee in charge 13,000 20,500
(c) Failure to provide train approach warning or working limits on adjacent track where required 19,500 25,000
214.337On-track safety procedures for lone workers:    
(b) Failure by employer to permit individual discretion in use of individual train detection 19,500 25,000
(c)(1) Individual train detection used by nonqualified employee 13,000 20,500
(2) Use of individual train detection while engaged in heavy or distracting work 19,500 25,000
(3) Use of individual train detection in controlled point or manual interlocking 19,500 25,000
(4) Use of individual train detection with insufficient visibility 19,500 25,000
(5) Use of individual train detection with interfering noise 19,500 25,000
(6) Use of individual train detection while a train is passing 19,500 25,000
(d) Failure to maintain access to place of safety clear of live tracks 19,500 25,000
(e) Lone worker unable to maintain vigilant lookout 19,500 25,000
(f)(1) Failure to prepare written statement of on-track safety 5,500 10,000
(2) Incomplete written statement of on-track safety 2,500 5,000
(3) Failure to produce written statement of on-track safety to FRA 2,500 5,000
214.339Audible warning from trains:    
(a) Failure to require audible warning from trains 9,500 17,000
(b) Failure of train to give audible warning where required 9,500 17,000
214.341Roadway maintenance machines:    
(a) Failure of on-track safety program to include provisions for safety near roadway maintenance machines 19,500 25,000
(b) Failure to provide operating instructions 9,500 17,000
(1) Assignment of nonqualified employee to operate machine 13,000 20,500
(2) Operator unfamiliar with safety instructions for machine 13,000 20,500
(3) Roadway worker working with unfamiliar machine 13,000 20,500
(c) Roadway maintenance machine not clear of passing trains or operation of machine component closer than four feet to adjacent track without procedural instructions 19,500 25,000
214.343Training and qualification, general:    
(a)(1) Assignment of roadway worker duties to employee that is not trained or qualified 13,000 20,500
(a)(2) Acceptance of roadway worker assignment by employee that is not trained or qualified 13,000 20,500
(b)(1) Failure to provide initial training 13,000 20,500
(b)(2) Failure to provide annual training 9,500 17,000
(c) Failure to provide training to employee other than a roadway worker on functions related to on-track safety 13,000 20,500
(d)(1) Failure to maintain records of qualifications 9,500 17,000
(2) Incomplete records of qualifications 5,500 10,000
(3) Failure to provide records of qualifications to FRA 2,500 5,000
214.345 Training for all roadway workers 3 3
214.347 Training and qualification for lone workers 3 3
214.349 Training and qualification of watchmen/lookouts 3 3
214.351 Training and qualification of flagmen 3 3
214.353 Training and qualification of roadway workers who provide on-track safety for roadway work groups 3 3
214.355 Training and qualification in on-track safety for operators of roadway maintenance machines 3 3
Subpart D—On-Track Roadway Maintenance Machines and Hi-Rail Vehicles    
214.503Good-faith challenges; procedures for notification and resolution:    
(a) Failure of employee to notify employer that the machine or vehicle does not comply with this subpart or has a condition inhibiting safe operation 20,500
(b) Roadway worker required to operate machine or vehicle when good-faith challenge not resolved 19,500 25,000
(c) Failure of employer to have or follow written procedures to resolve good-faith challenges 19,500 25,000
214.505Required environmental control and protection systems for new on-track roadway maintenance machines with enclosed cabs:    
(a) Failure to equip new machines with required systems 19,500 25,000
(b) Failure of new or existing machines to protect employees from exposure to air contaminants 19,500 25,000
(c) Failure of employer to maintain required list of machines or make list available 9,500 17,000
(d) Removal of “designated machine” from list before retired or sold 9,500 17,000
(e) Personal respiratory protective equipment not provided when ventilation system fails 19,500 25,000
(f) Personal respiratory protective equipment fails to meet required standards 19,500 25,000
(g) Other new machines with enclosed cabs not equipped with operable heating and ventilation systems 19,500 25,000
(h) Nonenclosed station not equipped with covering, where feasible 19,500 25,000
214.507Required safety equipment for new on-track roadway maintenance machines:    
(a)(1)-(5) Failure to equip new machine or provide protection as specified in these paragraphs 19,500 25,000
(a)(6)-(7) Failure to equip new machine with first-aid kit or operative and charged fire extinguisher 13,000 20,500
(b) Position for operator to stand not properly equipped to provide safe and secure position 19,500 25,000
(c) New machine not equipped with accurate speed indicator, as required 13,000 20,500
(d) As-built light weight not conspicuously displayed on new machine 13,000 20,500
214.509Required visual illumination and reflective devices for new on-track roadway maintenance machines 13,000 20,500
214.511Required audible warning devices for new on-track roadway maintenance machines 19,500 25,000
214.513Retrofitting of existing on-track roadway maintenance machines; general:    
(a) Failure to provide safe and secure position and protection from moving parts inside cab for each roadway worker transported on machine 19,500 25,000
(b) Horn or other audible warning device is missing, inoperable, or has noncompliant triggering mechanism 13,000 20,500
(c) Illumination device or portable light missing, inoperable, improperly secured, or incapable of illuminating track as required 13,000 20,500
214.515Overhead covers for existing on-track roadway maintenance machines:    
(a) Failure to repair, reinstall, or maintain overhead cover as required 19,500 25,000
(b) Failure to provide written response to operator's request within 60 days 9,500 17,000
214.517Retrofitting of existing on-track roadway maintenance machines manufactured on or after January 1, 1991:    
(a) Failure to equip machine with change-of-direction alarm or rearward viewing device 19,500 25,000
(b) Failure to equip machine with operative heater 19,500 25,000
(c) Failure to display light weight of machine as required 13,000 20,500
(d) Failure to equip machine with reflective material, reflective device, or operable brake lights 19,500 25,000
(e) Failure to install or replace safety glass as required 19,500 25,000
(f) Failure to equip machine with turntable restraint device or warning light as required 19,500 25,000
214.518Safe and secure position for riders 19,500 25,000
214.519Floors, decks, stairs, and ladders for on-track roadway maintenance machines 19,500 25,000
214.521Flagging equipment for on-track roadway maintenance machines and hi-rail vehicles 13,000 20,500
214.523Hi-rail vehicles:    
(a) Failure to inspect hi-rail gear annually 19,500 25,000
(b) Failure to maintain inspection record or make record available to FRA 9,500 17,000
(c) Failure to equip new hi-rail vehicle with alarm and light or beacon as required 13,000 20,500
(d)(2) Failure of operator to tag, date, or report noncomplying condition 9,500 17,000
(d)(3) Failure to repair or replace noncomplying alarms, lights, or beacons as required 13,000 20,500
214.525Towing with on-track roadway maintenance machines or hi-rail vehicles 19,500 25,000
214.527On-track roadway maintenance machines; inspection for compliance and schedule for repairs:    
(a) Failure of operator to check on-track roadway maintenance machine for compliance 9,500 17,000
(b) Failure of operator to tag, date, or report noncomplying condition 9,500 17,000
(c)(1)-(4) Failure to meet requirements for operating on-track roadway maintenance machine with noncomplying headlights, work lights, horn, fire extinguisher, alarm, warning light, or beacon 13,000 20,500
(c)(5) Failure to repair or replace defective or missing operator's seat within required time period 19,500 25,000
214.529In-service failure of primary braking system 19,500 25,000
214.531Schedule of repairs; general 13,000 20,500
214.533Schedule of repairs subject to availability of parts:    
(a)-(c) Failure to order necessary part(s), make repair(s), or remove on-track roadway maintenance machine or hi-rail vehicle from service as required 13,000 20,500
(d) Failure to maintain record or make record available to FRA 9,500 17,000

PART 215—[AMENDED] Back to Top

7. The authority citation for part 215 continues to read as follows:

Authority:

49 U.S.C. 20103, 20107; 28 U.S.C. 2461, note; and 49 CFR 1.49.

8. Appendix B to part 215 is revised to read as follows:

Appendix B to Part 215—Schedule of Civil Penalties1 Back to Top
Section2 Violation Willful Violation
1A penalty may be assessed against an individual only for a willful violation. Generally, when two or more violations of these regulations are discovered with respect to a single freight car that is placed or continued in service by a railroad, the appropriate penalties set forth above are aggregated up to a maximum of $25,000 per day. A failure to perform, with respect to a particular freight car, the predeparture inspection required by § 215.13 of this part will be treated as a violation separate and distinct from, and in addition to, any substantive violative conditions found on the car. The Administrator reserves the right to assess a penalty of up to $100,000 for any violation where circumstances warrant. See 49 CFR part 209, appendix A. Failure to observe any condition for movement set forth in paragraphs (a) and (c) of § 215.9 will deprive the railroad of the benefit of the movement-for-repair provision and make the railroad and any responsible individuals liable for penalty under the particular regulatory section(s) concerning the substantive defect(s) present on the freight car at the time of movement. Maintenance-of-way equipment not stenciled in accordance with § 215.305 is subject to all requirements of this part. See§ 215.3(c)(3).
2The penalty schedule uses section numbers from 49 CFR part 215. If more than one item is listed as a type of violation of a given section, each item is also designated by a “penalty code,” which is used to facilitate assessment of civil penalties, and which may or may not correspond to any subsection designation(s). For convenience, penalty citations will cite the CFR section and the penalty code, if any. FRA reserves the right, should litigation become necessary, to substitute in its complaint the CFR citation in place of the combined CFR and penalty code citation, should they differ.
Subpart A—General    
215.9Movement for repair:
(a), (c) 1 1
(b) $5,500 $10,000
215.11Designation of qualified persons 9,500 17,000
215.13Pre-departure inspection 9,500 17,000
Subpart B—Freight Car Components    
Suspension System    
215.103Defective wheel:    
(a) Flange thickness of:
(1)7/8″ or less but more than13/16″ 9,500 17,000
(2)13/16″ or less 13,000 20,500
(b) Flange height of:    
(1) 11/2″ or greater but less than15/8″ 9,500 17,000
(2)15/8″ or more 13,000 20,500
(c) Rim thickness of:    
(1)11/16″ or less but more than5/8″ 9,500 17,000
(2)5/8″ or less 13,000 20,500
(d) Wheel rim, flange plate hub width:    
(1) Crack of less than 1″ 9,500 17,000
(2) Crack of 1″ or more 13,000 20,500
(3) Break 19,500 25,000
(e) Chip or gouge in flange of:    
(1) 11/2″ or more but less than 15/8″ in length; and1/2″ or more but less than5/8″ in width 5,500 10,000
(2)15/8″ or more in length; or5/8″ or more in width 9,500 17,000
(f) Slid flat or shelled spot(s):    
(1)(i) One spot more than 21/2″, but less than 3″, in length 5,500 10,000
(ii) One spot 3″ or more in length 9,500 17,000
(2)(i) Two adjoining spots each of which is more than 2″ but less than 21/2″ in length 5,500 10,000
(ii) Two adjoining spots both of which are at least 2″ in length, if either spot is 21/2″ or more in length 9,500 17,000
(g) Loose on axle 19,500 25,000
(h) Overheated; discoloration extending:    
(1) More than 4″ but less than 41/2″ 9,500 17,000(
(2) 41/2″ or more 13,000 20,500
(i) Welded 13,000 20,500
215.105Defective axle:    
(a)(1) Crack of 1″ or less 9,500 17,000
(2) Crack of more than 1″ 13,000 20,500
(3) Break 19,500 25,000
(b) Gouge in surface that is between the wheel seats and is more than1/8″ in depth 5,500 10,000
(c) End collar with crack or break 9,500 17,000
(d) Journal overheated 19,500 25,000
(e) Journal surface has: A ridge; a depression; a circumferential score; corrugation; a scratch; a continuous streak; pitting; rust; or etching 9,500 17,000
215.107Defective plain bearing box: general:    
(a)(1) No visible free oil 5,500 10,000
(2) Lubricating pad dry (no expression of oil observed when pad is compressed) 13,000 20,500
(b) Box lid is missing, broken, or open except to receive servicing 5,500 10,000
(c) Contains foreign matter that can be expected to damage the bearing or have a detrimental effect on the lubrication of the journal and bearing 9,500 17,000
215.109Defective plain bearing box: journal lubrication system:    
(a) Lubricating pad has a tear 5,500 10,000
(b) Lubricating pad scorched, burned, or glazed 9,500 17,000
(c) Lubricating pad contains decaying or deteriorating fabric 9,500 17,000
(d) Lubricating pad has an exposed center core or metal parts contacting the journal 9,500 17,000
(e) Lubricating pad is missing or not in contact with the journal 13,000 20,500
215.111Defective plain bearing:    
(a) Missing 19,500 25,000
(b) Bearing liner is loose or has piece broken out 9,500 17,000
(c) Overheated 19,500 25,000
215.113Defective plain bearing wedge:    
(a) Missing 19,500 25,000
(b) Cracked 9,500 17,000
(c) Broken 13,000 20,500
(d) Not located in its design position 9,500 17,000
215.115Defective roller bearing:    
(a)(1) Overheated 19,500 25,000
(2)(i) Cap screw(s) loose 13,000 20,500
(ii) Cap screw lock broken, missing or improperly applied 5,500 10,000
(3) Seal is loose or damaged, or permits leakage of lubricant 5,500 10,000
(b)(1) Not inspected and tested after derailment 13,000 20,500
(2) Not disassembled after derailment 9,500 17,000
(3) Not repaired or replaced after derailment 13,000 20,500
215.117Defective roller bearing adapter:    
(a) Cracked or broken 9,500 17,000
(b) Not in its design position 13,000 20,500
(c) Worn on the crown 9,500 17,000
215.119Defective freight car truck:    
(a)(1) A side frame or bolster that is broken 19,500 25,000
(2)(i) Side frame or bolster with crack of:1/4″ or more, but less than 1″ 9,500 17,000
(ii) 1″ or more 13,000 20,500
(b) A snubbing device that is ineffective or missing 9,500 17,000
(c) Side bearing(s):    
(1) Assembly missing or broken 19,500 25,000
(2) In contact except by design 13,000 20,500
(3), (4) Total clearance at one end or at diagonally opposite sides of:    
(i) More than3/4″ but not more than 1″ 9,500 17,000
(ii) More than 1″ 13,000 20,500
(d) Truck spring(s):    
(1) Do not maintain travel or load 9,500 17,000
(2) Compressed solid 9,500 17,000
(3) Outer truck springs broken or missing:    
(i) Two outer springs 9,500 17,000
(ii) Three or more outer springs 13,000 20,500
(e) Truck bolster-center plate interference 13,000 20,500
(f) Brake beam shelf support worn 9,500 17,000
Car Bodies    
215.121Defective car body:    
(a) Has less than21/2″ clearance from the top of rail 9,500 17,000
(b) Car center sill is:    
(1) Broken 19,500 25,000
(2) Cracked more than 6″ 9,500 17,000
(3) Bent or buckled more than21/2″ in any 6′ length 9,500 17,000
(c) Coupler carrier that is broken or missing 9,500 17,000
(d) Car door not equipped with operative safety hangers 19,500 25,000
(e)(1) Center plate not properly secured 19,500 25,000
(2) Portion missing 9,500 17,000
(3) Broken 19,500 25,000
(4) Two or more cracks 9,500 17,000
(f) Broken sidesill, crossbearer, or body bolster 9,500 17,000
Draft System    
215.123Defective couplers:    
(a) Shank bent out of alignment 5,500 10,000
(b) Crack in highly stressed junction area 9,500 17,000
(c) Coupler knuckle broken or cracked 9,500 17,000
(d) Coupler knuckle pin or thrower that is missing or inoperative 9,500 17,000
(e) Coupler retainer pin lock that is missing or broken 5,500 10,000
(f) Coupler with following conditions: Locklift inoperative; no anticreep protection; or coupler lock is missing, inoperative, bent, cracked, or broken 9,500 17,000
215.125Defective uncoupling device 9,500 17,000
215.127Defective draft arrangement:    
(a) Draft gear that is inoperative 9,500 17,000
(b) Yoke that is broken 9,500 17,000
(c) End of car cushioning unit is leaking or inoperative 9,500 17,000
(d) Vertical coupler pin retainer plate missing or has missing fastener 19,500 25,000
(e) Draft key or draft key retainer that is inoperative or missing 19,500 25,000
(f) Follower plate that is missing or broken 9,500 17,000
215.129Defective cushioning device 9,500 17,000
Subpart C—Restricted Equipment    
215.203Restricted cars 9,500 17,000
Subpart D—Stenciling    
215.301General 5,500 10,000
215.303Stenciling of restricted cars 5,500 10,000
215.305Stenciling of maintenance-of-way 5,500 10,000

PART 217—[AMENDED] Back to Top

9. The authority citation for part 217 continues to read as follows:

Authority:

49 U.S.C. 20103, 20107; 28 U.S.C. 2461, note; and 49 CFR 1.49.

10. Appendix A to part 217 is revised to read as follows:

Appendix A to Part 217—Schedule Of Civil Penalties [1] Back to Top

Section2 Violation Willful Violation
1A penalty may be assessed against an individual only for a willful violation. The Administrator reserves the right to assess a penalty of up to $100,000 for any violation where circumstances warrant. See 49 CFR part 209, appendix A.
2The penalty schedule uses section numbers from 49 CFR part 217. If more than one item is listed as a type of violation of a given section, each item is also designated by a “penalty code,” which is used to facilitate assessment of civil penalties, and which may or may not correspond to any subsection designation(s). For convenience, penalty citations will cite the CFR section and the penalty code, if any. FRA reserves the right, should litigation become necessary, to substitute in its complaint the CFR citation in place of the combined CFR and penalty code citation, should they differ.
Subpart A—General    
217.7Operating Rules:    
(a) $5,500 $10,000
(b) 5,500 10,000
(c) 5,500 10,000
217.9Operational tests and inspections:    
(a) Failure to implement a program 9,500-19,500 17,000-25,000
(b) Railroad and railroad testing officer responsibilities:    
(1) Failure to provide instruction, examination, or field training, or failure to conduct tests in accordance with program 13,000 20,500
(2) Records 9,500 17,000
(c) Record of program; program incomplete 9,500-19,500 17,000-25,000
(d) Records of individual tests and inspections 9,500 17,000
(e) Failure to retain copy of or conduct:    
(1)(i) Quarterly review 13,000 20,500
(1)(ii) and (2) Six month review 13,000 20,500
(3) Records 9,500 17,000
(f) Annual summary 9,500 17,000
(h) Failure to timely or appropriately amend program after disapproval 13,000-19,500 20,500-25,000
217.11Program of instruction on operating rules:    
(a) 5,500-13,000 10,000-20,500
(b) 5,500-13,000 10,000-20,500

PART 218—[AMENDED] Back to Top

11. The authority citation for part 218 continues to read as follows:

Authority:

49 U.S.C. 20103, 20107; 28 U.S.C. 2461, note; and 49 CFR 1.49.

12. Appendix A to part 218 is revised to read as follows:

Appendix A to Part 218—Schedule of Civil Penalties1 Back to Top
Section2 Violation Willful violation
1Except as provided for in § 218.57, a penalty may be assessed against an individual only for a willful violation. In addition, there are certain sections of the penalty schedule for which no penalty is listed in the ordinary violation column. These sections may only be cited as willful violations. The Administrator reserves the right to assess a penalty of up to $100,000 for any violation where the circumstances warrant. See 49 CFR part 209, appendix A.
2The penalty schedule uses section numbers from 49 CFR part 218. If more than one item is listed as a type of violation of a given section, each item is also designated by a “penalty code,” which is used to facilitate assessment of civil penalties, and which may or may not correspond to any subsection designation(s). For convenience, penalty citations will cite the CFR section and the penalty code, if any. FRA reserves the right, should litigation become necessary, to substitute in its complaint the CFR citation in place of the combined CFR and penalty code citation, should they differ.
Subpart B—Blue Signal Protection of Workmen    
218.22Utility employees:    
(a) Employee qualifications $5,500 $10,000
(b) Concurrent service 9,500 17,000
(c) Assignment conditions:    
(1) No controlling locomotive 9,500 17,000
(2) Empty cab 9,500 17,000
(3)(4) Improper communication 9,500 17,000
(5) Performing functions not listed 5,500 10,000
(d) Improper release 5,500 10,000
(f) More than three utility employees with one crew 5,500 10,000
218.23Blue signal display 9,500 17,000
218.24One-person crew:    
(a)(1) Equipment not coupled or insufficiently separated 5,500 10,000
(a)(2) Unoccupied locomotive cab not secured 9,500 17,000
(b) Helper service 5,500 10,000
218.25Workmen on a main track 9,500 17,000
218.27Workmen on track other than main track:    
(a) Protection provided except that signal not displayed at switch 5,500 10,000
(b) through (e) 9,500 17,000
218.29Alternate methods of protection:    
(a)(1) Protection provided except that signal not displayed at switch 5,500 10,000
(a)(2) through (a)(8) 9,500 17,000
(b)(1) Protection provided except that signal not displayed at switch 5,500 10,000
(b)(2) through (b)(4) 9,500 17,000
(c) Use of derails 9,500 17,000
(d) Emergency repairs 9,500 17,000
218.30Remotely controlled switches:    
(a) and (b) 9,500 17,000
(c) 2,500 5,000
Subpart C—Protection of Trains and Locomotives    
218.35Yard limits:    
(a) and (b) 9,500 17,000
(c) 2,500 5,000
218.37Flag protection:    
(a) 9,500 17,000
(b) and (c) 9,500 17,000
218.39Hump operations 9,500 17,000
218.41Noncompliance with hump operations rule 9,500 17,000
Subpart D—Prohibition against Tampering with Safety Devices    
218.55Tampering 17,000
218.57    
(i) Knowingly operating or permitting operation of disabled equipment 5,500
(ii) Willfully operating or permitting operation of disabled equipment 10,000
218.59Operation of disabled equipment 5,500 10,000
Subpart E—Protection of Occupied Camp Cars    
218.71Warning Signal Display:    
(a) Warning signals 5,500 10,000
(1) Cars may not be moved 9,500 17,000
(2) Rolling equipment may not be on same track reducing view of warning signal 5,500 10,000
(3) Rolling equipment may not pass a warning signal 9,500 17,000
(4) Signal will be displayed immediately and only removed prior to departure 5,500 10,000
218.75Methods of protection for camp cars on main track:    
(a) Warning signals near each switch with access 5,500 10,000
(b) Immediate notification of occupation 9,500 17,000
(c) Alerting affected personnel of cars 5,500 10,000
(d) Manual switched lined and locked 9,500 17,000
(e) Remote switches protected 9,500 17,000
218.77Remotely controlled switches:    
(a) Remote switch lined and locked 9,500 17,000
(b) Operator may not remove locking device without permission 9,500 17,000
(c) Recordkeeping 2,500 5,000
(d) Derail and signal when located on main track 9,500 17,000
218.79Alternative methods for protection:    
(a) Other than main track:    
(1) Warning signal at each switch providing access 9,500 17,000
(2) Switches lined and locked 9,500 17,000
(3) Derails 50 feet away when speed is 5MPH 9,500 17,000
(b) Except as provided in (a) on other than main track:    
(1) Derails 150 feet away from equipment 9,500 17,000
(2) Derails must be locked in derailing position with signal 9,500 17,000
Subpart F—Handling Equipment, Switches and Derails    
218.95Instruction, Training and Examination:    
(a) Program 9,500-13,000 17,000-20,500
(b) Records 9,500 17,000
(c) Failure to timely or appropriately amend program after disapproval 9,500-13,000 17,000-20,500
218.97Good Faith Challenge Procedures:    
(a) Employee Responsibility Failure 5,000
(b) through (d) Failure to adopt or implement procedures 9,500 17,000
218.99Shoving or Pushing Movements:    
(a) Failure to implement required operating rule 13,000 20,500
(b) Failure to conduct job briefing, use a qualified employee, or establish proper protection 9,500-13,000 17,000-20,500
(c) Failure to observe equipment direction 9,500 17,000
(d) Failure to properly establish point protection within a remote control zone 9,500 17,000
(e) Failure to abide by operational exception requirements 9,500 17,000
218.101Leaving Equipment in the Clear:    
(a) Failure to implement required operating rule 9,500 17,000
(b) Equipment left improperly fouling 9,500 17,000
(c) Failure to implement procedures for identifying clearance points 9,500 17,000
218.103Hand-operated switches, including crossover switches:    
(a) Failure to implement required operating rule 9,500 17,000
(b) through (d) Railroad employee failures 9,500 17,000
218.105Additional operational requirements for hand-operated main track switches:    
(a) Failure to implement required operating rule 13,000 20,500
(b) and (c) Railroad and employee failures 9,500 17,000
(d) Failure to properly release authority limits 13,000 20,500
218.107Additional operational requirements for hand-operated crossover switches:    
(a) Failure to implement required operating rule 9,500 17,000
(b) and (c) Railroad and employee failures 9,500 17,000
218.109Hand-operated fixed derails:    
(a) Failure to implement required operating rule 9,500 17,000
(b) and (c) Railroad and employee failures 9,500 17,000

PART 219—[AMENDED] Back to Top

13. The authority citation for part 219 continues to read as follows:

Authority:

49 U.S.C. 20103, 20107, 20140, 21301, 21304, 21311; 28 U.S.C. 2461, note; and 49 CFR 1.49(m).

14. Appendix A to part 219 is revised to read as follows:

Appendix A to Part 219—Schedule of Civil Penalties1 Back to Top
Section2 Violation Willful violation
1A penalty may be assessed against an individual only for a willful violation. The FRA Administrator reserves the right to assess a penalty of up to $100,000 for any violation, including ones not listed in this penalty schedule, where circumstances warrant. See 49 CFR part 209, appendix A.
2The penalty schedule uses section numbers from 49 CFR part 219. If more than one item is listed as a type of violation of a given section, each item is also designated by a “penalty code,” which is used to facilitate assessment of civil penalties, and which may or may not correspond to any subsection designation(s). For convenience, penalty citations will cite the CFR section and the penalty code, if any. FRA reserves the right, should litigation become necessary, to substitute in its complaint the CFR citation in place of the combined CFR and penalty code citation, should they differ.
Subpart A—General    
219.3Application: Railroad does not have required program $13,000 $20,500
219.11General conditions for chemical tests:    
(b)(1) Employee unlawfully refuses to participate in testing 5,500 10,000
(b)(2) Employer fails to give priority to medical treatment 13,000 20,500
(b)(3) Employee fails to remain available 5,500 10,000
(b)(4) Employee tampers with specimen 5,500 10,000
(d) Employee unlawfully required to execute a waiver of rights 5,500 10,000
(e) Railroad used or authorized the use of coercion to obtain specimens 10,000
(g) Failure to meet supervisory training requirements or program of instruction not available or program not complete 9,500 17,000
(h) Urine or blood specimens provided for Federal testing were used for nonauthorized testing 5,500 10,000
219.23Railroad policies:    
(a) Failure to provide written notice of FRA test 5,500 10,000
(b) Failure to provide written notice of basis for FRA test 2,500 5,000
(c) Use of Subpart C form for other test 2,500 5,000
(d) Failure to provide educational materials 2,500 5,000
(e) Educational materials fail to explain requirements of this part and/or include required content 2,500 5,000
(f) Non-Federal provisions are not clearly described as independent authority 5,500 10,000
Subpart B—Prohibitions    
219.101Alcohol and drug use prohibited:    
Employee violates prohibition(s) 19,500 25,000
219.103Prescribed and over-the-counter drugs:    
(a) Failure to train employee properly on requirements 5,500 10,000
219.104Responsive action:    
(a) Failure to remove employee from covered service immediately 19,500 25,000
(b) Failure to provide notice for removal 5,500 10,000
(c) Failure to provide prompt hearing 5,500 10,000
(d) Employee improperly returned to service 13,000 20,500
219.105Railroad's duty to prevent violations:    
(a) Employee improperly permitted to remain in covered service 19,500 25,000
(b) Failure to exercise due diligence to assure compliance with prohibition 9,500 17,000
219.107Consequences of unlawful refusal:    
(a) Failure to disqualify an employee for nine months following a refusal 13,000 20,500
(e) Employee unlawfully returned to service 13,000 20,500
Subpart C—Post-Accident Toxicological Testing    
219.201Events for which testing is required:    
(a) Failure to test after qualifying event (each employee not tested is a violation) 13,000 20,500
(c)(1)(i) Failure to make good faith determination 5,500 10,000
(c)(1)(ii) Failure to provide requested decision report to FRA 2,500 5,000
(c)(2) Testing performed after nonqualifying event 9,500 17,000
219.203Responsibilities of railroads and employees:    
(a)(1)(i) and (a)(2)(i) Failure to properly test/exclude from testing 5,500 10,000
(a)(1)(ii) and (a)(2)(ii) Noncovered service employee tested 5,500 10,000
(b)(1) Delay in obtaining specimens due to failure to make every reasonable effort 5,500 10,000
(c) Independent medical facility not utilized 5,500 10,000
(d) Failure to report event or contact FRA when intervention required 2,500 5,000
219.205Specimen collection and handling:    
(a) Failure to observe requirements with respect to specimen collection, marking and handling 5,500 10,000
(b) Failure to provide properly prepared forms with specimens 2,500 5,000
(d) Failure to promptly or properly forward specimens 5,500 10,000
219.207Fatality:    
(a) Failure to test 13,000 20,500
(a)(1) Failure to ensure timely collection and shipment of required specimens 2,500 5,000
(b) Failure to request assistance when necessary 5,500 10,000
219.209Reports of tests and refusals:    
(a)(1) Failure to provide telephonic report 2,500 5,000
(b) Failure to provide written report of refusal to test 2,500 5,000
(c) Failure to maintain report explaining why test not conducted within four hours 2,500 5,000
219.211Analysis and follow-up:    
(c) Failure of MRO to report review of positive results to FRA 5,500 10,000
Subpart D—Testing for Cause    
219.300Mandatory reasonable suspicion testing:    
(a)(1) Failure to test when reasonable suspicion criteria met 19,500 25,000
(a)(2) Tested when reasonable suspicion criteria not met 9,500 17,000
219.301Testing for reasonable cause:    
(a) Event did not occur during daily tour 5,500 10,000
(b)(2) Tested when accident/incident criteria not met 9,500 17,000
(b)(3) Tested when operating rules violation criteria not met 9,500 17,000
219.302Prompt specimen collection:    
(a) Specimen collection not conducted promptly 5,500 10,000
Subpart E—Identification of Troubled Employees    
219.401Requirement for policies:    
(b) Failure to publish and/or implement required policy 5,500 10,000
219.407Alternate policies:    
(c) Failure to file agreement or other document or provide timely notice or revocation 5,500 10,000
Subpart F—Pre-Employment Tests    
219.501Pre-employment tests:    
(a) Failure to perform pre-employment drug test before first time employee performs covered service 13,000 20,500
Subpart G—Random Testing Programs    
219.601Railroad random drug programs:    
(a)(1) Failure to file a random program 13,000 20,500
(a)(2) Failure to file amendment to program 5,500 10,000
(b) Failure to meet random testing criteria 9,500 17,000
(b)(1)(i) Failure to use a neutral selection process 9,500 17,000
(b)(2)(i)(B) Testing not spread throughout the year 5,500 10,000
(b)(3) Testing not distributed throughout the day 5,500 10,000
(b)(4) Advance notice provided to employee 9,500 17,000
(b)(6) Testing when employee not on duty 5,500 10,000
219.601A Failure to include covered service employee in pool 9,500 17,000
219.602Administrator's determination of drug testing rate:    
(f) Total number of tests below minimum random drug testing rate 13,000 20,500
219.603Participation in drug testing:    
Failure to document reason for not testing selected employee 5,500 10,000
219.607Railroad random alcohol programs:    
(a)(1) Failure to file a random alcohol program 13,000 20,500
(a)(2) Failure to file amendment to program 5,500 10,000
(b) Failure to meet random testing criteria 9,500 17,000
(b)(1) Failure to use a neutral selection process 9,500 17,000
(b)(5) Testing when employee not on duty 5,500 10,000
(b)(8) Advance notice provided to employee 9,500 17,000
219.607A Failure to include covered service employee in pool 9,500 17,000
219.608Administrator's determination of random alcohol testing rate:    
(e) Total number of tests below minimum random alcohol testing rate 13,000 20,500
219.609Participation in alcohol testing: Failure to document reason for not testing selected employee 5,500 10,000
Subpart H—Drug and Alcohol Testing Procedures    
219.701Standards for drug and alcohol testing:    
(a) Failure to comply with part 40 procedures in Subpart B, D, F, or G testing 5,500 10,000
(b) Testing not performed in a timely manner 5,500 10,000
Subpart I—Annual Report    
219.800Reporting alcohol and drug misuse prevention program results in a management information system:    
(a) Failure to submit MIS report on time 5,500 10,000
(c) Failure to submit accurate MIS report 5,500 10,000
(d) Failure to include required data 5,500 10,000
Subpart J—Recordkeeping Requirements    
219.901Retention of Alcohol Testing Records:    
(a) Failure to maintain records required to be kept by part 40 5,500 10,000
(b) Failure to maintain records required to be kept for five years 5,500 10,000
(c) Failure to maintain records required to be kept for two years 5,500 10,000
219.903Retention of Drug Testing Records:    
(a) Failure to maintain records required to be kept by part 40 5,500 10,000
(b) Failure to maintain records required to be kept for five years 5,500 10,000
(c) Failure to maintain records required to be kept for two years 5,500 10,000
219.905Access to facilities and records:    
(a) Failure to release records in this subpart in accordance with part 40 9,500 17,000
(b) Failure to permit access to facilities 9,500 17,000
(c) Failure to provide access to results of railroad alcohol and drug testing programs 9,500 17,000

PART 220—[AMENDED] Back to Top

15. The authority citation for part 220 continues to read as follows:

Authority:

49 U.S.C. 20102-20103, 20107, 21301-21302, 21304, 21311; 28 U.S.C. 2461, note; and 49 CFR 1.49.

16. Appendix C to part 220 is revised to read as follows:

Appendix C to Part 220—Schedule of Civil Penalties1 Back to Top
Section2 Violation Willful violation
1A penalty may be assessed against and only for a willful violation. The Administrator reserves the right to assess a penalty of up to $100,000 for any violation where circumstances warrant. See 49 CFR part 209, appendix A.
2The penalty schedule uses section numbers from 49 CFR part 220. If more than one item is listed as a type of violation of a given section, each item is also designated by a “penalty code,” which is used to facilitate assessment of civil penalties, and which may or may not correspond to any subsection designation(s). For convenience, penalty citations will cite the CFR section and the penalty code, if any. FRA reserves the right, should litigation become necessary, to substitute in its complaint the CFR citation in place of the combined CFR and penalty code citation, should they differ.
Subpart A—General    
220.9Requirements for trains $13,000 $20,500
220.11Requirements for roadway workers 13,000 20,500
Subpart B—Radio and Wireless Communication Procedures    
220.21Railroad operating rules; radio communications:    
(a) 9,500 17,000
(b) 9,500 17,000
220.23Publication of radio information 9,500 17,000
220.25Instruction of employees 9,500 17,000
220.27Identification 9,500 17,000
220.29Statement of letters and numbers 9,500 17,000
220.31Initiating a transmission 5,500 10,000
220.33Receiving a transmission 9,500 17,000
220.35Ending a transmission 9,500 17,000
220.37Voice test 13,000 20,500
220.38Failed equipment 2,500 5,000
220.39Continuous monitoring 9,500 17,000
220.41[Reserved]    
220.43Communication consistent with the rules 13,000 20,500
220.45Complete communications 13,000 20,500
220.47Emergencies 19,500 25,000
220.49Switching, backing or pushing 19,500 25,000
220.51Signal indications 13,000 20,500
220.61Radio transmission of mandatory directives 19,500 25,000

PART 221—[AMENDED] Back to Top

17. The authority citation for part 221 continues to read as follows:

Authority:

49 U.S.C. 20103, 20107; 28 U.S.C. 2461, note; and 49 CFR 1.49.

18. Appendix C to part 221 is revised to read as follows:

Appendix C to Part 221—Schedule of Civil Penalties1 Back to Top
Section2 Violation Willful violation
1A penalty may be assessed against an individual only for a willful violation. The Administrator reserves the right to assess a penalty of up to $100,000 for any violation where circumstances warrant. See 49 CFR part 209, appendix A. Where the conditions for movement of defective equipment set forth in § 221.17 of this part are not met, the movement constitutes a violation of § 221.13 of this part.
2The penalty schedule uses section numbers from 49 CFR part 221. If more than one item is listed as a type of violation of a given section, each item is also designated by a “penalty code,” which is used to facilitate assessment of civil penalties, and which may or may not correspond to any subsection designation(s). For convenience, penalty citations will cite the CFR section and the penalty code, if any. FRA reserves the right, should litigation become necessary, to substitute in its complaint the CFR citation in place of the combined CFR and penalty code citation, should they differ.
Subpart B—Marking Devices    
221.13Marking device display:    
(a) Device not present, not displayed, or not properly illuminated $9,500 $17,000
(d) Device too close to rail 2,500 5,000
221.14Marking devices: Use of unapproved or noncomplying device 5,500 10,000
221.15Marking device inspection:    
(a) Failure to inspect at crew change 5,500 10,000
(b), (c) Improper inspection 5,500 10,000
221.16Inspection procedure:    
(a) Failure to obtain protection 9,500 17,000
(b) Improper protection 5,500 10,000
221.17Movement of defective equipment (1) (1)

PART 222—[AMENDED] Back to Top

19. The authority citation for part 222 continues to read as follows:

Authority:

49 U.S.C. 20103, 20107, 20153, 21301, 21304; 28 U.S.C. 2461, note; and 49 CFR 1.49.

20. Appendix H to part 222 is revised to read as follows:

Appendix H to Part 222—Schedule of Civil Penalties1 Back to Top
Section2 Violation Willful violation
1A penalty may be assessed against an individual only for a willful violation. The Administrator reserves the right to assess a penalty of up to $100,000 for any violation where circumstances warrant. See 49 CFR part 209, appendix A.
2The penalty schedule uses section numbers from 49 CFR part 222. If more than one item is listed as a type of violation of a given section, each item is also designated by a “penalty code,” which is used to facilitate assessment of civil penalties, and which may or may not correspond to any subsection designation(s). For convenience, penalty citations will cite the CFR section and the penalty code, if any. FRA reserves the right, should litigation become necessary, to substitute in its complaint the CFR citation in place of the combined CFR and penalty code citation, should they differ.
Subpart B—Use of Locomotive Horns    
222.21Use of locomotive horn:    
(a) Failure to sound horn at grade crossing $9,500 $17,000
Failure to sound horn in proper pattern 5,500 10,000
(b) Failure to sound horn at least 15 seconds and less than1/4mile before crossing 9,500 17,000
Sounding the horn more than 25 seconds before the crossing 5,500 10,000
Sounding the horn more than1/4mile in advance of crossing 5,500 10,000
Subpart C—Exceptions to the Use of the Locomotive Horn    
Silenced Horns at Individual Crossings    
222.33Failure to sound horn when conditions of § 222.33 are not met 9,500 17,000
Silenced Horns at Groups of Crossings—Quiet Zones    
222.45Routine sounding of the locomotive horn at a quiet zone crossing 5,500 10,000
222.49(b)Failure to provide Grade Crossing Inventory Form information 2,500 5,000
222.59(d)Routine sounding of the locomotive horn at a grade crossing equipped with wayside horn 2,500 5,000

PART 223—[AMENDED] Back to Top

21. The authority citation for part 223 continues to read as follows:

Authority:

49 U.S.C. 20102-03, 20133, 20701-20702, 21301-02, 21304; 28 U.S.C. 2461, note; and 49 CFR 1.49.

22. Appendix B to part 223 is revised to read as follows:

Appendix B to Part 223—Schedule of Civil Penalties1 Back to Top
Section2 Violation Willful violation
1A penalty may be assessed against an individual only for a willful violation. The Administrator reserves the right to assess a penalty of up to $100,000 for any violation where circumstances warrant. See 49 U.S.C. 21301, 21304, and 49 CFR part 209, appendix A.
2The penalty schedule uses section numbers from 49 CFR part 223. If more than one item is listed as a type of violation of a given section, each item is also designated by a “penalty code,” which is used to facilitate assessment of civil penalties, and which may or may not correspond to any subsection designation(s). For convenience, penalty citations will cite the CFR section and the penalty code, if any. FRA reserves the right, should litigation become necessary, to substitute in its complaint the CFR citation in place of the combined CFR and penalty code citation, should they differ.
Subpart B—Specific Requirements    
223.9New or rebuilt equipment:    
(a) Locomotives $5,500 $10,000
(b) Cabooses 5,500 10,000
(c) Passenger cars 5,500 10,000
223.11(c)Existing locomotives 5,500 10,000
(d) Repair of window 2,500 5,000
223.13(c)Existing cabooses 5,500 10,000
(d)Repair of window 2,500 5,000
223.15(c)Existing passenger cars 5,500 10,000
(d) Repair of window 2,500 5,000
223.17Identification of units 2,500 5,000

PART 224—[AMENDED] Back to Top

23. The authority citation for part 224 continues to read as follows:

Authority:

49 U.S.C. 20103, 20107, 20148 and 21301; 28 U.S.C. 2461; and 49 CFR 1.49.

24. Appendix A to part 224 is revised to read as follows:

Appendix A to Part 224—Schedule of Civil Penalties1 Back to Top
Section2 Violation Willful violation
1A penalty may be assessed against an individual only for a willful violation. The Administrator reserves the right to assess a penalty of up to $100,000 for any violation where circumstances warrant. See 49 CFR part 209, appendix A.
2The penalty schedule uses section numbers from 49 CFR part 224. If more than one item is listed as a type of violation of a given section, each item is also designated by a “penalty code,” which is used to facilitate assessment of civil penalties, and which may or may not correspond to any subsection designation(s). For convenience, penalty citations will cite the CFR section and the penalty code, if any. FRA reserves the right, should litigation become necessary, to substitute in its complaint the CFR citation in place of the combined CFR and penalty code citation, should they differ.
Subpart B—Application, Inspection, and Maintenance of Retroreflective Material    
224.103Characteristics of retroreflective sheeting:    
(a)-(d) Retroreflective sheeting applied does not meet the requirements of § 224.103 $5,500 $10,000
224.105Sheeting dimensions and quantity:    
(a) Failure to apply minimum amount of retroreflective sheeting in accordance with Table 2 5,500 10,000
(b) Applying retroreflective sheeting of wrong dimensions 5,500 10,000
224.106Location of retroreflective sheeting:    
(a), (b) Applying retroreflective sheeting in nonconforming pattern 5,500 10,000
224.107Implementation schedule:    
(a)(1), (b)(1) Failure to apply retroreflective sheeting to new freight car or locomotive before equipment placed in service 5,500 10,000
(a)(2), (b)(2), (b)(4) Failure to apply retroreflective sheeting to existing freight car or locomotive in accordance with minimum schedule of paragraphs (a)(2), (b)(2), or (b)(4) 5,500 10,000
224.109Inspection, repair, and replacement:    
(1) Failure to perform inspection 5,500 10,000
(2) Failure to properly notify car owner of defect 5,500 10,000
(3) Failure to retain written notification of defect for two years 2,500 5,000
(4) Failure to repair defect after notification 5,500 10,000

PART 225—[AMENDED] Back to Top

25. The authority citation for part 225 continues to read as follows:

Authority:

49 U.S.C. 103, 322(a), 20103, 20107, 20901-02, 21301, 21302, 21311; 28 U.S.C. 2461, note; and 49 CFR 1.49.

26. Appendix A to part 225 is revised to read as follows:

Appendix A to Part 225—Schedule of Civil Penalties1 Back to Top
Section2 Violation Willful violation
1A penalty may be assessed against an individual only for a willful violation. The Administrator reserves the right to assess a penalty of up to $100,000 for any violation where circumstances warrant. See 49 CFR part 209, appendix A. A failure to comply with § 225.23 constitutes a violation of § 225.11. For purposes of §§ 225.25 and 225.27 of this part, each of the following constitutes a single act of noncompliance: (1) A missing or incomplete log entry for a particular employee's injury or illness; or (2) a missing or incomplete log record for a particular rail equipment accident or incident. Each day a violation continues is a separate offense.
2The penalty schedule uses section numbers from 49 CFR part 225. If more than one item is listed as a type of violation of a given section, each item is also designated by a “penalty code,” which is used to facilitate assessment of civil penalties, and which may or may not correspond to any subsection designation(s). For convenience, penalty citations will cite the CFR section and the penalty code, if any. FRA reserves the right, should litigation become necessary, to substitute in its complaint the CFR citation in place of the combined CFR and penalty code citation, should they differ.
225.9Telephonic reports of certain accidents/incidents $9,500 $17,000
225.11Reports of accidents/incidents 5,500 10,000
225.12(a):Failure to file Railroad Employee Human Factor Attachment properly:    
(1) Employee identified 2,500 5,000
(2) No employee identified 2,500 5,000
225.12(b):    
(1) Failure to notify employee properly 5,500 10,000
(2) Notification of employee not involved in accident 2,500 5,000
225.12(c): Failure of employing railroad to provide requested information properly 2,500 5,000
225.12(d):    
(1) Failure to revise report when identity becomes known 2,500 5,000
(2) Failure to notify after late identification 5,500 10,000
225.12(f)(1): Submission of notice if employee dies as result of the reported accident 2,500 5,000
225.12(g): Willfully false accident statement by employee 20,500
225.13Late reports 2,500 5,000
225.17(d)Alcohol or drug involvement 9,500 17,000
225.23Joint operations (1) (1)
225.25Recordkeeping 5,500 10,000
225.27Retention of records 2,500 5,000
225.33:    
(1) Failure to adopt the Internal Control Plan 9,500 17,000
(2) Inaccurate reporting due to failure to comply with the Internal Control Plan 9,500 17,000
(3) Failure to comply with the intimidation/harassment policy in the Internal Control Plan 9,500 17,000
225.35Access to records and reports 5,500 10,000

PART 227—[AMENDED] Back to Top

27. The authority citation for part 227 continues to read as follows:

Authority:

49 U.S.C. 20103, 20103 (note), 20701-20702; and 49 CFR 1.49.

28. Appendix G to part 227 is revised to read as follows:

Appendix G to Part 227—Schedule of Civil Penalties1 Back to Top
Section2 Violation Willful violation
1A penalty may be assessed against an individual only for a willful violation. The Administrator reserves the right to assess a penalty of up to $100,000 for any violation where circumstances warrant. See 49 CFR part 209, appendix A.
2The penalty schedule uses section numbers from 49 CFR part 227. If more than one item is listed as a type of violation of a given section, each item is also designated by a “penalty code,” which is used to facilitate assessment of civil penalties, and which may or may not correspond to any subsection designation(s). For convenience, penalty citations will cite the CFR section and the penalty code, if any. FRA reserves the right, should litigation become necessary, to substitute in its complaint the CFR citation in place of the combined CFR and penalty code citation, should they differ.
Subpart A—General    
227.3Application:    
(b)(4) Failure to meet the required conditions for foreign railroad operations $5,500 $10,000
Subpart B—Occupational Noise Exposure for Railroad Operating Employees    
227.103Noise monitoring program:    
(a) Failure to develop and/or implement a noise monitoring program 19,500 25,000
(b) Failure to use sampling as required 5,500 10,000
(c) Failure to integrate sound levels and/or make noise measurements as required 5,500 10,000
(d) Failure to repeat noise monitoring where required 5,500 10,000
(e) Failure to consider work environments where hearing protectors may be omitted 5,500 10,000
(f) Failure to provide opportunity to observe monitoring 2,500 5,000
(g) Reporting of monitoring results:    
(1) Failure to notify monitored employee 5,500 10,000
(2) Failure to post results as required 5,500 10,000
227.105Protection of employees:    
(a) Failure to provide appropriate protection to exposed employee 19,500 25,000
(b) Failure to observe and document sources of noise exposure 5,500 10,000
(c)-(d) Failure to protect employee from impermissible continuous noise 13,000 20,500
227.107Hearing conservation program:    
(a) Failure to administer an HCP 19,500 25,000
(b) Failure to compute noise exposure as required 9,500 17,000
227.109Audiometric testing program:    
(a) Failure to establish and/or maintain an audiometric testing program 19,500 25,000
(b) Failure to provide audiometric test at no cost to employee 5,500 10,000
(c) Failure to have qualified person perform audiometric test 5,500 10,000
(d) [Reserved]
(e) Failure to establish baseline audiogram as required 9,500 17,000
(f) Failure to offer and/or require periodic audiogram as required 5,500 10,000
(g) Failure to evaluate audiogram as required 5,500 10,000
(h) Failure to comply with follow-up procedures as required 5,500 10,000
(i) Failure to use required method for revising baseline audiograms 5,500 10,000
227.111Audiometric test requirements:    
(a) Failure to conduct test as required 5,500 10,000
(b) Failure to use required equipment 5,500 10,000
(c) Failure to administer test in room that meets requirements 5,500 10,000
(d) Complete failure to calibrate 13,000 20,500
(1) Failure to perform daily calibration as required 2,500 5,000
(2) Failure to perform annual calibration as required 2,500 5,000
(3) Failure to perform exhaustive calibration as required 2,500 5,000
227.115Hearing protectors (HP):    
(a) Failure to comply with general requirements 9,500 17,000
(b) Failure to make HP available as required 5,500 10,000
(c) Failure to require use of HP at action level 13,000 20,500
(d) Failure to require use of HP at TWA of 90 dB(A) 13,000 20,500
227.117Hearing protector attenuation:    
(a) Failure to evaluate attenuation as required 2,500 5,000
(b)-(c) Failure to attenuate to required level 2,500 5,000
(d) Failure to reevaluate attenuation 2,500 5,000
227.119Training program:    
(a) Failure to institute a training program as required 9,500 17,000
(b) Failure to provide training within required time frame 2,500 5,000
(c) Failure of program and/or training materials to include required information 2,500 5,000
227.121Recordkeeping:    
(a) General Requirements:
(1) Failure to make record available as required 2,500 5,000
(3) Failure to transfer or retain records as required 2,500 5,000
(b)-(f) Records:
(1) Failure to maintain record or failure to maintain record with required information 2,500 5,000
(2) Failure to retain records for required time period 2,500 5,000

PART 228—[AMENDED] Back to Top

29. The authority citation for part 228 continues to read as follows:

Authority:

49 U.S.C. 20103, 20107, 21101-21109; Sec. 108, Div. A, Pub. L. 110-432, 122 Stat. 4860-4866; 49 U.S.C. 21301, 21303, 21304, 21311; 28 U.S.C. 2461, note; and 49 CFR 1.49; and 49 U.S.C. 103.

30. In appendix A to part 228, the ninth paragraph below the heading “General Provisions”, entitled “Penalty” is revised to read as follows:

Appendix A to Part 228—Requirements of the Hours of Service Act: Statement of Agency Policy and Interpretation Back to Top

* * * * *

General Provisions Back to Top

* * * * *

Penalty.* * * Effective October 9, 2007, the ordinary maximum penalty of $11,000 was raised to $16,000 as required under law. Effective March 2, 2009, the minimum penalty, ordinary maximum penalty and aggravated maximum penalty were raised again. The minimum penalty was increased from $550 to $650 pursuant to the law's requirement. Meanwhile, the ordinary maximum penalty was increased from $16,000 to $25,000 and the aggravated maximum was increased from $27,000 to $100,000 in accordance with the authority provided under the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008. FRA's guideline civil penalty amounts for violations of the substantive hours of service statute are $9,500 for an ordinary violation of the hours of service statute and $17,000 for a willful violation of the hours of service statute. The Administrator reserves the right to assess a penalty of up to $100,000 for a violation where circumstances warrant. See 49 CFR part 209, appendix A.

* * * * *

31. Appendix B to part 228 is revised to read as follows:

Appendix B to Part 228—Schedule of Civil Penalties1 Back to Top
Section2 Violation Willful violation
1A penalty may be assessed against an individual only for a willful violation. The Administrator reserves the right to assess a penalty of up to $100,000 for any violation where circumstances warrant. See 49 CFR part 209, appendix A.
2The penalty schedule uses section numbers from 49 CFR part 228. If more than one item is listed as a type of violation of a given section, each item is also designated by a “penalty code,” which is used to facilitate assessment of civil penalties, and which may or may not correspond to any subsection designation(s). For convenience, penalty citations will cite the CFR section and the penalty code, if any. FRA reserves the right, should litigation become necessary, to substitute in its complaint the CFR citation in place of the combined CFR and penalty code citation, should they differ.
Subpart B—Records and Reporting    
228.9Railroad records $5,500 $10,000
228.11Hours of duty records 2,500 5,000
Error on record reflect pattern of inaccurate recordkeeping 13,000 20,500
228.17Dispatcher's record 2,500 5,000
228.19Monthly reports of excess service 9,500 17,000
Subpart D—Electronic Recordkeeping    
228.203Program components 9,500 17,000
228.205Access to electronic records 9,500 17.000
228.207Training 5,500 10,000

PART 229—[AMENDED] Back to Top

32. The authority citation for part 229 continues to read as follows:

Authority:

49 U.S.C. 20102-20103, 20107, 20133, 20137-20138, 20143, 20701-20703, 21301-21302, 21304; 28 U.S.C. 2461, note; and 49 CFR 1.49(c), (m).

33. Appendix B to part 229 is revised to read as follows:

Appendix B to Part 229—Schedule of Civil Penalties1 Back to Top
Section2 Violation Willful violation
1A penalty may be assessed against an individual only for a willful violation. Generally, when two or more violations of these regulations are discovered with respect to a single locomotive that is used by a railroad, the appropriate penalties set forth above are aggregated up to a maximum of $25,000 per day. However, a failure to perform, with respect to a particular locomotive, any of the inspections and tests required under subpart B of this part will be treated as a violation separate and distinct from, and in addition to, any substantive violative conditions found on that locomotive. Moreover, the Administrator reserves the right to assess a penalty of up to $100,000 for any violation where circumstances warrant. See 49 CFR part 209, appendix A. Failure to observe any condition for movement set forth in § 229.9 will deprive the railroad of the benefit of the movement-for-repair provision and make the railroad and any responsible individuals liable for penalty under the particular regulatory section(s) concerning the substantive defect(s) present on the locomotive at the time of movement. Failure to comply with § 229.19 will result in the lapse of any affected waiver.
2The penalty schedule uses section numbers from 49 CFR part 229. If more than one item is listed as a type of violation of a given section, each item is also designated by a “penalty code,” which is used to facilitate assessment of civil penalties, and which may or may not correspond to any subsection designation(s). For convenience, penalty citations will cite the CFR section and the penalty code, if any. FRA reserves the right, should litigation become necessary, to substitute in its complaint the CFR citation in place of the combined CFR and penalty code citation, should they differ.
Subpart A—General    
229.7Prohibited acts: Safety deficiencies not governed by specific regulations: To be assessed on relevant facts $2,500-13,000 $5,000-20,500
229.9Movement of noncomplying locomotives (1) (1)
229.11Locomotive identification 2,500 5,000
229.13Control of locomotives 9,500 17,000
229.17Accident reports 15,500 10,000
219.19Prior waivers (1) (1)
Subpart B—Inspection and Tests    
229.21Daily inspection:    
(a)(b):    
(1) Inspection overdue 5,500 10,000
(2) Inspection report not made, improperly executed, or not retained 2,500 5,000
(c) Inspection not performed by a qualified person 2,500 5,000
229.23Periodic inspection General    
(a)(b):    
(1) Inspection overdue 5,500 10,000
(2) Inspection performed improperly or at a location where the underneath portion cannot be safely inspected 5,500 10,000
(c)(d):    
(1) Form missing 2,500 5,000
(2) Form not properly displayed 2,500 5,000
(3) Form improperly executed 2,500 5,000
(e) Replace Form FRA F 6180-49A by April 2 2,500 5,000
(f) Secondary record of the information reported on Form FRA F 6180.49A 2,500 5,000
229.25:    
(a) through (e)(4) Tests: Every periodic inspection 5,500 10,000
(e)(5) Ineffective maintenance 13,000 20,500
229.27Annual tests 5,500 10,000
229.29Biennial tests 5,500 10,000
229.31:    
(a) Biennial hydrostatic tests of main reservoirs 5,500 10,000
(b) Biennial hammer tests of main reservoirs 5,500 10,000
(c) Drilled telltale holes in welded main reservoirs 5,500 10,000
(d) Biennial tests of aluminum main reservoirs 5,500 10,000
229.33Out-of-use credit 2,500 5,000
Subpart C—Safety Requirements    
General Requirements    
229.41Protection against personal injury 9,500 17,000
229.43Exhaust and battery gases 9,500 17,000
229.45General condition: To be assessed based on relevant facts 2,500-13,000 5,000-20,500
Brake System    
229.46Brakes: General 9,500 17,000
229.47Emergency brake valve 9,500 17,000
229.49Main reservoir system:    
(a)(1) Main reservoir safety valve 9,500 17,000
(2) Pneumatically actuated control reservoir 9,500 17,000
(b)(c) Main reservoir governors 9,500 17,000
229.51Aluminum main reservoirs 9,500 17,000
229.53Brake gauges 9,500 17,000
229.55Piston travel 9,500 17,000
229.57Foundation brake gear 9,500 17,000
229.59Leakage 9,500 17,000
Draft System    
229.61Draft system 5,500 10,000
Suspension System    
229.63Lateral motion 5,500 10,000
229.64Plain bearing 5,500 10,000
229.65Spring rigging 5,500 10,000
229.67Trucks 9,500 17,000
229.69Side bearings 9,500 17,000
229.71Clearance above top of rail 2,500 5,000
229.73Wheel sets 9,500 17,000
229.75Wheel and tire defects:    
(a), (d) Slid flat or shelled spot(s):    
(1) One spot21/2″ or more but less than 3″ in length 9,500 17,000
(2) One spot 3″ or more in length 13,000 20,500
(3) Two adjoining spots each of which is 2″ or more in length but less than21/2″ in length 9,500 17,000
(4) Two adjoining spots each of which are at least 2″ in length, if either spot is21/2″ or more in length 13,000 20,500
(b) Gouge or chip in flange of:    
(1) More than11/2″ but less than15/8″ in length; and more than1/2″ but less than5/8″ in width 9,500 17,000
(2)15/8″ or more in length and5/8″ or more in width 13,000 20,500
(c) Broken rim 19,500 25,000
(e) Seam in tread 9,500 17,000
(f) Flange thickness of:    
(1)7/8″ or less but more than13/16″ 9,500 17,000
(2)13/16″ or less 13,000 20,500
(g) Tread worn hollow 9,500 17,000
(h) Flange height of:    
(1)11/2″ or greater but less than15/8″ 9,500 17,000
(2)15/8″ or more 13,000 20,500
(i) Tire thickness 9,500 17,000
(j) Rim thickness:    
(1) Less than 1″ in road service and3/4″ in yard service 9,500 17,000
(2)15/16″ or less in road service and11/16″ in yard service 13,000 20,500
(k):    
(1) Crack of less than 1″ 9,500 17,000
(2) Crack of 1″ or more 13,000 20,500
(3) Break 19,500 25,000
(l) Loose wheel or tire 19,500 25,000
(m) Welded wheel or tire 9,500 17,000
Electrical System    
229.77Current collectors 5,500 10,000
229.79Third rail shoes and beams 5,500 10,000
229.81Emergency pole; shoe insulation 9,500 17,000
229.83Insulation or grounding 13,000 20,500
229.85Door and cover plates marked “Danger” 5,500 10,000
229.87Hand operated switches 5,500 10,000
229.89Jumpers; cable connections:    
(a) Jumpers and cable connections; locked and guarded 9,500 17,000
(b) Condition of jumpers and cable connections 9,500 17,000
229.91Motors and generators 9,500 17,000
Internal Combustion Equipment    
229.93Safety cut-off device 9,500 17,000
229.95Venting 9,500 17,000
229.97Grounding fuel tanks 9,500 17,000
229.99Safety hangers 9,500 17,000
229.101 Engines:    
(a) Temperature and pressure alarms, controls, and switches 5,500 10,000
(b) Warning notice 9,500 17,000
(c) Wheel slip/slide protection 5,500 10,000
Steam Generators    
229.103Safe working pressure; factor of safety 9,500 17,000
229.105Steam generator number 2,500 5,000
229.107Pressure gauge 9,500 17,000
229.109Safety valves 9,500 17,000
229.111Water-flow indicator 9,500 17,000
229.113Warning notice 9,500 17,000
Cabs and Cab Equipment    
229.115Slip/slide alarms 9,500 17,000
229.117Speed indicators 9,500 17,000
229.119 Cabs, floors, and passageways:    
(a)(1) Cab set not securely mounted or braced 5,500 10,000
(2) Insecure or improper latching device 5,500 10,000
(b) Cab windows of lead locomotive 5,500 10,000
(c) Floors, passageways, and compartments 5,500 10,000
(d) Ventilation and heating arrangement 9,500 17,000
(e) Continuous barrier 9,500 17,000
(f) Containers for fuses and torpedoes 9,500 17,000
229.121Locomotive cab noise:    
(a) Performance Standards    
(1) Failure to meet sound level 13,000 20,500
(2) Improper maintenance alterations 5,500 10,000
(3) Failure to comply with static test protocols 5,500 10,000
(b) Maintenance of Locomotives:    
(1) Failure to maintain excessive noise report record or respond to report as required 5,500 10,000
(3) Failure to make good faith effort as required 5,500 10,000
(4) Failure to maintain record as required 2,500 5,000
229.123Pilots, snowplows, end plates 5,500 10,000
229.125:    
(a) Headlights 9,500 17,000
(d) Auxiliary lights 9,500 17,000
229.127Cab lights 5,500 10,000
229.129Locomotive horn:    
(a) Prescribed sound levels 9,500 17,000
Arrangement of horn 9,500 17,000
(b) Failure to perform sound level test 9,500 17,000
(c) Sound level test improperly performed 9,500 17,000
Record of sound level test improperly executed, or not retained 5,500 10,000
229.131Sanders 2,500 5,000
229.135Event Recorders:    
(a) Lead locomotive without in-service event recorder 9,500 17,000
(b) Failure to meet equipment requirements 9,500 17,000
(c) Unauthorized removal or failure to remove from service 9,500 17,000
(d) Improper response to out of service event recorder 9,500 17,000
(e) Failure to preserve data or unauthorized extraction of data 9,500 17,000
(g) Tampering with device or data 9,500 17,000
229.137Sanitation, general:    
(a) Sanitation compartment in lead unit, complete failure to provide required items 9,500 17,000
(1) Ventilation 5,500 10,000
(2) Door missing 5,500 10,000
(2)(i) Door doesn't close 5,500 10,000
(2)(ii) No modesty lock 2,500 5,000
(3) Not equipped with toilet in lead 9,500 17,000
(4) Not equipped with washing system 5,500 10,000
(5) Lack of paper 5,500 10,000
(6) Lack of trash receptacle 5,500 10,000
(b) Exceptions:    
(1)(i) Commuter service, failure to meet conditions of exception 2,500 5,000
(1)(ii) Switching service, failure to meet conditions of exception 2,500 5,000
(1)(iii) Transfer service, failure to meet conditions of exception 2,500 5,000
(1)(iv) Class III, failure to meet conditions of exception 2,500 5,000
(1)(v) Tourist, failure to meet conditions of exception 2,500 5,000
(1)(vi) Control cab locomotive, failure to meet conditions of exception 2,500 5,000
(2) Noncompliant toilet 5,500 10,000
(c) Defective/unsanitary toilet in lead unit 5,500 10,000
(1)-(5) Failure to meet conditions of exception 5,500 10,000
(d) Defective/unsanitary unit; failure to meet conditions for trailing position 5,500 10,000
(e) Defective/sanitary unit; failure to meet conditions for switching/transfer service 5,500 10,000
(f) Paper, washing, trash holder; failure to equip prior to departure 5,500 10,000
(g) Inadequate ventilation; failure to repair or move prior to departure 5,500 10,000
(h) Door closure/modesty lock; failure to repair or move 2,500 5,000
(i) Failure to retain/maintain of equipped units 5,500 10,000
(j) Failure to equip new units/in-cab facility 5,500 10,000
(k) Failure to provide potable water 5,500 10,000
229.139Servicing requirements:    
(a) Lead occupied unit not sanitary 5,500 10,000
(b) Components not present/operating 2,500 5,000
(c) Occupied unit in switching, transfer service, in trailing position not sanitary 2,500 5,000
(d) Defective unit used more than ten days 5,500 10,000
(e) Failure to repair defective modesty lock 2,500 5,000
Subpart D—Locomotive Crashworthiness Design Requirements    
229.141Body structure, MU locomotives 9,500 17,000
229.205General requirements:    
(a)(1) Wide-nose locomotive not designed in compliance with AAR S-580-2005 19,500 25,000
(2) Wide-nose locomotive not designed in compliance with new approved design standard 19,500 25,000
(3) Wide-nose locomotive not designed in compliance with alternate approved design standard 19,500 25,000
(b) Monocoque or semi-monocoque locomotive not in compliance with design requirements 19,500 25,000
(c) Narrow-nose not in compliance with design requirements 19,500 25,000
229.206Design requirements:    
Locomotive fails to meet—    
(1) Emergency egress requirements 19,500 25,000
(2) Emergency interior lighting requirements 19,500 25,000
(3) Interior configuration requirements 19,500 25,000
229.213Locomotive manufacturing information:    
(a) Failure to retain required information 9,500 17,000
(b) Failure to produce required information 9,500 17,000
229.215Retention and inspection of designs:    
(a) Failure to retain required design records 9,500 17,000
(b) Failure to retain required repair or modification records 9,500 17,000
(c) Failure to make records available when requested 9,500 17,000
229.217Fuel tank:    
(a) External fuel tank 19,500 25,000
(b) Internal fuel tank 19,500 25,000

PART 230—[AMENDED] Back to Top

34. The authority citation for part 230 continues to read as follows:

Authority:

49 U.S.C. 20103, 20107, 20702; 28 U.S.C. 2461, note; and 49 CFR 1.49.

35. Appendix D to part 230 is revised to read as follows:

Appendix D to Part 230—Schedule of Civil Penalties Back to Top
Section2 Violation Willful violation
1A penalty may be assessed against an individual only for a willful violation. The Administrator reserves the right to assess a penalty of up to $100,000 for any violation where circumstances warrant. See 49 CFR part 209, appendix A. Failure to observe any condition for movement set forth in § 230.12 will deprive the railroad of the benefit of the movement-for-repair provision and make the railroad and any responsible individuals liable for penalty under the particular regulatory section(s) concerning the substantive defect(s) present on the locomotive at the time of movement. Failure to comply with § 230.12 will result in the lapse of any affected waiver. Generally, when two or more violations of these regulations are discovered with respect to a single locomotive that is used by a railroad, the appropriate penalties set forth are aggregated up to a maximum of $25,000 per day. However, a failure to perform, with respect to a particular locomotive, any of the inspections and tests required under this part, will be treated as a violation separate and distinct from, and in addition to, any substantive violative conditions found on that locomotive.
2The penalty schedule uses section numbers from 49 CFR part 230. If more than one item is listed as a type of violation of a given section, each item is also designated by a “penalty code,” which is used to facilitate assessment of civil penalties, and which may or may not correspond to any subsection designation(s). For convenience, penalty citations will cite the CFR section and the penalty code, if any. FRA reserves the right, should litigation become necessary, to substitute in its complaint the CFR citation in place of the combined CFR and penalty code citation, should they differ.
Subpart A—General    
General Inspection Requirements    
230.11Repair of non-complying conditions:    
(a) Failure to repair noncomplying steam locomotive prior to use in service $5,500 $10,000
(b) Failure of owner and/or operator to approve repairs made prior to use of steam locomotive 5,500 10,000
230.12Movement of noncomplying steam locomotive (1) (1)
230.13Daily inspection:    
(a)(b):    
(1) Inspection overdue 9,500 17,000
(2) Inspection not performed by qualified person 5,500 10,000
(c) Inspection report not made, improperly executed or not retained 5,500 10,000
230.14Thirty-one service day inspection:    
(a):    
(1) Inspection overdue 9,500 17,000
(2) Inspection not performed by qualified person 5,500 10,000
(b) Failure to notify FRA 5,500 10,000
(c) Inspection report not made, improperly executed, not properly filed 5,500 10,000
230.15Ninety-two service day inspection:    
(a):    
(1) Inspection overdue 9,500 17,000
(2) Inspection not performed by qualified person 5,500 10,000
(b) Inspection report not made, improperly executed, not properly filed 5,500 10,000
230.16Annual inspection:    
(a):    
(1) Inspection overdue 9,500 17,000
(2) Inspection not performed by qualified person 5,500 10,000
(b) Failure to notify FRA 5,500 10,000
(c) Inspection report not made, improperly executed, not properly filed 5,500 10,000
230.17One thousand four hundred seventy-two service day inspection:    
(a):    
(1) Inspection overdue 9,500 17,000
(2) Inspection not performed by qualified person 5,500 10,000
(b) Inspection report not made, improperly executed, not properly maintained, not properly filed 5,500 10,000
Recordkeeping Requirements    
230.18Service days:    
(a) Service day record not available for inspection 5,500 10,000
(b) Failure to file service day report with FRA Regional Administrator 5,500 10,000
(c) Failure to complete all 1,472 service day inspection items prior to returning retired steam locomotive to service 9,500 17,000
230.19Posting of forms:    
(a) FRA Form No. 1:    
(1) FRA Form No. 1 not properly filled out 5,500 10,000
(2) FRA Form No. 1 not properly displayed 5,500 10,000
(b) FRA Form No. 3:    
(1) FRA Form No. 3 not properly filled out 5,500 10,000
(2) FRA Form No. 3 not properly displayed 5,500 10,000
230.20Alteration and repair reports:    
(a) Alterations:    
(1) Failure to properly file FRA Form No. 19 with FRA Regional Administrator 5,500 10,000
(2) FRA Form No. 19 not properly filled out 5,500 10,000
(3) FRA Form No. 19 not properly maintained 5,500 10,000
(b) Repairs to unstayed portions of the boiler:    
(1) FRA Form No. 19 not properly filled out 5,500 10,000
(2) FRA Form No. 19 not properly maintained 5,500 10,000
(c) Repairs to stayed portions of the boiler:    
(1) FRA Form No. 19 not properly filled out 5,500 10,000
(2) FRA Form No. 19 not properly maintained 5,500 10,000
230.21Failure to properly document steam locomotive number change 5,500 10,000
230.22Failure to properly report accident resulting from failure of steam locomotive boiler or part or appurtenance thereof 9,500 17,000
Subpart B—Boilers and Appurtenances    
230.23Responsibility for general construction and safe working pressure:    
(a) Failure to properly establish safe working pressure for steam locomotive boiler 19,500 25,000
(b) Placing steam locomotive in service before safe working pressure for boiler has been established 19,500 25,000
Allowable Stress    
230.24Maximum allowable stress values on boiler components:    
(a) Use of materials not of sufficient tensile strength 5,500 10,000
(b) Use of a safety factor value of less than four when using the code of original construction in boiler calculations 13,000 20,500
230.25Maximum allowable stresses on stays and braces:    
(a) Exceeding allowable stress values on fire box and/or combustion chamber 5,500 10,000
(b) Exceeding allowable stress values on round, rectangular or gusset braces 5,500 10,000
Inspection and Repair    
230.29Inspection and repair:    
(a):    
(1) Failure of owner and/or operator to inspect and repair any steam locomotive boiler and/or appurtenance under control thereof 9,500 17,000
(2) Failure to remove steam locomotive from service when considered necessary to do so 13,000 20,500
(b):    
(1) Failure of perform repairs in accordance with accepted industry standards 13,000 20,500
(2) Owner and/or operator returning steam locomotive boiler and/or appurtenances to service before they are in good condition and safe and suitable for service 13,000 20,500
230.30Lap-joint seam boilers, failure to properly inspect 13,000 20,500
230.31Flues to be removed:    
(a):    
(1) Failure to remove all flues when inspecting boiler 9,500 17,000
(2) Failure to enter boiler and clean and inspect 9,500 17,000
(b) Failure to remove superheater flues when deemed necessary to do so 5,500 10,000
230.32Time and method of inspection:    
(a) Failure to perform 1,472 service day inspection when required to do so 9,500 17,000
(b) Failure to properly inspect boiler during 1,472 service day inspection 9,500 17,000
230.33Welded repairs and alterations:    
(a) Failure to obtain permission before welding on unstayed portions of boiler containing alloy or carbon steel with carbon content over .25 percent carbon 9,500 17,000
(b) Failure to perform welding on unstayed portions of boiler containing carbon steel not exceeding .25 percent carbon in accordance with a nationally accepted standard for boiler repairs 9,500 17,000
(c):    
(1) Failure to submit written request for approval before performing weld buildup on wasted areas of unstayed boiler surfaces that exceed 100 square inches or the smaller of 25 percent of minimum required wall thickness or1/2inch 9,500 17,000
(2) Repairing wasted sheets 9,500 17,000
230.34Riveted repairs and alterations:    
(a) Failure to obtain approval before making riveted alterations on unstayed portions of the boiler; failure to do riveting in accordance with established railroad practices or accepted national standards for boiler repairs 9,500 17,000
(b) Failure to perform riveted repairs on unstayed boiler portions in accordance with established railroad practices or accepted national standards for boiler repairs 9,500 17,000
(c) Failure to perform riveted repairs on stayed boiler portions in accordance with established railroad practices or accepted national standards for boiler repairs 5,500 10,000
Pressure Testing of Boilers    
230.35Failure to raise temperature of steam locomotive boiler to 70 degrees F. before applying hydrostatic pressure to the boiler 5,500 10,000
230.36Hydrostatic testing of boilers:    
(a) Failure to perform hydrostatic test of boiler as required 9,500 17,000
(b) Failure to properly perform hydrostatic test 9,500 17,000
(c) Failure to properly inspect boiler after conducting hydrostatic test above MAWP 9,500 17,000
230.37Failure to perform proper steam test or inspection of boiler after completion of repair or alteration to boiler 5,500 10,000
Staybolts    
230.38Telltale holes:    
(a) Failure to have telltale holes as required in staybolts 5,500 10,000
(b) Failure to have proper telltale holes in reduced body staybolts 5,500 10,000
(c) Failure to keep telltale holes when so required 5,500 10,000
230.39Broken staybolts:    
(a) Boiler in service with excess number of broken staybolts 9,500 17,000
(b) Failure to replace staybolts when required to do so; to properly replace staybolts when so required; to inspect adjacent staybolts when replacing broken staybolts 9,500 17,000
(c) Failure to count leaking, plugged, or missing telltale holes as broken staybolts 9,500 17,000
(d) Closing telltale holes by prohibited means 9,500 17,000
230.40Time and method of staybolt testing:    
(a) Failure to hammer test staybolts when so required 5,500 10,000
(b) Failure to properly hammer test staybolts 5,500 10,000
230.41Flexible staybolts with caps:    
(a) Failure to inspect flexible staybolts as required 5,500 10,000
(b) Failure to replace broken flexible staybolts; failure to close inner ends of telltale holes as required 5,500 10,000
(c) Failure to report removal of flexible staybolts caps and other tests on FRA Form No. 3 when so required 5,500 10,000
(d) Failure to remove staybolt caps or otherwise test when FRA inspector or steam locomotive owner and/or operator consider it necessary to do so 5,500 10,000
Steam Gauges    
230.42Failure to have accurate boiler steam gauge where engine crew can conveniently read 13,000 20,500
230.43Failure to have gauge siphon of proper capacity on steam gauge supply pipe; failure to properly clean, maintain the steam gauge supply pipe 5,500 10,000
230.44Failure to test steam gauge when so required 5,500 10,000
230.45Failure to properly test and/or set steam gauge 5,500 10,000
230.46Failure to attach to boiler backhead metal badge plate showing allowable steam pressure 5,500 10,000
230.47Boiler Number:    
(a) (b) (c) Failure to stamp builder's number on boiler when number is known 5,500 10,000
Safety Relief Valves    
230.48Number and capacity of safety relief valves:    
(a) Failure to equip steam locomotive boiler with proper safety relief valves 13,000 20,500
(b) Failure to provide additional safety relief valve capacity when so required 13,000 20,500
230.49Setting of safety relief valves:    
(a) Safety relief valve(s) set and/or adjusted by person not competent to do so 13,000 20,500
(b) Safety relief valve(s) not set to open at prescribed pressure(s) 13,000 20,500
(c) Safety relief valve(s) not properly set 13,000 20,500
(d) Set pressure of lowest safety relief valve not properly indicated 5,500 10,000
230.50Failure to test and adjust safety relief valves when required to do so 9,500 17,000
Water Glasses and Gauge Cocks    
230.51Failure to equip steam locomotive boiler with at least two properly installed water glasses 5,500 10,000
230.52Failure to properly equip water glasses 13,000 20,500
230.53Failure to properly clean water glass valves and/or gauge cocks when required to do so 5,500 10,000
230.54Testing and maintenance:    
(a) Failure to properly test water glasses and/or gauge cocks 5,500 10,000
(b) Failure to properly maintain gauge cocks, water column drain valves, and/or water glass valves 9,500 17,000
230.55Tubular type water and lubricator glasses and shields:    
(a) Failure to renew tubular type water glasses as required 5,500 10,000
(b) Failure to properly shield tubular water glasses and/or lubricator glasses 5,500 10,000
(c) Failure to properly locate and/or maintain water glasses and/or water glass shields 5,500 10,000
230.56Failure to equip water glass with suitable lamp 5,500 10,000
Injectors, Feedwater Pumps, and Flue Plugs    
230.57Injectors and feedwater pumps:    
(a) Failure to equip steam locomotive with proper means for delivering water to the boiler 13,000 20,500
(b) Failure to properly test and/or maintain injectors, feedwater pumps, boiler checks, delivery pipes, feed water pipes, tank hose, tank valves 13,000 20,500
(c) Failure to properly brace injectors, feedwater pumps, and/or associated piping 5,500 10,000
230.58Flue plugs:    
(a) Plugging flue plugs when not otherwise permitted 5,500 10,000
(b) Improperly plugging flue plugs, when otherwise permitted 5,500 10,000
Fusible Plugs    
230.59Failure to remove and properly clean fusible boiler plugs when required to do so; failure to properly note removal 9,500 17,000
Washing Boilers    
230.60Time of washing:    
(a) Failure to thoroughly wash boiler when required to do so 5,500 10,000
(b) Failure to remove washout plugs, arch tube plugs, thermic siphon plugs, circulator plugs, water bar plugs when washing locomotive boiler 9,500 17,000
(c) Failure to examine and/or properly maintain washout plugs washout plug sleeves, threaded openings 9,500 17,000
(d) Failure to clean fusible plugs when required to do so 9,500 17,000
230.61Arch tubes, water bar tubes, circulators and thermic siphons:    
(a) Failure to clean, wash, inspect arch tubes, water bar tubes, circulators and thermic siphons as required 5,500 10,000
(b) Failure to renew arch tubes, water bar tubes; failure to repair or renew circulators, thermic siphons when required 9,500 17,000
(c) Failure to properly inspect and/or replace as necessary arch tubes, water bar tubes, circulators 9,500 17,000
Steam Pipes    
230.62Failure to properly inspect and/or repair or replace as necessary dry pipes subject to pressure 13,000 20,500
230.63Failure to properly inspect smoke box, steam pipes, pressure parts when required to do so 9,500 17,000
Steam Leaks    
230.64Failure to remove from service steam locomotive boiler leaking under lagging from condition which may reduce safety and/or repair the boiler before returning to service 9,500 17,000
230.65Failure to keep steam locomotive boiler, piping, appurtenances in repair so steam does not obscure vision 5,500 10,000
Subpart C—Steam Locomotives and Tenders    
230.66Failure to properly oversee general design, construction, maintenance of steam locomotive(s) and tender(s) 5,500 10,000
230.67Failure to ensure all steam locomotives and tenders are properly inspected and repaired and/or all defects are properly repaired and steam locomotive and/or tender are in good condition, safe and suitable for service before being returned to service 13,000 20,500
Speed Indicators    
230.68Failure to equip steam locomotive that operates in excess of 20 miles per hour over the general system with speed indicator maintained to ensure accurate functioning 5,500 10,000
Ash Pans    
230.69Failure to equip steam locomotive with properly supported ash pan with operating mechanism that may be safely operated and securely closed 5,500 10,000
Brake and Signal Equipment    
230.70Safe condition:    
(a) Failure to perform proper pre-departure inspection when so required 5,500 10,000
(b) Failure to properly equip steam locomotive with brake pipe valve clearly identified as “Emergency Brake Valve” 5,500 10,000
230.71Orifice testing of air compressors:    
(a)(b):    
Failure to properly test and/or maintain air compressor(s) capacity 5,500 10,000
230.72Testing main reservoirs:    
(a) Failure to properly test main reservoir(s) when required 5,500 10,000
(b) Impermissibly or improperly drilling main reservoir 5,500 10,000
(c) Impermissibly using NDE method to measure wall thickness of main reservoir 5,500 10,000
(d) Failure to use appropriate method of NDE testing of wall thickness of welded or riveted longitudinal lap seam main reservoir(s); failure to withdraw main reservoir(s) from service when testing reveals insufficient wall thickness 9,500 17,000
230.73Air gauges:    
(a) Failure to equip steam locomotive with properly located air gauge(s) that are no more than three psi in error 5,500 10,000
(b) Failure to test air gauge(s) when so required 5,500 10,000
(c) Failure to properly test air gauge(s) 5,500 10,000
230.74Failure to properly clean and/or test all air brake valves, related dirt collectors, filters when required to do so 5,500 10,000
230.75Failure to properly stencil or display date of testing and cleaning and initials of shop or station performing work 5,500 10,000
230.76Piston travel:    
(a) Insufficient minimum piston travel 5,500 10,000
(b) Excessive piston travel when steam locomotive is stationary 5,500 10,000
230.77Foundation brake gear:    
(a) Failure to properly maintain foundation brake gear 5,500 10,000
(b) Foundation brake gear less than 2.5 inches above rail 5,500 10,000
230.78Leakage:    
(a):    
(1)Failure to test for leakage from main reservoir or related piping as required 5,500 10,000
(2) Failure to repair excessive leakage from main reservoir or related piping leakage 5,500 10,000
(b) Failure to test for brake cylinder as required 5,500 10,000
(c):    
(1) Failure to test for leakage from steam locomotive brake pipe as required 5,500 10,000
(2) Failure to repair excessive brake pipe leakage 5,500 10,000
230.79Train signal system:    
(1) Failure to test the train signal system or other form of on-board communication as required 5,500 10,000
(2) Failure to repair train signal system or other on-board communication when not safe or suitable for service 5,500 10,000
Cabs, Warning Signals, Sanders and Lights    
230.80Cabs:    
(a) Steam locomotive cab not safe and suitable for service 5,500 10,000
(b) Steam pipes: Construction, attachment 5,500 10,000
(c) Oil-burning steam locomotive, cab-enclosed 5,500 10,000
230.81Cab aprons:    
(a) Cab apron, general provisions 5,500 10,000
(b) Cab apron, insufficient width 5,500 10,000
230.82Fire doors:    
(a) Safe and suitable for service, general provisions 5,500 10,000
(b) Construction and maintenance of mechanically operated fire doors 5,500 10,000
(c) Construction and maintenance of hand-operated fire doors 5,500 10,000
230.83Cylinder cocks:    
(1) Failure to properly equip with cylinder cocks 5,500 10,000
(2) Failure to properly maintain cylinder cocks 5,500 10,000
230.84Sanders:    
(1) Inoperable sanders 5,500 10,000
(2) Failure to test sanders 5,500 10,000
230.85Audible warning devices:    
(a) General provisions 5,500 10,000
(b) Sound level measurements, Failure to properly take 5,500 10,000
230.86Required illumination:    
(a) General provisions 5,500 10,000
(b) Dimming device, failure to properly equip with 5,500 10,000
(c) Multiple locomotives, failure of lead locomotive to display headlight 5,500 10,000
230.87Cab lights: Failure to properly equip with 5,500 10,000
Throttles and Reversing Gear    
230.88Throttles: Failure to properly maintain, equip 5,500 10,000
230.89Reverse gear:    
(a) General provisions 5,500 10,000
(b) Air-operated power reverse gear 5,500 10,000
(c) Power reverse gear reservoirs 5,500 10,000
Draw Gear and Draft Systems    
230.90Draw gear and draft systems:    
(a) Maintenance and testing 5,500 10,000
(b) Safety bars and chains, general 5,500 10,000
(c) Safety bars and chains, minimum length 5,500 10,000
(d) Lost motion between steam locomotive and tender 5,500 10,000
(e) Spring buffers: Improper application, compression 5,500 10,000
230.91Chafing irons: Improper application, maintenance 5,500 10,000
230.92Draw gear, draft systems: Improperly maintained, fastened 5,500 10,000
Driving Gear    
230.93Pistons and piston rods:    
(a) Failure to properly inspect, maintain, renew 5,500 10,000
(b) Fasteners: Failure to keep tight, properly equip 5,500 10,000
230.94Crossheads: Improperly maintained, excess clearance 5,500 10,000
230.95Guides: Failure to securely fasten, properly maintain 5,500 10,000
230.96Main, side, valve motion rods: 5,500 10,000
(a) General 5,500 10,000
(b) Repairs 5,500 10,000
(1) Failure to make in accordance with accepted national standard 5,500 10,000
(2) Failure to submit written request for approval prior to welding 5,500 10,000
(c) Bearings and bushings 5,500 10,000
(d) Rod side motion: Excessive motion 5,500 10,000
(e) Oil, grease cups: Failure to securely fasten, properly equip 5,500 10,000
(f) Main rod bearings:    
(1) Excessive bore 5,500 10,000
(2) Excessive lost motion 5,500 10,000
(g) Side rod bearings, excessive bore 5,500 10,000
230.97Crank pins:    
(a) General provisions 5,500 10,000
(b) Maintenance: Failure to maintain in safe, suitable condition 5,500 10,000
Running Gear    
230.98Driving, trailing, engine truck axles:    
(a) Condemning defects 5,500 10,000
(b) Journal diameter: Failure to stamp on end of axle 2,500 5,000
230.99Tender truck axle: Insufficient diameter 5,500 10,000
230.100Defects in tender truck axles and journals:    
(a) Tender truck axle condemning defects 5,500 10,000
(b) Tender truck journal condemning defects 5,500 10,000
230.101Steam locomotive driving journal boxes:    
(a) Driving journal boxes: Failure to properly maintain 5,500 10,000
(b) Broken bearings: Failure to renew 5,500 10,000
(c) Loose bearings: Failure to repair or renew 5,500 10,000
230.102Tender plain bearing journal boxes: Failure to repair 5,500 10,000
230.103Tender roller bearing journal boxes: Failure to properly maintain 5,500 10,000
230.104Driving box shoes and wedges: Failure to properly maintain 5,500 10,000
230.105Lateral motion:    
(a) Condemning limits: Total lateral motion in excess of 5,500 10,000
(b) Limits exceeded, failure to demonstrate conditions require additional lateral motion 5,500 10,000
(c) Interferes with other parts of steam locomotive 5,500 10,000
Trucks, Frames and Equalizing System    
230.106Steam locomotive frame:    
(a) Failure to properly inspect and/or maintain 5,500 10,000
(b) Broken frames, not properly patched or secured 13,000 20,500
230.107Tender frame and body:    
(a) Failure to properly maintain 5,500 10,000
(b) Height difference between tender deck and steam locomotive cab floor or deck excessive 5,500 10,000
(c) Gangway minimum width excessive 5,500 10,000
(d) Tender frame condemning defects 9,500 17,000
230.108Steam locomotive leading and trailing trucks:    
(a) Failure to properly maintain 5,500 10,000
(b) Safety chain, suitable safety chain not provided 5,500 10,000
(c) Insufficient truck clearance 5,500 10,000
230.109Tender trucks:    
(a):    
(1) Tender truck frames 5,500 10,000
(2) Tender truck center plate 5,500 10,000
(b) Tender truck bolsters: Failure to properly maintain 9,500 17,000
(c) Condemning defects, springs and/or spring rigging 5,500 10,000
(d) Truck securing arrangement: Not properly maintained 5,500 10,000
(e) Side bearings, truck centering devices 5,500 10,000
(f) Friction side bearings: Run in contact 5,500 10,000
(g):    
(1) Side bearings, failure to equip rear trucks with 5,500 10,000
(2) Insufficient clearance of 5,500 10,000
230.110Pilots:    
(a) General provisions 5,500 10,000
(b) Clearance, insufficient or excessive 5,500 10,000
230.111Spring rigging:    
(a) Arrangement of springs and equalizers 5,500 10,000
(b) Spring or spring rigging condemning defects 5,500 10,000
Wheels and Tires    
230.112Wheels and tires:    
(a) Improperly mounted, excess variance in axle diameter 9,500 17,000
(b) Out of gage 5,500 10,000
(c) Flange distance variance, excessive 5,500 10,000
(d) Tire thickness, insufficient 5,500 10,000
(e) Tire width, insufficient 5,500 10,000
230.113Wheels and tire defects:    
(1) Failure to repair 5,500 10,000
(2) Welding on, except as otherwise provided for 9,500 17,000
(a) Cracks or breaks in 5,500 10,000
(b) Flat spots 5,500 10,000
(c) Chipped flange 5,500 10,000
(d) Broken rim 5,500 10,000
(e) Shelled-out spots 5,500 10,000
(f) Seams 5,500 10,000
(g) Worn flanges, excessive wear 5,500 10,000
(h) Worn treads, excessive wear 5,500 10,000
(i) Flange height, insufficient or excessive 5,500 10,000
(j) Rim thickness, insufficient 5,500 10,000
(k) Wheel diameter, excessive variance 5,500 10,000
230.114Wheel centers:    
(a) Filling blocks and shims 5,500 10,000
(b) Wheel center condemning limits, failure to repair 5,500 10,000
(c) Wheel center repairs 5,500 10,000
(d) Counterbalance maintenance 5,500 10,000
Steam Locomotive Tanks    
230.115Feed water tanks:    
(a) General provisions 5,500 10,000
(b) Inspection frequency, failure to inspect as required 5,500 10,000
(c) Top of tender: Improperly maintained and/or equipped 5,500 10,000
230.116Oil tanks:    
(1) Failure to properly maintain 13,000 20,500
(2) Failure to equip with complying safety cut-off device 19,500 25,000

PART 231—[AMENDED] Back to Top

36. The authority citation for part 231 continues to read as follows:

Authority:

49 U.S.C. 20103, 20107, 20702; 28 U.S.C. 2461, note; and 49 CFR 1.49.

37. Appendix A to part 231 is revised to read as follows:

Appendix A to Part 231—Schedule of Civil Penalties1 Back to Top
Section2 Violation Willful violation
1A penalty may be assessed against an individual only for a willful violation. Generally, when two or more violations of these regulations are discovered with respect to a single unit of equipment that is used by a railroad, the appropriate penalties set forth above are aggregated up to a maximum of $25,000 per day. The Administrator reserves the right to assess a penalty of up to $100,000 for any violation where circumstances warrant. See 49 CFR part 209, appendix A.
2This schedule uses section numbers from FRA's Safety Appliance Defect Code, a restatement of the CFR text in a reorganized format. For convenience, and as an exception to FRA's general policy, penalty citations will cite the defect code rather than the CFR. FRA reserves the right, should litigation become necessary, to substitute in its complaint the CFR and/or statutory citation in place of the defect code section cited in the penalty demand letter.
110.A1Hand brake or hand brake part missing $13,000 $20,500
110.A2Hand brake or hand brake part broken 13,000 20,500
110.A3Hand brake or hand brake part loose or worn 9,500 17,000
110.B1Hand brake inoperative 13,000 20,500
110.B2Hand brake inefficient 9,500 17,000
110.B3Hand brake improperly applied 9,500 17,000
110.B4Hand brake incorrectly located 5,500 10,000
110.B5Hand brake shaft welded or wrong dimension 5,500 10,000
110.B6Hand brake shaft not retained in operating position 5,500 10,000
110.B8Hand brake or hand brake parts wrong design 5,500 10,000
114.B2Hand brake wheel or lever has insufficient clearance around rim or handle 5,500 10,000
114.B3Hand brake wheel/lever clearance insufficient to vertical plane through inside face of knuckle 5,500 10,000
120.A1Brake step missing except by design 13,000 20,500
120.A2Brake step or brace broken or decayed 13,000 20,500
120.A3Brake step or brace loose 9,500 17,000
120.B1Brake step or brace bent 9,500 17,000
120.B2Brake step or brace wrong dimensions 5,500 10,000
120.C1Brake step improperly applied 5,500 10,000
120.C2Brake step improperly located 5,500 10,000
120.C3Brake step with less than 4″ clearance to vertical plane through inside face of knuckle 5,500 10,000
120.C4Brake step obstructed or otherwise unsafe 9,500 17,000
124.A1Running board missing or part missing except by design 13,000 20,500
124.A2Running board broken or decayed 13,000 20,500
124.A3Running board loose presents a tripping hazard or other unsafe condition 9,500 17,000
124.A4Running board wrong material 5,500 10,000
124.B1Running board bent to the extent that it is unsafe 9,500 17,000
124.B2Running board wrong dimensions 5,500 10,000
124.B3Running board wrong location 5,500 10,000
124.C1Running board improperly applied 5,500 10,000
124.C2Running board obstructed 9,500 17,000
126.A1End platform missing or part except by design 13,000 20,500
126.A2End platform broken or decayed 13,000 20,500
126.A3End platform loose 9,500 17,000
126.B1End platform or brace bent 5,500 10,000
126.B2End platform wrong dimensions 5,500 10,000
126.C1End platform improperly applied 5,500 10,000
126.C2End platform with less than required clearance to vertical plane through inside knuckle 5,500 10,000
126.C3End platform improperly located 5,500 10,000
126.C4End platform obstructed 9,500 17,000
128.A1Platform or switching step missing 13,000 20,500
128.A2Platform or switching step broken or decayed 13,000 20,500
128.A3Platform or switching step loose 9,500 17,000
128.B1Platform or switching step bent 9,500 17,000
128.B2Platform or switching step does not meet the required location or dimensions 5,500 10,000
128.C1Platform or switching step improperly applied or repaired 9,500 17,000
128.C2Platform or switching step obstructed 9,500 17,000
128.D1Switching step back stop or kick plate missing 5,500 10,000
128.D2Switching step not illuminated when required 5,500 10,000
128.D3Non-illuminated step not painted contrasting color 5,500 10,000
130.A1Sill step or additional tread, missing 13,000 20,500
130.A2Sill step or additional tread, broken 13,000 20,500
130.A3Sill step or additional tread, loose 9,500 17,000
130.B1Sill step or additional tread, bent 9,500 17,000
130.B2Sill step or additional tread, having wrong dimensions or improperly located 5,500 10,000
130.B3Sill step improperly applied 5,500 10,000
132.A1Side door step missing step 13,000 20,500
132.A2Side door step broken 13,000 20,500
132.A3Side door step loose 9,500 17,000
132.B1Side door step bent 9,500 17,000
132.B2Side door step having wrong dimensions 5,500 10,000
134.A1Ladder missing 13,000 20,500
134.A2Ladder broken 13,000 20,500
134.A3Ladder loose 9,500 17,000
134.B1Ladder bent 9,500 17,000
134.B2Ladder having wrong dimensions 5,500 10,000
134.C1Ladder improperly applied 5,500 10,000
134.C2Ladder having insufficient clearance or improperly located 5,500 10,000
134.C3Ladder wrong design 5,500 10,000
134.C4Ladder wrong material 5,500 10,000
134.D1End clearance insufficient 5,500 10,000
136.A1Ladder tread or handholds missing 13,000 20,500
136.A2Ladder tread or handhold broken 13,000 20,500
136.A3Ladder tread or handhold loose except by design 9,500 17,000
136.B1Ladder tread or handhold bent to the extent that it may be unsafe 9,500 17,000
136.B2Ladder tread or handhold wrong dimensions 5,500 10,000
136.C1Ladder tread or handhold improperly applied 5,500 10,000
136.C2Ladder tread or handhold having wrong clearance 5,500 10,000
136.C3Ladder or handhold improperly located 5,500 10,000
136.C4Ladder tread or handhold obstructed 9,500 17,000
136.C5Ladder tread without footguards 9,500 17,000
138.A1Hand or safety railing missing 13,000 20,500
138.A2Hand or safety railing broken 13,000 20,500
138.A3Hand or safety railing loose except by design 9,500 17,000
138.B1Hand or safety railing bent 9,500 17,000
138.B2Hand or safety railing wrong dimensions 5,500 10,000
138.C1Hand or safety railing improperly applied 5,500 10,000
138.C2Hand or safety railing having less than the required clearance 5,500 10,000
138.C3Hand or safety railing improperly located 5,500 10,000
140.A1Uncoupling lever missing 9,500 17,000
140.A2Uncoupling lever broken or disconnected 9,500 17,000
140.B1Uncoupling lever bent will not safely and reasonably function as intended 9,500 17,000
140.C1Uncoupling lever bracket bent lever will not function properly 9,500 17,000
140.C2Uncoupling lever bracket broken or missing 9,500 17,000
140.D1Uncoupling lever wrong dimension 5,500 10,000
140.D2Uncoupling lever with improper handle clearance 5,500 10,000
144.A1Coupler missing 13,000 20,500
144.B1Coupler height incorrect 5,500 10,000
144.C1Coupler inoperative 9,500 17,000
145.A1Kick plates missing 5,500 10,000
145.A2Kick plates broken 5,500 10,000
145.B1Kick plates wrong dimensions 5,500 10,000
145.B2Kick plates improper clearance 5,500 10,000
145.B3Kick plates insecure or improperly applied 5,500 10,000
146.ANotice or stencil not posted on cabooses with running boards removed 2,500 5,000
146.BSafe means not provided to clean or maintain windows of caboose 2,500 5,000
231.31Drawbars, standard height 9,500 17,000

PART 232—[AMENDED] Back to Top

38. The authority citation for part 232 continues to read as follows:

Authority:

49 U.S.C. 20102-20103, 20107, 20133, 20141, 20301-20303, 20306, 21301-21302, 21304; 28 U.S.C. 2461, note; and 49 CFR 1.49.

39. Appendix A to part 232 is revised to read as follows:

Appendix A to Part 232—Schedule of Civil Penalties1 Back to Top
Section2 Violation Willful violation
1A penalty may be assessed against an individual only for a willful violation. Generally, when two or more violations of these regulations are discovered with respect to a single unit of equipment that is placed or continued in service by a railroad, the appropriate penalties set forth above are aggregated up to a maximum of $25,000 per day. Although the penalties listed for failure to perform the brake inspections and tests under § 232.205 through § 232.209 may be assessed for each train that is not properly inspected, failure to perform any of the inspections and tests required under those sections will be treated as a violation separate and distinct from, and in addition to, any substantive violative conditions found on the equipment contained in the train consist. Moreover, the Administrator reserves the right to assess a penalty of up to $100,000 for any violation where circumstances warrant. See 49 CFR part 209, appendix A.
Failure to observe any condition for movement of defective equipment set forth in § 232.15(a) will deprive the railroad of the benefit of the movement-for-repair provision and make the railroad and any responsible individuals liable for penalty under the particular regulatory section(s) concerning the substantive defect(s) present on the equipment at the time of movement.
Failure to provide any of the records or plans required by this part pursuant to § 232.19 will be considered a failure to maintain or develop the record or plan and will make the railroad liable for penalty under the particular regulatory section(s) concerning the retention or creation of the document involved.
Failure to properly perform any of the inspections specifically referenced in §§ 232.209, 232.213, and 232.217 may be assessed under each section of this part or this chapter, or both, that contains the requirements for performing the referenced inspection.
2The penalty schedule uses section numbers from 49 CFR part 232. If more than one item is listed as a type of violation of a given section, each item is also designated by a “penalty code,” which is used to facilitate assessment of civil penalties, and which may or may not correspond to any subsection designation(s). For convenience, penalty citations will cite the CFR section and the penalty code, if any. FRA reserves the right, should litigation become necessary, to substitute in its complaint the CFR citation in place of the combined CFR and penalty code citation, should they differ.
Subpart A—General    
232.15Movement of power brake defects:    
(a) Improper movement, general (1) (1)
(11) Failure to make determinations and provide notification of en route defect $9,500 $17,000
(b) Complete failure to tag 9,500 17,000
(1) Insufficient tag or record 2,500 5,000
(2), (4) Improper removal of tag 9,500 17,000
(3) Failure to retain record of tag 9,500 17,000
(c) Improper loading or purging 9,500 17,000
(e) Improper placement of defective equipment 9,500 17,000
232.19Availability of records (1) (1)
Subpart B—General Requirements    
232.103All train brake systems:    
(a)-(c), (h)-(i) Failure to meet general design requirements 9,500 17,000
(d) Failure to have proper percentage of operative brakes from Class I brake test 13,000 20,500
(e) Operating with less than 85 percent operative brakes 13,000 20,500
(f) Improper use of car with inoperative or ineffective brakes 9,500 17,000
(g) Improper display of piston travel 9,500 17,000
(m) Failure to stop train with excess air flow or gradient 9,500 17,000
(n) Securement of unattended equipment:
(1) Failure to apply sufficient number of hand brakes; failure to develop or implement procedure to verify number applied 13,000 20,500
(2) Failure to reduce to zero or vent brake pipe 9,500 17,000
(3) Failure to apply hand brakes on locomotives 9,500 17,000
(4) Failure to adopt or comply with procedures for securing unattended locomotive 13,000 20,500
(o) Improper adjustment of air regulating devices 9,500 17,000
(p) Failure to hold supervisors jointly responsible 9,500 17,000
232.105Locomotives:    
(a) Air brakes not in safe and suitable condition 13,000 20,500
(b) Not equipped with proper hand or parking brake 13,000 20,500
(c)(1) Failure to inspect/repair hand or parking brake 9,500 17,000
(2) Failure to properly stencil, tag, or record 5,500 10,000
(d) Excess leakage from equalizing reservoir 9,500 17,000
(e) Improper use of feed or regulating valve braking 9,500 17,000
(f) Improper use of passenger position 9,500 17,000
(g) Brakes in operative condition 13,000 20,500
232.107Air sources/cold weather operations:    
(a)(1), (2) Failure to adopt or comply with monitoring program for yard air sources 13,000 20,500
(3) Failure to maintain records 9,500 17,000
(b) Failure to blow condensation 13,000 20,500
(c) Use of improper chemicals 13,000 20,500
(d) Failure to equip or drain yard air reservoirs 13,000 20,500
(e) Failure to adopt or comply cold weather operating procedures 13,000 20,500
232.109Dynamic brakes:    
(a) Failure to provide information 9,500 17,000
(b) Failure to make repairs 9,500 17,000
(c) Failure to properly tag 5,500 10,000
(d) Failure to maintain record of repair 2,500 5,000
(e) Improper deactivation 9,500 17,000
(f) Improper use of locomotive as controlling unit 9,500 17,000
(g) Locomotive not properly equipped with indicator 9,500 17,000
(h) Rebuilt locomotive not properly equipped 9,500 17,000
(j) Failure to adopt or comply with dynamic brake operating rules 13,000 20,500
(k) Failure to adopt or comply with training on operating procedures 13,000 20,500
232.111Train handling information:    
(a) Failure to adopt and comply with procedures 13,000 20,500
(b) Failure to provide specific information 9,500 17,000
Subpart C—Inspection and Testing Requirements    
232.203Training requirements:    
(a) Failure to develop or adopt program 19,500 25,000
(b)(1)-(9) Failure to address or comply with specific required item or provision of program 9,500 17,000
(c) Failure to adopt or comply with two-way EOT program 13,000 20,500
(d) Failure to adopt or comply with retaining valve program 13,000 20,500
(e) Failure to maintain adequate records 13,000 20,500
(f) Failure to adopt and comply with periodic assessment plan 19,500 25,000
232.205Class I brake test—initial terminal inspection:    
(a) Complete failure to perform inspection (1) 19,500 25,000
(c)(1)-(4), (6)-(8) Partial failure to perform inspection 13,000 20,500
(c)(5) Failure to properly adjust piston travel (per car) 9,500 17,000
(d) Failure to use carman when required 5,500 10,000
(e) Failure to provide proper notification 9,500 17,000
(f) Failure to void compressed air 9,500 17,000
232.207Class IA brake tests—1,000-mile inspection:    
(a) Complete failure to perform inspection (1) 13,000 20,500
(b)(1)-(6) Partial failure to perform inspection 9,500 17,000
(c) Failure to properly designate location 9,500 17,000
(c)(1) Failure to perform at designated location 9,500 17,000
(c)(2) Failure to provide notification 9,500 17,000
232.209Class II brake tests—intermediate inspection:    
(a) Complete failure to perform inspection (1) 13,000 20,500
(b)(1)-(5), (c) Partial failure to perform inspection 9,500 17,000
(c) Failure to conduct Class I after Class II pick-up (1) (1)
232.211Class III brake tests—trainline continuity inspection:    
(a) Complete failure to perform inspection 13,000 20,500
(b)(1)-(4), (c) Partial failure to perform inspection 9,500 17,000
(d) Failure to restore air pressure at rear 9,500 17,000
232.213Extended haul trains:    
(a)(1) Failure to properly designate an extended haul train 13,000 20,500
(a)(2)-(3), (5)(i), (8) Failure to perform inspections (1) (1)
(a)(4) Failure to remove defective car (per car) 5,500 10,000
(a)(5)(ii), (6) Failure to conduct inbound inspection 13,000 20,500
(a)(7) Failure to maintain record of defects (per car) 5,500 10,000
(b) Improper movement or use of extended haul train 13,000 20,500
232.215Transfer train brake tests:    
(a) Failure to perform inspection 13,000 20,500
(b) Failure to perform on cars added 9,500 17,000
232.217Train brake system tests conducted using yard air:    
(a) Failure to use suitable device 9,500 17,000
(b) Improper connection of air test device 13,000 20,500
(c) Failure to properly perform inspection (1) (1)
(d) Failure to calibrate test device 9,500 17,000
(e) Failure to use accurate device 9,500 17,000
232.219Double heading and helper service:    
(a) Failure to perform inspection or inability to control brakes 9,500 17,000
(b) Failure to make visual inspection 9,500 17,000
(c) Use of improper helper link device 9,500 17,000
Subpart D—Periodic Maintenance and Testing Requirements    
232.303 General requirements:    
(b)-(d) Failure to conduct inspection or test when car on repair track 9,500 17,000
(e) Improper movement of equipment for testing 9,500 17,000
(e)(1) Failure to properly tag equipment for movement 5,500 10,000
(e)(2)-(4) Failure to retain record or improper removal of tag or card 5,500 10,000
(f) Failure to stencil or track test information 9,500 17,000
232.305Single car tests:    
(a) Failure to test in accord with required procedure 9,500 17,000
(b)-(c) Failure to perform test 9,500 17,000
232.309Single car air brake test equipment and devices:    
(a)-(f) Failure to properly test or calibrate 9,500 17,000
Subpart E—End-of-Train Devices    
232.403Design standards for one-way devices:    
(a)-(g) Failure to meet standards 9,500 17,000
232.405Design standards for two-way devices:
(a)-(i) Failure to meet standards 9,500 17,000
232.407Operating requirements for two-way devices:    
(b) Failure to equip a train 13,000 20,500
(c) Improper purchase 9,500 17,000
(f)(1) Failure of device to be armed and operable 13,000 20,500
(f)(2) Insufficient battery charge 9,500 17,000
(f)(3) Failure to activate the device 9,500 17,000
(g) Improper handling of en route failure, freight or other non-passenger 13,000 20,500
(h) Improper handling of en route failure, passenger 13,000 20,500
232.409Inspection and testing of devices:    
(a) Failure to have unique code 9,500 17,000
(b) Failure to compare quantitative values 9,500 17,000
(c) Failure to test emergency capability 13,000 20,500
(d) Failure to properly calibrate 9,500 17,000
Subpart F—Introduction of New Brake System Technology    
232.503Process to introduce new technology:    
(b) Failure to obtain FRA approval 19,500 25,000
232.505Pre-revenue service acceptance testing plan:
(a) Failure to obtain FRA approval 13,000 20,500
(b) Failure to comply with plan 9,500 17,000
(f) Failure to test previously used technology 13,000 20,500
Subpart G—Electronically Controlled Pneumatic (ECP) Braking Systems    
232.603Design, interoperability, and configuration management requirements:    
(a) Failure to meet minimum standards 5,500 10,000
(b) Using ECP brake equipment without approval 9,500 17,000
(c) Failure to adopt and comply with a proper configuration management plan 13,000 20,500
232.605Training Requirements:    
(a) Failure to adopt and comply with a proper training, qualification, and designation program for employees that perform inspection, testing or maintenance (1) (1)
(b) Failure to amend operating rules 13,000 20,500
(c) Failure to adopt and comply with proper training criteria for locomotive engineers 13,000 20,500
232.607Inspection and testing requirements:    
(a)(1), (b), (c)(1) Complete or partial failure to perform inspection (1) (1)
(a)(2) Complete or partial failure to perform pre-departure inspection 9,500 17,000
(c)(1)(iv), (c)(2) Failure to perform visual inspection on a car added en route 9,500 17,000
(d) Failure to perform inspection (1) (1)
(e)(1), (2) Failure to properly initialize the train 9,500 17,000
(e)(3) Failure to ensure identical consist and system information 9,500 17,000
(f)(1) Failure to apply a proper brake pipe service reduction (1) (1)
(f)(2) Failure to properly adhere to the proper piston travel ranges (1) (1)
(g)(1)-(4) Improperly located and guarded cable 13,000 20,500
(g)(5) Condition of cable and connections 9,500 17,000
232.609Handling of defective equipment with ECP brake systems:    
(a) Failure to have proper percentage of operative brakes from Class I brake test (1) (1)
(b) Failure to prevent a car known to arrive with defective brakes to depart location where a Class I brake test is required 9,500 17,000
(c) Improper movement of a car equipped with conventional pneumatic brakes 9,500 17,000
(d) Operating with less than 85 percent operative brakes (1) (1)
(f)(2)(i) Improper placement of defective conventional brake equipment (1) (1)
(f)(2)(ii) Improper placement of defective ECP brake equipment 9,500 17,000
(g) Improper movement of defective stand-alone ECP brake equipment in a train operating with conventional pneumatic brakes (1) (1)
(h) Improper movement from initial terminal of stand-alone ECP brake equipment in a conventional brake operated train (1) (1)
(i) Failure to tag equipment (1) (1)
(j)(1) Failure to adopt and comply with procedures for the movement of defective equipment 5,500 10,000
(j)(2) Failure to submit list of ECP brake system repair locations 9,500 17,000
232.611Periodic maintenance:    
(a) Failure to ensure the proper and safe condition of car 9,500 17,000
(b)-(d) Failure to perform test 9,500 17,000
232.613End-of-train devices:    
(a) Failure to meet design standards for ECP-EOT devices 9,500 17,000
(b) Moving with an improper or improperly connected ECP-EOT device 9,500 17,000

PART 233—[AMENDED] Back to Top

40. The authority citation for part 233 continues to read as follows:

Authority:

49 U.S.C. 20103, 20107; 28 U.S.C. 2461, note; and 49 CFR 1.49.

41. Appendix A to part 233 is revised to read as follows:

Appendix A to Part 233—Schedule of Civil Penalties1 Back to Top
Section2 Violation Willful violation
1A penalty may be assessed against an individual only for a willful violation. The Administrator reserves the right to assess a penalty of up to $100,000 for any violation where circumstances warrant. See 49 CFR part 209, appendix A.
2The penalty schedule uses section numbers from 49 CFR part 233. If more than one item is listed as a type of violation of a given section, each item is also designated by a “penalty code,” which is used to facilitate assessment of civil penalties, and which may or may not correspond to any subsection designation(s). For convenience, penalty citations will cite the CFR section and the penalty code, if any. FRA reserves the right, should litigation become necessary, to substitute in its complaint the CFR citation in place of the combined CFR and penalty code citation, should they differ.
233.5Accidents resulting from signal failure $9,500 $17,000
233.7Signal failure reports 5,500 10,000
233.9Reports 2,500 5,000

PART 234—[AMENDED] Back to Top

42. The authority citation for part 234 continues to read as follows:

Authority:

49 U.S.C. 20103, 20107; 28 U.S.C. 2461, note; and 49 CFR 1.49.

43. Appendix A to part 234 is revised to read as follows:

Appendix A to Part 234—Schedule of Civil Penalties1 Back to Top
Section2 Violation Willful violation
1A penalty may be assessed against an individual only for a willful violation. The Administrator reserves the right to assess a penalty of up to $100,000 for any violation where circumstances warrant. See 49 CFR part 209, appendix A.
2The penalty schedule uses section numbers from 49 CFR part 234. If more than one item is listed as a type of violation of a given section, each item is also designated by a “penalty code,” which is used to facilitate assessment of civil penalties, and which may or may not correspond to any subsection designation(s). For convenience, penalty citations will cite the CFR section and the penalty code, if any. FRA reserves the right, should litigation become necessary, to substitute in its complaint the CFR citation in place of the combined CFR and penalty code citation, should they differ.
Subpart B—Reports    
234.7Accidents involving grade crossing signal failure $9,500 $17,000
234.9Grade crossing signal system failure reports 5,500 10,000
Subpart C—Response to Reports of Warning System Malfunction    
234.101Employee notification rules 5,500 10,000
234.103Timely response to report of malfunction 13,000 20,500
234.105Activation failure:    
(a) Failure to notify—train crews 19,500 25,000
Other railroads 19,500 25,000
(b) Failure to notify law enforcement agency 5,500 10,000
(c) Failure to comply with—flagging requirements 13,000 20,500
Speed restrictions 13,000 20,500
(d) Failure to activate horn or whistle 5,500 10,000
234.106 Partial activation:    
(a) Failure to notify—train crews 9,500 17,000
Other railroads 9,500 17,000
(b) Failure to notify law enforcement agency 5,500 10,000
(c) Failure to comply with—flagging requirements speed restrictions 9,500 17,000
(d) Failure to activate horn or whistle 5,500 10,000
234.107 False activation:    
(a) Failure to notify—train crews 13,000 20,500
Other railroads 13,000 20,500
(b) Failure to notify law enforcement agency 5,500 10,000
(c) Failure to comply with—flagging requirements 9,500 17,000
Speed restrictions 9,500 17,000
(d) Failure to activate horn or whistle 5,500 10,000
234.109 Recordkeeping 2,500 5,000
Subpart D—Maintenance, Inspection, and Testing    
Maintenance Standards    
234.201Location of plans 5,500 10,000
234.203Control circuits 9,500 17,000
234.205Operating characteristics of warning system apparatus 13,000 20,500
234.207Adjustment, repair, or replacement of component 13,000 20,500
234.209Interference with normal functioning of system 19,500 25,000
234.211Locking of warning system apparatus 5,500 10,000
234.213Grounds 9,500 17,000
234.215Standby power system 19,500 25,000
234.217Flashing light units 5,500 10,000
234.219Gate arm lights and light cable 5,500 10,000
234.221Lamp voltage 9,500 17,000
234.223Gate arm 5,500 10,000
234.225Activation of warning system 19,500 25,000
234.227Train detection apparatus 19,500 25,000
234.229Shunting sensitivity 19,500 25,000
234.231Fouling wires 13,000 20,500
234.233Rail joints 13,000 20,500
234.235Insulated rail joints 19,500 25,000
234.237Switch equipped with circuit controller 5,500 10,000
234.239Tagging of wires and interference of wires or tags with signal apparatus 5,500 10,000
234.241Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire 9,500 17,000
234.243Wire on pole line and aerial cable 9,500 17,000
234.245Signs 5,500 10,000
Inspections and Tests    
234.247Purpose of inspections and tests; removal from service of relay or device failing to meet test requirements 13,000 20,500
234.249Ground tests 13,000 20,500
234.251Standby power 9,500 17,000
234.253Flashing light units and lamp voltage 5,500 10,000
234.255Gate arm and gate mechanism 5,500 10,000
234.257Warning system operation 13,000 20,500
234.259Warning time 9,500 17,000
234.261Highway traffic signal pre-emption 9,500 17,000
234.263Relays 9,500 17,000
234.265Timing relays and timing devices 9,500 17,000
234.267Insulation resistance tests, wires in trunking and cables 9,500 17,000
234.269Cut-out circuits 19,500 25,000
234.271Insulated rail joints, bond wires, and track connections 9,500 17,000
234.273Results of tests 2,500 5,000
Requirements for Processor-Based Systems    
234.275Processor-Based Systems 13,000 20,500

PART 235—[AMENDED] Back to Top

44. The authority citation for part 235 continues to read as follows:

Authority:

49 U.S.C. 20103, 20107; 28 U.S.C. 2461, note; and 49 CFR 1.49.

45. Appendix A to part 235 is revised to read as follows:

Appendix A to Part 235—Schedule of Civil Penalties1 Back to Top
Section2 Violation Willful violation
1A penalty may be assessed against an individual only for a willful violation. The Administrator reserves the right to assess a penalty of up to $100,000 for any violation where circumstances warrant. See 49 CFR part 209, appendix A.
2The penalty schedule uses section numbers from 49 CFR part 235. If more than one item is listed as a type of violation of a given section, each item is also designated by a “penalty code,” which is used to facilitate assessment of civil penalties, and which may or may not correspond to any subsection designation(s). For convenience, penalty citations will cite the CFR section and the penalty code, if any. FRA reserves the right, should litigation become necessary, to substitute in its complaint the CFR citation in place of the combined CFR and penalty code citation, should they differ.
235.5Changes requiring filing of application $5,500 $10,000

PART 236—[AMENDED] Back to Top

46. The authority citation for part 236 continues to read as follows:

Authority:

49 U.S.C. 20103, 20107; 28 U.S.C. 2461, note and 49 CFR 1.49.

47. Appendix A to part 236 is revised to read as follows:

Appendix A to Part 236—Schedule of Civil Penalties1 Back to Top
Section2 Violation Willful violation
1A penalty may be assessed against an individual only for a willful violation. The Administrator reserves the right to assess a penalty of up to $100,000 for any violation where circumstances warrant. See 49 CFR part 209, appendix A.
2The penalty schedule uses section numbers from 49 CFR part 236. If more than one item is listed as a type of violation of a given section, each item is also designated by a “penalty code,” which is used to facilitate assessment of civil penalties, and which may or may not correspond to any subsection designation(s). For convenience, penalty citations will cite the CFR section and the penalty code, if any. FRA reserves the right, should litigation become necessary, to substitute in its complaint the CFR citation in place of the combined CFR and penalty code citation, should they differ.
236.0Applicability, minimum requirements $9,500 $17,000
Subpart A—Rules and Instructions—All Systems    
General    
236.1Plans, where kept 13,000 20,500
236.2Grounds 13,000 20,500
236.3Locking of signal apparatus housings:    
Power interlocking machine cabinet not secured against unauthorized entry 5,500 10,000
Other violations 5,500 10,000
236.4Interference with normal functioning of device 19,500 25,000
236.5Design of control circuits on closed circuit principle 19,500 25,000
236.6Hand-operated switch equipped with switch circuit controller 13,000 20,500
236.7Circuit controller operated by switch-and-lock movement 13,000 20,500
236.8Operating characteristics of electro-magnetic, electronic, or electrical apparatus 9,500 17,000
236.9 Selection of circuits through indicating or annunciating instruments 5,500 10,000
236.10Electric locks, force drop type; where required 5,500 10,000
236.11Adjustment, repair, or replacement of component 13,000 20,500
236.12Spring switch signal protection; where required 9,500 17,000
236.13Spring switch; selection of signal control circuits through circuit controller 9,500 17,000
236.14Spring switch signal protection; requirements 9,500 17,000
236.15Timetable instructions 5,500 10,000
236.16Electric lock, main track releasing circuit:    
Electric lock releasing circuit on main track extends into fouling circuit where turnout not equipped with derail at clearance point either pipe-connected to switch or independently locked, electrically 13,000 20,500
Other violations 13,000 20,500
236.17Pipe for operating connections, requirements 5,500 10,000
236.18Software management control plan:    
(a) Failure to develop and adopt a plan 9,500 17,000
(b) Failure to fully implement plan 9,500 17,000
(c) Inadequate plan 9,500 17,000
Roadway Signals and Cab Signals    
236.21Location of roadway signals 13,000 20,500
236.22Semaphore signal arm; clearance to other objects 5,500 10,000
236.23Aspects and indications 9,500 17,000
236.24Spacing of roadway signals 13,000 20,500
236.26Buffing device, maintenance 13,000 20,500
Track Circuits    
236.51Track circuit requirements:    
(a) Shunt fouling circuit used where permissible speed through turnout greater than 45 m.p.h 13,000 20,500
(b) Track relay not in de-energized position or device that functions as track relay not in its most restrictive state when train, locomotive, or car occupies any part of track circuit, except fouling section of turnout of hand-operated main-track crossover 19,500 25,000
Other violations 13,000 20,500
236.52Relayed cut-section 13,000 20,500
236.53Track circuit feed at grade crossing 13,000 20,500
236.54Minimum length of track circuit 13,000 20,500
236.55Dead section; maximum length 13,000 20,500
236.56Shunting sensitivity 13,000 20,500
236.57Shunt and fouling wires:    
(a) Shunt or fouling wires do not consist of at least two discrete conductors 13,000 20,500
Other violations 9,500 17,000
236.58Turnout, fouling section:    
Rail joint in shunt fouling section not bonded 13,000 20,500
Other violations 9,500 17,000
236.59Insulated rail joints 13,000 20,500
236.60Switch shunting circuit; use restricted 13,000 20,500
Wires and Cables    
236.71Signal wires on pole line and aerial cable 13,000 20,500
236.73Open-wire transmission line; clearance to other circuits 9,500 17,000
236.74Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire 9,500 17,000
236.76Tagging of wires and interference of wires or tags with signal apparatus 5,500 10,000
Inspections and Tests; All Systems    
236.101Purpose of inspection and tests; removal from service or relay or device failing to meet test requirements 9,500 17,000
236.102Semaphore or search-light signal mechanism 13,000 20,500
236.103Switch circuit controller or point detector 13,000 20,500
236.104Shunt fouling circuit 9,500 17,000
236.105Electric lock 9,500 17,000
236.106Relays 9,500 17,000
236.107Ground tests 9,500 17,000
236.108Insulation resistance tests, wires in trunking and cables:    
(c) Circuit permitted to function on a conductor having insulation resistance value less than 200,000 ohms 13,000 20,500
Other violations 9,500 17,000
236.109Time releases, timing relays and timing devices 9,500 17,000
236.110Results of tests 2,500 5,000
Subpart B—Automatic Block Signal Systems    
Standards    
236.201Track circuit control of signals 13,000 20,500
236.202Signal governing movements over hand-operated switch 13,000 20,500
236.203Hand-operated crossover between main tracks; protection 13,000 20,500
236.204Track signaled for movements in both directions, requirements 13,000 20,500
236.205Signal control circuits; requirements 19,500 25,000
236.206Battery or power supply with respect to relay; location 9,500 17,000
236.207Electric lock on hand-operated switch; control:    
Approach or time locking of electric lock on hand-operated switch can be defeated by unauthorized use of emergency device which is not kept sealed in the non-release position 13,000 20,500
Other violations 9,500 17,000
Subpart C—Interlocking    
Standards    
236.301Where signals shall be provided 9,500 17,000
236.302Track circuits and route locking 13,000 17,000
236.303Control circuits for signals, selection through circuit controller operated by switch points or by switch locking mechanism 13,000 20,500
236.304Mechanical locking or same protection effected by circuits 13,000 20,500
236.305Approach or time locking 13,000 20,500
236.306Facing point lock or switch-and-lock movement 9,500 17,000
236.307Indication locking: 13,000 20,500
236.308Mechanical or electric locking or electric circuits; requisites 13,000 20,500
236.309Loss of shunt protection; where required:    
Loss ofshunt of five seconds or less permits release of route locking of power-operated switch, movable point frog, or derail 13,000 20,500
Other violations 9,500 17,000
236.310Signal governing approach to home signal 9,500 17,000
236.311Signal control circuits, selection through track relays or devices functioning as track relays and through signal mechanism contacts and time releases at automatic interlocking 13,000 20,500
236.312Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices:    
Emergency bypass switch or device not locked or sealed 13,000 20,500
Other violations 13,000 20,500
236.314Electric lock for hand-operated switch or derail:    
Approach or time locking of electric lock at hand-operated switch or derail can be defeated by unauthorized use of emergency device which is not kept sealed in non-release position 13,000 20,500
Other violations 13,000 20,500
Rules and Instructions    
236.326Mechanical locking removed or disarranged; requirement for permitting train movements through interlocking 9,500 17,000
236.327Switch, movable-point frog or split-point derail 13,000 20,500
236.328Plunger of facing-point 9,500 17,000
236.329Bolt lock 13,000 20,500
236.330Locking dog of switch and lock movement 9,500 17,000
236.334Point detector 13,000 20,500
236.335Dogs, stops and trunnions of mechanical locking 5,500 10,000
236.336Locking bed 5,500 10,000
236.337Locking faces of mechanical locking; fit 5,500 10,000
236.338Mechanical locking required in accordance with locking sheet and dog chart 5,500 10,000
236.339Mechanical locking; maintenance requirements 5,500 10,000
236.340Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical levers 5,500 10,000
236.341Latch shoes, rocker links, and quadrants 5,500 10,000
236.342Switch circuit controller 13,000 20,500
Inspection and Tests    
236.376Mechanical locking 9,500 17,000
236.377Approach locking 9,500 17,000
236.378Time locking 9,500 17,000
236.379Route locking 9,500 17,000
236.380Indication locking 9,500 17,000
236.381Traffic locking 9,500 17,000
236.382Switch obstruction test 13,000 20,500
236.383Valve locks, valves, and valve magnets 9,500 17,000
236.384Cross protection 9,500 17,000
236.386Restoring feature on power switches 9,500 17,000
236.387Movable bridge locking 13,000 20,500
Subpart D—Traffic Control Systems Standards    
Standards    
236.401Automatic block signal system and interlocking standards applicable to traffic control systems:    
236.402Signals controlled by track circuits and control operator 19,500 25,000
236.403Signals at controlled point 19,500 25,000
236.404Signals at adjacent control points 19,500 25,000
236.405Track signaled for movements in both directions, change of direction of traffic 19,500 25,000
236.407Approach or time locking; where required 19,500 25,000
236.408Route locking 19,500 25,000
236.410Locking, hand-operated switch; requirements:    
(a) Hand-operated switch on main track not electrically or mechanically locked in normal position where signal not provided to govern movement to main track, movements made at speeds in excess of 20 m.p.h., or train and engine movements may clear main track 13,000 20,500
Hand-operated switch on signaled siding not electrically or mechanically locked in normal position where maximum authorized speed on the siding exceeds 30 m.p.h 13,000 20,500
(b) Approach or time locking of electric lock at hand-operated switch can be defeated by use of emergency release device of electric lock which is not kept sealed in non-release position 13,000 20,500
Other violations 9,500 17,000
Rules and Instructions    
236.426Interlocking rules and instructions applicable to traffic control systems 2,500 5,000
Inspection and Tests    
236.476Interlocking inspections and tests applicable to traffic control systems 2,500 5,000
Subpart E—Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Standards    
Standards    
236.501Forestalling device and speed control 9,500 17,000
236.502Automatic brake application, initiation by restrictive block conditions stopping distance in advance 13,000 20,500
236.503Automatic brake application; initiation when predetermined rate of speed exceeded 13,000 20,500
236.504Operations interconnected with automatic block-signal system 9,500 17,000
236.505Proper operative relation between parts along roadway and parts on locomotive 5,500 10,000
236.506Release of brakes after automatic application 13,000 20,500
236.507Brake application; full service 9,500 17,000
236.508Interference with application of brakes by means of brake valve 9,500 17,000
236.509Two or more locomotives coupled 5,500 10,000
236.511Cab signals controlled in accordance with block conditions stopping distance in advance 9,500 17,000
236.512Cab signal indication when locomotive enters blocks 13,000 20,500
236.513Audible indicator 9,500 17,000
236.514Interconnection of cab signal system with roadway signal system 5,500 10,000
236.515Visibility of cab signals 9,500 17,000
236.516Power supply 5,500 10,000
Rules and Instructions; Roadway    
236.526Roadway element not functioning properly 5,500 10,000
236.527Roadway element insulation resistance 5,500 10,000
236.528Restrictive condition resulting from open hand-operated switch; requirement 9,500 17,000
236.529Roadway element inductor; height and distance from rail 5,500 10,000
236.531Trip arm; height and distance from rail 5,500 10,000
236.532Strap iron inductor; use restricted 5,500 10,000
236.534Entrance to equipped territory; requirements 9,500 17,000
Rules and Instructions; Locomotives    
236.551Power supply voltage 5,500 10,000
236.552Insulation resistance 5,500 10,000
236.553Seal, where required 5,500 10,000
236.554Rate of pressure reduction; equalizing reservoir or brake pipe 9,500 17,000
236.555Repaired or rewound receiver coil 2,500 5,000
236.556Adjustment of relay 5,500 10,000
236.557Receiver; location with respect to rail 5,500 10,000
236.560Contact element, mechanical trip type; location with respect to rail 5,500 10,000
236.562Minimum rail current required 5,500 10,000
236.563Delay time 9,500 17,000
236.564Acknowledging time 5,500 10,000
236.565Provision made for preventing operation of pneumatic brake-applying apparatus by double-heading clock; requirement 5,500 10,000
236.566Locomotive of each train operating in train stop, train control or cab signal territory; equipped 5,500 10,000
236.567Restrictions imposed when device fails and/or is cut out en route:    
Report not made to designated officer at next available point of communication after automatic train stop, train control, or cab signal device fails and/or is cut en route 9,500 17,000
Trains permitted to proceed at speed exceeding 79 m.p.h. where automatic train stop, train control, or cab signal device fails and/or is cut out en route when absolute block established in advance of train on which device is inoperative 9,500 17,000
Other violations 5,500 10,000
236.568Difference between speeds authorized by roadway signal and cab signal; action 5,500 10,000
Inspection and Tests; Roadway    
236.576Roadway element 5,500 10,000
236.577Test, acknowledgement, and cut-in circuits 5,500 10,000
Inspection and Tests; Locomotive    
236.586Daily or after trip test 9,500 17,000
236.587Departure test:    
(b) Test of automatic train stop, train control, or cab signal apparatus on locomotive not made on departure of locomotive from initial terminal if equipment on locomotive not cut out between initial terminal and equipped territory 13,000 20,500
Test of automatic train stop, train control, or cab signal apparatus on locomotive not made immediately on entering equipped territory, if equipment on locomotive cut out between initial terminal and equipped territory 13,000 20,500
(c) Automatic train stop, train control, or cab signal apparatus on locomotive making more than one trip within 24-hour period not given departure test within corresponding 24-hour period 13,000 20,500
(d) Failure to certify, post, or retain test results as required 2,500 5,000
Other violations 2,500 5,000
236.588Periodic test 13,000 20,500
236.589Relays 9,500 17,000
236.590Pneumatic apparatus:    
Automatic train stop, train control, or cab signal apparatus not inspected and cleaned at least once every 736 days 9,500 17,000
Other violations 9,500 17,000
Subpart F—Dragging Equipment and Slide Detectors and Other Similar Protective Devices; Standards    
Standards    
236.601Signals controlled by devices; location 13,000 20,500
Subpart H—Standards for Processor-Based Signal and Train Control Systems    
236.905Railroad Safety Program Plan (RSPP)    
(a) Failure to develop and submit RSPP when required 9,500 17,000
(d) Failure to obtain FRA approval for a modification to RSPP 9,500 17,000
236.907Product Safety Plan (PSP):    
(a) Failure to address required PSP elements 9,500 17,000
(b) Failure to identify or implement product configuration/revision control measures 9,500 17,000
(d) Failure to communicate identified safety critical hazard 19,500 25,000
236.909Minimum Performance Standard:    
(a) Failure to make analyses or documentation available 9,500 17,000
(b) Failure to determine or demonstrate that the minimum performance standard has been met 13,000 20,500
236.913Notification to FRA of PSPs:    
(a) Failure to prepare a PSP or PSP amendment as required 9,500 17,000
(b) Failure to submit a PSP or PSP amendment as required 9,500 17,000
(c) Failure to submit an informational filing 9,500 17,000
(j) Field testing without authorization or approval 19,500 25,000
236.915Implementation and operation:    
(a) Operation of product without authorization or approval 19,500 25,000
(b) Failure to comply with PSP 9,500 17,000
(c) Interference with normal functioning safety-critical product 19,500 25,000
(d) Failure to determine cause and adjust, repair or replace without undue delay or take appropriate action pending repair 9,500 17,000
236.917Retention of records:    
(a) Failure to maintain records as required 9,500 17,000
(b)(1) Failure to report inconsistency 13,000 20,500
(b)(2) Failure to take prompt countermeasures 5,500 10,000
(b)(3) Failure to provide final report 5,500 10,000
236.919Operations and Maintenance Manual 5,500 10,000
236.921Training and qualification program, general 9,500 17,000
236.923Task analysis and basic requirements:    
(a) Failure to develop an acceptable training program 9,500 17,000
(a)(6) Failure to train persons as required 9,500 17,000
(a)(8) Failure to conduct evaluation of training program as required 5,500 10,000
(b) Failure to maintain records as required 2,500 5,000
236.925Training specific to control office personnel 9,500 17,000
236.927Training specific to locomotive engineers and other operating personnel 9,500 17,000
236.929Training specific to roadway workers 9,500 17,000
Subpart I—Positive Train Control Systems    
236.1005Positive Train Control System Requirements:    
Failure to complete PTC system installation on track segment where PTC is required prior to 12/31/2015 5,500 10,000
Commencement of revenue service prior to obtaining PTC System Certification 13,000 20,500
Failure of the PTC system to perform a safety-critical function required by this section 19,500 25,000
Failure to provide notice, obtain approval, or follow a condition for temporary rerouting when required 13,000 20,500
Exceeding the allowed percentage of controlling locomotives operating out of an initial terminal after receiving a failed initialization 2,500 5,000
236.1006 Equipping locomotives operating in PTC territory:    
Operating in PTC territory a controlling locomotive without a required and operative PTC onboard apparatus 19,500 25,000
Failure to report as prescribed by this section 2,500 5,000
Non-compliant operation of unequipped trains in PTC territory 13,000 20,500
236.1007Additional requirements for high-speed service:    
Operation of passenger trains at a speed equal to or greater than 60 m.p.h. on non-PTC-equipped territory where required 9,500 17,000
Operation of freight trains at a speed equal to or greater than 50 m.p.h. on non-PTC-equipped territory where required 9,500 17,000
Failure to fully implement incursion protection where required 9,500 17,000
236.1009Procedural requirements:    
Failure to file PTCIP when required 2,500 5,000
Failure to amend PTCIP when required 2,500 5,000
Failure to obtain Type Approval when required 2,500 5,000
Failure to update NPI 2,500 5,000
Operation of PTC system prior to system certification 13,000 20,500
236.1011PTCIP content requirements:    
Failure to install a PTC system in accordance with subpart I when so required 2,500 5,000
236.1013PTCDP content requirements and Type Approval:    
Failure to maintain quality control system 2,500 5,000
Inappropriate use of Type Approval 2,500 5,000
236.1015PTCSP content requirements and PTC System Certification:    
Failure to implement PTC system in accordance with the associated PTCSP and resultant system certification 9,500 17,000
Failure to maintain PTC system in accordance with the associated PTCSP and resultant system certification 9,500 17,000
Failure to maintain required supporting documentation 2,500 5,000
236.1017Independent third party Verification and Validation:    
Failure to conduct independent third party Verification and Validation when ordered 13,000 20,500
236.1019 Main line track exceptions:    
Revenue operations conducted in non-compliance with the passenger terminal exception 5,500 10,000
Revenue operations conducted in non-compliance with the limited operations exception 5,500 10,000
Failure to request modification of the PTCIP or PTCSP when required 5,500 10,000
Revenue operations conducted in violation of (c)(2) 9,500 17,000
Revenue operations conducted in violation of (c)(3) 9,500 17,000
236.1021Discontinuances, material modifications, and amendments:    
Failure to update PTCDP when required 2,500 5,000
Failure to update PTCSP when required 2,500 5,000
Failure to immediately adopt and comply with approved RFA 2,500 5,000
Discontinuance or modification of a PTC system without approval when required 2,500 5,000
236.1023Errors and malfunctions:    
Railroad failure to provide proper notification of PTC system error or malfunction 2,500 5,000
Failure to maintain PTCPVL 2,500 5,000
Supplier failure to provide proper notification of previously identified PTC system error or malfunction 2,500 5,000
Failure to provide timely notification 2,500 5,000
Failure to provide appropriate protective measures in the event of PTC system failure 5,500 10,000
236.1027Exclusions:    
Integration of primary train control system with locomotive electronic system without approval 9,500 17,000
236.1029PTC system use and en route failures:    
Failure to determine cause of PTC system component failure without undue delay 5,500 10,000
Failure to adjust, repair, or replace faulty PTC system component without undue delay 5,500 10,000
Failure to take appropriate action pending adjustment, repair, or replacement of faulty PTC system component 5,500 10,000
Non-compliant train operation within PTC-equipped territory with inoperative PTC onboard apparatus 9,500 17,000
Interference with the normal functioning of safety-critical PTC system 9,500 17,000
Improper arrangement of the PTC system onboard apparatus 5,500 10,000
236.1033Communications and security requirements:    
Failure to provide cryptographic message integrity and authentication 2,500 5,000
Improper use of revoked cryptographic key 2,500 5,000
Failure to protect cryptographic keys from unauthorized disclosure, modification, or substitution 2,500 5,000
Failure to establish prioritized service restoration and mitigation plan for communication services 2,500 5,000
236.1035Field testing requirements:    
Field testing without authorization or approval 5,500 10,000
236.1037Records retention:    
Failure to maintain records and databases as required 2,500 5,000
Failure to report inconsistency 5,500 10,000
Failure to take prompt countermeasures 5,500 10,000
Failure to provide final report 2,500 5,000
236.1039Operations and Maintenance Manual:    
Failure to implement and maintain Operations and Maintenance Manual as required 2,500 5,000
236.1043Task analysis and basic requirements:    
Failure to develop and maintain an acceptable training program 5,500 10,000
Failure to train persons as required 2,500 5,000
Failure to conduct evaluation of training program as required 2,500 5,000
Failure to maintain records as required 2,500 5,000
236.1045Training specific to office control personnel:    
Failure to conduct training unique to office control personnel 2,500 5,000
236.1047Training specific to locomotive engineers and other operations personnel:    
Failure to conduct training unique to locomotive engineers and other operating personnel 2,500 5,000
236.1049Training specific to roadway workers:    
Failure to conduct training unique to roadway workers 2,500 5,000

PART 238—[AMENDED] Back to Top

48. The authority citation for part 238 continues to read as follows:

Authority:

49 U.S.C. 20103, 20107, 20133, 20141, 20302-20303, 20306, 20701-20702, 21301-21302, 21304; 28 U.S.C. 2461, note; 49 CFR 1.49.

49. Appendix A to part 238 is revised to read as follows:

Appendix A to Part 238—Schedule of Civil Penalties1 Back to Top
Section2 Violation Willful violation
1A penalty may be assessed against an individual only for a willful violation. Generally when two or more violations of these regulations are discovered with respect to a single unit of passenger equipment that is placed or continued in service by a railroad, the appropriate penalties set forth above are aggregated up to a maximum of $25,000 per day. However, failure to perform, with respect to a particular unit of passenger equipment, any of the inspections and tests required under subparts D and F of this part will be treated as a violation separate and distinct from, and in addition to, any substantive violative conditions found on that unit of passenger equipment. Moreover, the Administrator reserves the right to assess a penalty of up to $100,000 for any violation where circumstances warrant. See 49 CFR part 209, appendix A. Failure to observe any condition for movement of defective equipment set forth in § 238.17 will deprive the railroad of the benefit of the movement-for-repair provision and make the railroad and any responsible individuals liable for penalty under the particular regulatory section(s) concerning the substantive defect(s) present on the unit of passenger equipment at the time of movement. Failure to observe any condition for the movement of passenger equipment containing defective safety appliances, other than power brakes, set forth in § 238.17(e) will deprive the railroad of the movement-for-repair provision and make the railroad and any responsible individuals liable for penalty under the particular regulatory section(s) contained in part 231 of this chapter or § 238.429 concerning the substantive defective condition. The penalties listed for failure to perform the exterior and interior mechanical inspections and tests required under § 238.303 and § 238.305 may be assessed for each unit of passenger equipment contained in a train that is not properly inspected. Whereas, the penalties listed for failure to perform the brake inspections and tests under § 238.313 through § 238.319 may be assessed for each train that is not properly inspected.
2The penalty schedule uses section numbers from 49 CFR part 238. If more than one item is listed as a type of violation of a given section, each item is also designated by a “penalty code,” which is used to facilitate assessment of civil penalties, and which may or may not correspond to any subsection designation(s). For convenience, penalty citations will cite the CFR section and the penalty code, if any. FRA reserves the right, should litigation become necessary, to substitute in its complaint the CFR citation in place of the combined CFR and penalty code citation, should they differ.
Subpart A—General    
238.15Movement of power brake defects:    
(b) Improper movement from Class I or IA brake test $13,000 $20,500
(c) Improper movement of en route defect 9,500 17,000
(2), (3) Insufficient tag or record 2,500 5,000
(4) Failure to determine percent operative brakes 9,500 17,000
(d) Failure to follow operating restrictions 13,000 20,500
(e) Failure to follow restrictions for inoperative front or rear unit 9,500 17,000
238.17Movement of other than power brake defects:1
(c)(4), (5) Insufficient tag or record 2,500 5,000
(d) Failure to inspect or improper use of roller bearings 9,500 17,000
(e) Improper movement of defective safety appliances 9,500 17,000
238.19Reporting and tracking defective equipment:    
(a) Failure to have reporting or tracking system 19,500 25,000
(b) Failure to retain records 5,500 10,000
(c) Failure to make records available 2,500 5,000
(d) Failure to list power brake repair points 5,500 10,000
Subpart B—Safety Planning and General Requirements    
238.103Fire protection plan/fire safety:    
(a) Failure to use proper materials 13,000 20,500
(b) Improper certification 5,500 10,000
(c) Failure to consider fire safety on new equipment 13,000 20,500
(d) Failure to perform fire safety analysis 13,000 20,500
(e) Failure to develop, adopt or comply with procedures 13,000 20,500
238.105Train electronic hardware and software safety:    
(a), (b), (c) Failure to develop and maintain hardware and software safety 13,000 20,500
(d) Failure to include required design features 13,000 20,500
(e) Failure to comply with hardware and software safety program 9,500 17,000
238.107Inspection, testing, and maintenance plan:    
(b) Failure to develop plan 13,000 20,500
(b)(1)-(5) Failure of plan to address specific item 9,500 17,000
(d) Failure to conduct annual review 9,500 17,000
238.109Training, qualification, and designation program:    
(a) Failure to develop or adopt program 13,000 20,500
(b)(1)-(4) Failure of plan to address specific item 9,500 17,000
(b)(5)-(12) Failure to comply with specific required provisions of the program 9,500 17,000
(b)(13) Failure to maintain adequate records 5,500 10,000
238.111Pre-revenue service acceptance testing plan:    
(a) Failure to properly test previously used equipment 13,000 20,500
(b)(1) Failure to develop plan 13,000 20,500
(b)(2) Failure to submit plan to FRA 9,500 17,000
(b)(3) Failure to comply with plan 9,500 17,000
(b)(4) Failure to document results of testing 5,500 10,000
(b)(5) Failure to correct safety deficiencies or impose operating limits 9,500 17,000
(b)(6) Failure to maintain records 5,500 10,000
(b)(7) Failure to obtain FRA approval 9,500 17,000
238.113Emergency window exits 9,500 17,000
238.114Rescue access windows 9,500 17,000
238.115Emergency lighting 9,500 17,000
238.117Protection against personal injury 9,500 17,000
238.119Rim-stamped straight-plate wheels 9,500 17,000
238.121Emergency communication 9,500 17,000
238.123Emergency roof access 9,500 17,000
Subpart C—Specific Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment    
238.203Static end strength 9,500 17,000
238.205Anti-climbing mechanism 9,500 17,000
238.207Link between coupling mechanism and car body 9,500 17,000
238.209Forward end structure of locomotives 9,500 17,000
238.211Collision posts 9,500 17,000
238.213Corner posts 9,500 17,000
238.215Rollover strength 9,500 17,000
238.217Side structure 9,500 17,000
238.219Truck-to-car-body attachment 9,500 17,000
238.221Glazing 9,500 17,000
238.223Fuel tanks 9,500 17,000
238.225Electrical system 9,500 17,000
238.227Suspension system 9,500 17,000
238.229Safety appliances—general:    
(e) Failure to properly identify equipment (per car) 9,500 17,000
(g) Failure to adopt or comply with inspection plan 9,500 17,000
(h) Failure to use qualified person (per car) 9,500 17,000
(i) Failure to properly conduct initial or periodic inspection (per car) 9,500 17,000
(j) Failure to take proper remedial action (per car) 9,500 17,000
(k) Failure to maintain records (per car) 5,500 10,000
238.230Safety appliances—new equipment:    
(b)(2) Failure to identify welded appliance (per car) 9,500 17,000
(b)(3) Failure to receive approval for use (per car) 9,500 17,000
(c)(2) Failure to make proper repair (per car) 9,500 17,000
238.231Brake System (a)-(g), (i)-(n) 9,500 17,000
(h)(1), (2) Hand or parking brake missing or inoperative 13,000 20,500
(h)(3) Hand or parking brake inspection or record (per car) 5,500 10,000
(h)(4) Hand or parking brake not applied to hold equipment unattended on grade or prematurely released 13,000 20,500
238.233Interior fittings and surfaces 9,500 17,000
238.235Doors 9,500 17,000
238.237Automated monitoring 9,500 17,000
Subpart D—Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment    
238.303Exterior mechanical inspection of passenger equipment:    
(a)(1) Failure to perform mechanical inspection 19,500 17,000
(a)(2) Failure to inspect secondary brake system 9,500 17,000
(b) Failure to perform inspection on car added to train 19,500 17,000
(c) Failure to utilize properly qualified personnel 9,500 17,000
(e)(1) Products of combustion not released outside cab 9,500 17,000
(e)(2) Battery not vented or gassing excessively 9,500 17,000
(e)(3) Coupler not in proper condition 9,500 17,000
(e)(4) No device under drawbar pins or connection pins 9,500 17,000
(e)(5) Suspension system and spring rigging not in proper condition 9,500 17,000
(e)(6) Truck not in proper condition 9,500 17,000
(e)(7) Side bearing not in proper condition 9,500 17,000
(e)(8) Wheel not in proper condition:
(i), (iv) Flat spot(s) and shelled spot(s):
(A) One spot 21/2″ or more but less than 3″ in length 9,500 17,000
(B) One spot 3″ or more in length 13,000 20,500
(C) Two adjoining spots each of which is 2″ or more in length but less than 21/2″ in length 9,500 17,000
(D) Two adjoining spots each of which are at least 2″ in length, if either spot is 21/2″ or more in length 13,000 20,500
(ii) Gouge or chip in flange:    
(A) More than 11/2″ but less than 15/8″ in length; and more than1/2″ but less than5/8″ in width 9,500 17,000
(B) 15/8″ or more in length and5/8″ or more in width 13,000 20,500
(iii) Broken rim 13,000 20,500
(v) Seam in tread 9,500 17,000
(vi) Flange thickness of:
(A)7/8″ or less but more than 9,500 17,000
(B)13/16″ or less 13,000 20,500
(vii) Tread worn hollow 9,500 17,000
(viii) Flange height of:    
(A) 11/2″ or greater but less than 15/8″ 9,500 17,000
(B) 15/8″ or more 13,000 20,500
(ix) Rim thickness:
(A) Less than 1″ 9,500 17,000
(B)15/16″ or less 13,000 20,500
(x) Crack or break in flange, tread, rim, plate, or hub:    
(A) Crack of less than 1″ 9,500 17,000
(B) Crack of 1″ or more 13,000 20,500
(C) Break 13,000 20,500
(xi) Loose wheel 13,000 20,500
(xii) Welded wheel 13,000 20,500
(e)(10) Improper grounding or insulation 13,000 20,500
(e)(11) Jumpers or cable connections not in proper condition 9,500 17,000
(e)(12) Door or cover plate not properly marked 9,500 17,000
(e)(13) Buffer plate not properly placed 9,500 17,000
(e)(14) Diaphragm not properly placed or aligned 9,500 17,000
(e)(15) Secondary braking system not in operating mode or contains known defect 9,500 17,000
(e)(16) Roller bearings:    
(i) Overheated 13,000 20,500
(ii) Cap screw loose or missing 9,500 17,000
(iii) Cap screw lock broken or missing 5,500 10,000
(iv) Seal loose, damaged, or leaks lubricant 9,500 17,000
(e)(17) Air compressor inoperative 9,500 17,000
(g) Record of inspection:    
(1), (4) Failure to maintain record of inspection 5,500 10,000
(2) Record contains insufficient information 2,500 5,000
238.305Interior mechanical inspection of passenger cars:    
(a) Failure to perform inspection 15,500 10,000
(b) Failure to utilize properly qualified personnel 5,500 10,000
(c)(1) Failure to protect against personal injury 9,500 17,000
(c)(2) Floors not free of condition that creates hazard 9,500 17,000
(c)(3) Access to manual door release not in place 5,500 10,000
(c)(4) Emergency equipment not in place 5,500 10,000
(c)(5) Emergency brake valve not stenciled or marked 5,500 10,000
(c)(6) Door or cover plates not properly marked 5,500 10,000
(c)(7) Safety signage not in place or legible 5,500 10,000
(c)(8) Trap door unsafe or improperly secured 9,500 17,000
(c)(9) Vestibule steps not illuminated 5,500 10,000
(c)(10) Door does not safely operate as intended 9,500 17,000
(c)(11) Seat broken, loose, or not properly attached 9,500 17,000
(e) Record of inspection:    
(1), (4) Failure to maintain record of inspection 5,500 10,000
(2) Record contains insufficient information 2,500 5,000
(f) Record of inspection:    
(1), (4) Failure to maintain record of inspection 5,500 10,000
(2) Record contains insufficient information 2,500 5,000
238.307Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles:    
(a) Failure to perform periodic mechanical inspection 19,500 17,000
(b) Failure to utilize properly qualified personnel 9,500 17,000
(c)(1) Seat or seat attachment broken or loose 9,500 17,000
(c)(2) Luggage rack broken or loose 9,500 17,000
(c)(3) Bed, bunks, or restraints broken or loose 9,500 17,000
(c)(4) Emergency window exit does not properly operate 9,500 17,000
(c)(5) Emergency lighting not operational 9,500 17,000
(c)(6) Switches not in proper condition 9,500 17,000
(c)(7) Coupler not in proper condition 9,500 17,000
(c)(8) Truck not equipped with securing arrangement 9,500 17,000
(c)(9) Truck center casting cracked or broken 13,000 20,500
(c)(10) General conditions endangering crew, passengers 9,500 17,000
(c)(13) Hand or parking brake test not performed 9,500 17,000
(d)(1) Manual door release does not operate as intended 9,500 17,000
(d)(2) Hand or parking brake inspection not performed 9,500 17,000
(e)(1) Failure to maintain record of inspection 5,500 10,000
(i)-(iv) Record contains insufficient information 2,500 5,000
(f)(1) Record of inspection:    
(i) Failure to maintain record of inspection 5,500 10,000
(ii) Record contains insufficient information 2,500 5,000
238.309Periodic brake equipment maintenance:    
(b) Failure to perform on MU locomotive 9,500 17,000
(c) Failure to perform on conventional locomotive 9,500 17,000
(d) Failure to perform on passenger coaches or other unpowered vehicle 9,500 17,000
(e) Failure to perform on cab car 9,500 17,000
(f) Record of periodic maintenance:    
(1), (2) Failure to maintain record or stencil 5,500 10,000
238.311Single car tests:    
(a) Failure to test in accord with required procedure 9,500 17,000
(b) Failure to utilize properly qualified personnel 9,500 17,000
(c), (e) Failure to perform single car test 9,500 17,000
(f) Improper movement of car for testing 5,500 10,000
(g) Failure to test after repair or replacement of component 5,500 10,000
238.313Class I brake test:    
(a) Failure to perform on commuter or short-distance intercity passenger train 119,500 25,000
(b) Failure to perform on long-distance intercity passenger train 119,500 25,000
(c) Failure to perform on cars added to passenger train 113,000 20,500
(d) Failure to utilized properly qualified personnel 13,000 20,500
(f) Passenger train used from Class I brake test with less than 100% operative brakes 13,000 20,500
(g) Partial failure to perform inspection on a passenger train 13,000 20,500
(3) Failure to adjust piston travel (per car) 9,500 17,000
(h) Failure to maintain record 5,500 10,000
(j) Failure to perform additional Class I brake test 13,000 20,500
(j)(3) Failure to maintain record 5,500 10,000
238.315Class IA brake test:    
(a) Failure to perform inspection 113,000 20,500
(d) Failure to utilize properly qualified personnel 9,500 17,000
(e) Passenger train used from Class IA brake test with improper percentage of operative brakes 13,000 20,500
(f) Partial failure to perform inspection on passenger train 9,500 17,000
238.317Class II brake test:    
(a) Failure to perform inspection 19,500 17,000
(b) Failure to utilize properly qualified personnel 9,500 17,000
(c) Improper use of defective equipment from Class II brake test 9,500 17,000
238.319Running brake test:    
(a), (b) Failure to perform test 5,500 10,000
238.321Out-of-service credit 5,500 10,000
Subpart E—Specific Requirements for Tier II Passenger Equipment    
238.403Crash energy management 9,500 17,000
238.405Longitudinal static compressive strength 9,500 17,000
238.407Anti-climbing mechanism 9,500 17,000
238.409Forward end structures of power car cabs:    
(a) Center collision post 9,500 17,000
(b) Side collision posts 9,500 17,000
(c) Corner posts 9,500 17,000
(d) Skin 9,500 17,000
238.411Rear end structures of power car cabs:    
(a) Corner posts 9,500 17,000
(b) Collision posts 9,500 17,000
238.413End structures of trailer cars 9,500 17,000
238.415Rollover strength 9,500 17,000
238.417Side loads 9,500 17,000
238.419Truck-to-car-body and truck component attachment 9,500 17,000
238.421Glazing:    
(b) End-facing exterior glazing 9,500 17,000
(c) Alternate glazing requirements 9,500 17,000
(d) Glazing securement 9,500 17,000
(e) Stenciling 5,500 10,000
238.423Fuel tanks:    
(a) External fuel tanks 9,500 17,000
(b) Internal fuel tanks 9,500 17,000
238.425Electrical system:    
(a) Circuit protection 9,500 17,000
(b) Main battery system 9,500 17,000
(c) Power dissipation resistors 9,500 17,000
(d) Electromagnetic interference and compatibility 9,500 17,000
238.427Suspension system 9,500 17,000
238.429Safety Appliances:    
(a) Couplers 13,000 20,500
(b) Hand/parking brakes 13,000 20,500
(d) Handrail or handhold missing 9,500 17,000
(d)(1)-(8) Handrail or handhold improper design 9,500 17,000
(e) Sill step missing 13,000 20,500
(e)(1)-(11) Sill step improper design 9,500 17,000
(g) Optional safety appliances 9,500 17,000
238.431Brake system 9,500 17,000
238.433Draft System 9,500 17,000
238.435Interior fittings and surfaces 9,500 17,000
238.437[Reserved]    
238.439Doors:    
(a) Exterior side doors 9,500 17,000
(b) Manual override feature 9,500 17,000
(c) Notification to crew of door status 9,500 17,000
(d) Emergency back-up power 9,500 17,000
(f) End door kick-out panel or pop-out window 9,500 17,000
238.441Emergency roof access 9,500 17,000
238.443Headlights 9,500 17,000
238.445Automated monitoring 9,500 17,000
238.447Train operator's controls and power car cab layout 9,500 17,000
Subpart F—Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance Requirements for Tier II Passenger Equipment    
238.503Inspection, testing, and maintenance requirements:    
(a) Failure to develop inspection, testing, and maintenance program or obtain FRA approval 19,500 25,000
(b) Failure to comply with provisions of the program 13,000 20,500
(c) Failure to ensure equipment free of conditions which endanger safety of crew, passengers, or equipment 9,500 17,000
(d) Specific safety inspections:    
(1)(i) Failure to perform Class I brake test or equivalent 19,500 25,000
(1)(ii) Partial failure to perform Class I brake test or equivalent 13,000 20,500
(2)(i) Failure to perform exterior mechanical inspection 19,500 17,000
(2)(ii) Failure to perform interior mechanical inspection 15,500 10,000
(g) Failure to perform scheduled maintenance as required in program 9,500 17,000
(h) Failure to comply with training, qualification and designation program 13,000 20,500
(i) Failure to develop or comply with standard procedures for performing inspection, tests, and maintenance 9,500 17,000
(j) Failure to conduct annual review 13,000 20,500
(k) Failure to establish or utilize quality control program 13,000 20,500
Subpart G—Specific Safety Planning Requirements for Tier II Passenger Equipment    
238.603Safety plan:    
(a) Failure to develop safety operating plan 13,000 20,500
(b) Failure to develop procurement plan 13,000 20,500
(1)-(7) Failure to develop portion of plan 9,500 17,000
(c) Failure to maintain documentation 5,500 10,000

PART 239—[AMENDED] Back to Top

50. The authority citation for part 239 continues to read as follows:

Authority:

49 U.S.C. 20102-20103, 20105-20114, 20133, 21301, 21304, and 21311; 28 U.S.C. 2461, note; and 49 CFR 1.49(c), (g), (m).

51 Appendix A to Part 239 is advised to read as follows:

Appendix A to part 239—Schedule of Civil Penalities1 Back to Top
Section2 Violation Willful violation
1A penalty may be assessed against an individual only for a willful violation. The Administrator reserves the right to assess a penalty of up to $100,000 for any violation where circumstances warrant. See 49 U.S.C. 21301, 21304, and 49 CFR part 209, appendix A.
2The penalty schedule uses section numbers from 49 CFR part 239. If more than one item is listed as a type of violation of a given section, each item is also designated by a “penalty code,” which is used to facilitate assessment of civil penalties, and which may or may not correspond to any subsection designation(s). For convenience, penalty citations will cite the CFR section and the penalty code, if any. FRA reserves the right, should litigation become necessary, to substitute in its complaint the CFR citation in place of the combined CFR and penalty code citation, should they differ.
3This section also requires each railroad (subject to part 239) to comply with the adopted emergency preparedness plan. As the severity of a violation for a railroad's failure to comply with an emergency preparedness plan varies depending upon the provision with which the railroad failed to comply, please see the guideline penalty for the particular section of the regulation requiring that provision.
Subpart B—Specific Requirements    
239.101:    
(a) Failure of a railroad to adopt3a written emergency preparedness plan $19,500 $25,000
(a)(1) Failure of the plan to provide for:    
(i) Initial or on-board notifications by an on-board crewmember 9,500 17,000
(ii) Notification of outside emergency responders by control center 9,500 17,000
(a)(2) Failure of the plan to provide for:    
(i) Initial or periodic training of on-board personnel 9,500 17,000
(ii) Initial or periodic training of control center personnel 9,500 17,000
(iii) Completion of initial training of all on-board and control center personnel by the specified date 9,500 17,000
(iv) Completion of initial training of all newly hired on-board and control center personnel by the specified date 9,500 17,000
(v) Adequate procedures to evaluate and test on-board and control center personnel for qualification under the emergency preparedness plan 9,500 17,000
(vi) Adequate on-board staffing 9,500 17,000
(a)(3) Failure of a host railroad involved in joint operations to coordinate applicable portions of the emergency preparedness plan with the railroad or railroads providing or operating a passenger train service operation 9,500 17,000
(a)(4) Failure of the plan to address:    
(i) Readiness procedures for emergencies in tunnels 9,500 17,000
(ii) Readiness procedures for emergencies on an elevated structure or in electrified territory 9,500 17,000
(iii) Coordination efforts involving adjacent rail modes of transportation 9,500 17,000
(a)(5) Failure of the plan to address relationships with on-line emergency responders by providing for:
(i) The development and availability of training programs 9,500 17,000
(ii) Invitations to emergency responders to participate in emergency simulations 9,500 17,000
(iii) Distribution of applicable portions of the current emergency preparedness plan 9,500 17,000
(a)(6) Failure of the plan to provide for, or the railroad to include on board each train and maintain and replace:
(i) Emergency equipment 9,500 17,000
(ii) First-aid kits 9,500 17,000
(iii) Emergency lighting 9,500 17,000
(a)(7) Failure of the plan to provide for emergency instructions inside each passenger car or to include additional safety awareness information 9,500 17,000
239.103Failure to conduct a required full-scale simulation in accordance with the frequency schedule 9,500 17,000
239.105Debriefing and critique:    
(a) Failure to conduct a debriefing and critique session after an emergency or full-scale simulation 9,500 17,000
(d)(1) Failure to maintain a record 5,500 10,000
(i) Failure to include date or location of the emergency or simulation 2,500 5,000
(ii) Failure to include date or location of the debriefing and critique session 2,500 5,000
(iii) Failure to include names of participants in the debriefing and critique session 2,500 5,000
(d)(2) Failure to make record available 2,500 5,000
239.107Emergency exits:    
(a)(1), (a)(2):
(i) Door not marked or instructions not posted 9,500 17,000
(ii) Door improperly marked or instructions improperly posted 9,500 17,000
(b)(1) Failure to provide for scheduled inspection, maintenance, and repair of emergency windows and doors 9,500 17,000
(b)(2):    
(i) Failure to test a representative sample of emergency windows 9,500 17,000
(ii) Emergency windows tested too infrequently 5,500 10,000
(b)(3) Failure to repair an inoperative emergency window or door exit 9,500 17,000
(c):    
(i) Failure to maintain a record 5,500 10,000
(ii) Failure to make record available 2,500 5,000
(d)(1) Insufficient limits or controls on accessibility to records 5,500 10,000
(d)(2) Missing terminal 2,500 5,000
(d)(3) Inability of railroad to produce information in a usable format for immediate review 2,500 5,000
(d)(4) Failure by railroad to designate an authorized representative 2,500 5,000
(d)(5) Failure to make record available 2,500 5,000
Subpart C—Review, Approval, and Retention of Emergency Preparedness Plans    
239.201 Filing and approval:    
(a):    
(i) Failure of a railroad to file a written emergency preparedness plan 13,000 20,500
(ii) Failure to designate a primary person to contact for plan review 2,500 5,000
(iii) Failure of a railroad to file an amendment to its plan 2,500 5,000
(b)(1), (b)(2):    
(i) Failure of a railroad to correct a plan deficiency 9,500 17,000
(ii) Failure to provide FRA with a corrected copy of the plan 2,500 5,000
(b)(3):    
(i) Failure of a railroad to correct an amendment deficiency 9,500 17,000
(ii) Failure to file a corrected plan amendment with FRA 2,500 5,000
239.203Retention of emergency preparedness plan:    
(1) Failure to retain a copy of the plan or an amendment to the plan 9,500 17,000
(2) Failure to make record available 2,500 5,000
Subpart D—Operational (Efficiency) Tests; Inspection of Records and Recordkeeping    
239.301Operational (efficiency) tests:    
(a) Failure to periodically conduct operational (efficiency) tests of its on-board and control center employees 9,500 17,000
(b)(1) Failure to maintain a record 5,500 10,000
(b)(2) Record improperly completed 2,500 5,000
(c)(1) Failure to retain a copy of the record 2,500 5,000
(c)(2) Failure to make record available 2,500 5,000
239.303Electronic recordkeeping:    
(a) Insufficient limits or controls on accessibility to records 5,500 10,000
(b) Missing terminal 2,500 5,000
(c) Inability of railroad to produce information in a usable format for immediate review 2,500 5,000
(d) Failure by railroad to designate an authorized representative 2,500 5,000
(e) Failure to make record available 2,500 5,000

PART 240—[AMENDED] Back to Top

52. The authority citation for part 240 continues to read as follows:

Authority:

49 U.S.C. 20103, 20107, 20135, 21301, 21304, 21311; 28 U.S.C. 2461, note; and 49 CFR 1.49.

53. Appendix A to part 240 is revised to read as follows:

Appendix A to Part 240—Schedule of Civil Penalties1 Back to Top
Section2 Violation Willful violation
1A penalty may be assessed against an individual only for a willful violation. The Administrator reserves the right to assess a penalty of up to $100,000 for any violation where circumstances warrant. See 49 CFR part 209, appendix A.
2The penalty schedule uses section numbers from 49 CFR part 240. If more than one item is listed as a type of violation of a given section, each item is also designated by a “penalty code,” which is used to facilitate assessment of civil penalties, and which may or may not correspond to any subsection designation(s). For convenience, penalty citations will cite the CFR section and the penalty code, if any. FRA reserves the right, should litigation become necessary, to substitute in its complaint the CFR citation in place of the combined CFR and penalty code citation, should they differ.
Subpart B—Component Elements of the Certification Process    
240.101Program failures:    
(a) Failure to have program $19,500 $25,000
(b) Program that fails to address a subject 9,500 17,000
240.103Failure to:    
(a) Follow Appendix B 2,500 5,000
(d) Resubmit, when directed by FRA 2,500 5,000
240.104Allowing uncertified person to operate nontraditional locomotives 13,000 20,500
240.105Failure to have or execute adequate procedure for selection of supervisors 9,500 17,000
240.107Classes of service:    
(a) Failure to designate classes of service 9,500 17,000
240.109Limitations on considering prior conduct records:    
(a) Failure to have procedure for determining eligibility 9,500 17,000
(e) Considering excluded data 9,500 17,000
(f), (g) Failure to provide timely review opportunity 9,500 17,000
240.111Furnishing motor vehicle records:    
(a) Failure to action required to make information available 2,500 5,000
(b) Failure to request:    
(1) Local record 2,500 5,000
(2) NDR record 2,500 5,000
(f) Failure to request additional record 2,500 5,000
(g) Failure to notify of absence of license 2,500 5,000
(h) Failure to submit request in timely manner 2,500 5,000
(i) Failure to report within 48 hours or railroad taking certification action for not reporting earlier than 48 hours 2,500 5,000
240.113Furnishing prior employment information:    
(a) Failure to take action required to make information available 2,500 5,000
(b) Failure to request record 2,500 5,000
240.115Criteria for considering prior motor vehicle conduct:    
(b) Considering excluded data 9,500 17,000
(c) Failure to:    
(1) Consider data 19,500 25,000
(3)-(4) Properly act in response to data 5,500 10,000
240.117Consideration of operational rules compliance records:    
(a) Failure to have program and procedures 19,500 25,000
(b)-(j) Failure to have adequate program or procedure 9,500 17,000
240.119Consideration of substance abuse/rules compliance records:    
(a) Failure to have program and procedures 19,500 25,000
(b)-(e) Failure to have adequate program or procedure 9,500 17,000
240.121Failure to have adequate procedure for determining acuity 9,500 17,000
(f) Failure of engineer to notify 9,500 17,000
240.123Failure to have:    
(b) Adequate procedures for continuing education 9,500 17,000
(c) Adequate procedures for training new engineers 9,500 17,000
240.125Failure to have:    
(a) Adequate procedures for testing knowledge 9,500 17,000
(d) Adequate procedures for documenting testing 9,500 17,000
240.127Failure to have:    
(a) Adequate procedures for evaluating skill performance 9,500 17,000
(c) Adequate procedures for documenting skills testing 9,500 17,000
240.129Failure to have:    
(a)-(b) Adequate procedures for monitoring performance 9,500 17,000
Subpart C—Implementation of the Certification Process    
240.201Schedule for implementation:    
(a) Failure to select supervisors by specified date 2,500 5,000
(c) Failure to issue certificate to engineer 2,500 5,000
(d) Allowing uncertified person to operate 19,500 25,000
(e)-(g) Certifying without complying with subpart C 9,500 17,000
(h)-(i) Failure to issue certificate to engineer 2,500 5,000
240.203    
(a) Designating a person as a supervisor without determining that    
(1) Person knows and understands this part 9,500 17,000
(2) Person can test and evaluate engineers 19,500 25,000
(3) Person has experience to prescribe remedies 9,500 17,000
(b) Certifying a person without determining that:    
(1) Person meets the eligibility criteria 19,500 25,000
(2) Person meets the medical criteria 9,500 17,000
(3) Person has demonstrated knowledge 9,500 17,000
(4) Person has demonstrated skills 9,500 17,000
(c) Certifying a person without determining that:    
(1) Person has completed training program 9,500 17,000
(2) Person meets the eligibility criteria 9,500 17,000
(3) Time has elapsed 9,500 17,000
240.205Procedures for determining eligibility based on prior safety conduct:    
(a) Selecting person lacking eligibility 19,500 25,000
(d) Failure to have basis for taking action 9,500 17,000
240.207Ineligibility based on medical condition:    
(a) Selecting person lacking proper acuity 13,000 20,500
(b) Failure to have basis for finding of proper acuity 2,500 5,000
(c) Acuity examinations performed by unauthorized person 2,500 5,000
(d) Failure to note need for device to achieve acuity 2,500 5,000
(e) Failure to use device needed for proper acuity 2,500 5,000
240.209Demonstrating knowledge:    
(b) Failure to properly determine knowledge 13,000 20,500
(c) Improper test procedure 9,500 17,000
(d) Failure to document test results 2,500 5,000
(e) Allowing person to operate despite test failure 9,500 17,000
240.211Demonstrating skills:    
(b) Failure to properly determine knowledge 9,500 17,000
(c) Improper test procedure 5,500 10,000
(d) Failure to document test results 2,500 5,000
(e) Allowing person to operate despite test failure 9,500 17,000
240.213Completion of approved training program:    
(a) Failure to properly determine 9,500 17,000
(b) Failure to document successful program completion 5,500 10,000
240.215Supporting information:    
(a), (f)-(h) Failure to have a record 2,500 5,000
(b) Failure to have complete record 2,500 5,000
(i) Falsification of record 25,000
240.217Time limits for making determinations:    
(a), (c) Exceeding time limit 5,500 10,000
240.219Denial of certification:    
(a) Failure to notify or provide opportunity for comment 5,500 10,000
(c) Failure to notify, provide data, or untimely notification 5,500 10,000
240.221Identification of persons:    
(a)-(c) Failure to have a record 5,500 10,000
(d) Failure to update a record 5,500 10,000
(e)-(f) Failure to make a record available 2,500 5,000
240.223Certificate criteria:    
(a) Improper certificate 2,500 5,000
(b) Failure to designate those with signatory authority 2,500 5,000
(d) Falsification of certificate 25,000
240.225Railroad relying on determination of another:    
(a) Failure to address in program or failure to require newly hired engineer to take entire training program 19,500 25,000
(2) Reliance on wrong class of service 5,500 10,000
(3) Failure to familiarize person with new operational territory 5,500 10,000
(4) Failure to determine knowledge 5,500 10,000
(5) Failure to determine performance skills 5,500 10,000
240.227Railroad relying on requirements of a different country:    
(a) Joint operator reliance:    
(1) On person not employed 2,500 5,000
(2) On person who fails to meet Canadian requirements 2,500 5,000
(b) Canadian railroad reliance:    
(1) On person not employed 2,500 5,000
(2) On person who fails to meet Canadian requirements 2,500 5,000
240.229Requirements for joint operations territory:    
(a) Allowing uncertified person to operate 5,500 10,000
(b) Certifying without making determinations or relying on another railroad 13,000 20,500
(c) Failure of    
(1) Controlling railroad certifying without determining certification status, knowledge, skills, or familiarity with physical characteristics 19,500 25,000
(2) Employing railroad to determine person's certified and qualified status for controlling railroad 19,500 25,000
(3) Person to notify employing railroad of lack of qualifications 19,500 25,000
(d) Failure to provide qualified person 5,500 10,000
240.231Persons qualified on physical characteristics in other than joint operations:    
(a) Person unqualified, no exception applies or railroad does not adequately address in program 19,500 25,000
(b) Failure to have a pilot:    
(1) For engineer who has never been qualified 19,500 25,000
(2) For engineer previously qualified 9,500 17,000
Subpart D—Administration of the Certification Programs    
240.301Failure to have system for certificate replacement 5,500 10,000
240.303 Monitoring operations:    
(a) Failure to have program 19,500 25,000
(b) Failure to observe each person annually 2,500 5,000
(c) Failure to test each person annually 2,500 5,000
(d) Failure to test properly 2,500 5,000
240.305Prohibited conduct:    
(a) Unlawful:    
(1) Passing of stop signal 19,500 25,000
(2) Control of speed 19,500 25,000
(3) Brake tests 19,500 25,000
(4) Occupancy of main track 19,500 25,000
(5) Tampering or operation with disabled safety device 19,500 25,000
(6) Supervisor, pilot, or instructor fails to take appropriate action 19,500 25,000
(b) Failure of engineer to:    
(1) Carry certificate 2,500 5,000
(2) Display certificate when requested 2,500 5,000
(c) Failure of engineer to notify railroad of limitations or railroad requiring engineer to exceed limitations 19,500 25,000
(d) Failure of engineer to notify railroad of denial or revocation 19,500 25,000
240.307Revocation of certification:    
(a) Failure to withdraw person from service 13,000 20,500
(b) Failure to notify, provide hearing opportunity, or untimely procedures 5,500 10,000
(c)-(h) Failure of railroad to comply with hearing or waiver procedures 5,500 10,000
(j) Failure of railroad to make record 5,500 10,000
(k) Failure of railroad to conduct reasonable inquiry or make good faith determination 13,000 20,500
240.309Oversight Responsibility Report:    
(a) Failure to report or to report on time 2,500 5,000
(b)-(h) Incomplete or inaccurate report 5,500 10,000

PART 241—[AMENDED] Back to Top

54. The authority citation for part 241 continues to read as follows:

Authority:

49 U.S.C. 20103, 20107, 21301, 21304, 21311; 28 U.S.C. 2461, note; 49 CFR 1.49.

55. Appendix B to part 241 is revised to read as follows:

Appendix B to Part 241—Schedule of Civil Penalties1 Back to Top
Section2 Violation Willful violation
1A penalty may be assessed against an individual only for a willful violation. The Administrator reserves the right to assess a penalty of up to $100,000 for any violation where circumstances warrant. See 49 U.S.C. 21301, 21304 and 49 CFR part 209, appendix A.
2The penalty schedule uses section numbers from 49 CFR part 241. If more than one item is listed as a type of violation of a given section, each item is also designated by a “penalty code,” which is used to facilitate assessment of civil penalties, and which may or may not correspond to any subsection designation(s). For convenience, penalty citations will cite the CFR section and the penalty code, if any. FRA reserves the right, should litigation become necessary, to substitute in its complaint the CFR citation in place of the combined CFR and penalty code citation, should they differ.
241.9:    
(a) Requiring or permitting extraterritorial dispatching of a railroad operation $9,500 $17,000
(c) Failing to notify FRA about extraterritorial dispatching of a railroad operation in an emergency situation 5,500 10,000
241.11Conducting a railroad operation that is extraterritorially dispatched:    
(a)(1) Generally 9,500 17,000
(c) In an emergency situation—where dispatching railroad fails to notify FRA of the extraterritorial dispatching 2,500 5,000
241.13Requiring or permitting track to be used for the conduct of a railroad operation that is extraterritorially dispatched:    
(a)(1) Generally 9,500 17,000
(c) In an emergency situation—where dispatching railroad fails to notify FRA of the extraterritorial dispatching 2,500 5,000

Issued in Washington, DC, on August 23, 2010.

Karen J. Rae,

Deputy Administrator.

end regulatory text

[FR Doc. 2010-22141 Filed 9-20-10; 8:45 am]

BILLING CODE 4910-06-P

Footnotes Back to Top

1. For example, the severity scale in this New Proposal has five levels like the severity scale proposed in the Initial Proposal. However, the severity scale in the New Proposal differs from the severity scale in the Initial Proposal in several ways. First, FRA has adding the word “materially” to the description of what constitutes a Level E violation in the New Proposal. Therefore, Level E violations in the New Proposal are violations that do not materially increase the likelihood that a rail equipment accident/incident or other accident/incident will occur. This is a clarification from the previous definition for Level E violations in the Initial Proposal where Level E violations were defined as violations that did not increase the likelihood that a rail equipment accident/incident or other accident/incident would occur. This definition did not make sense because failure to follow any FRA safety regulation would have some direct or indirect impact on railroad safety and thereby increase, even infinitesimally, the likelihood of an accident or incident. As a result, the word “materially” was added to the criteria for a Level E violation in the severity scale in this New Proposal. Second, FRA has provided more transparency and referenced the regulatory language found in 49 CFR 225.19(d) to explain what FRA means when it says “Other accident/incident” in Levels A-D in the severity scale in the New Proposal. Third, FRA has clarified in the New Proposal that civil monetary penalties associated with violations of FRA Orders or railroad safety statutes will be assessed according to severity scale criteria. Finally, as stated below, FRA has modified its approach for establishing civil penalties in the severity scale in this New Proposal. FRA is taking a graduated approach to assessing civil penalties for ordinary (non-willful) violations while increasing the civil penalty amounts in steady increments for willful violations.

Back to Context

2. However, as previously stated, FRA recently published a final rule on bridge safety standards on July 15, 2010. 75 FR 41282. As part of that final rule, FRA created new regulations and penalties under 49 CFR part 237, which was previously an unused part of the CFR. Therefore after the September 13, 2010 effective date for the final rule, FRA will have 27 parts of regulations that contain Schedules. In this New Proposal, FRA is also accepting comments on the new penalties contained in the final rule.

Back to Context

3. “Accident/incident” is defined at 49 CFR 225.5. Accidents/incidents are divided into three categories: highway-rail grade crossing accidents/incidents, rail equipment accidents/incidents; and accidents/incidents resulting in death, injury, or occupational illness. 49 CFR 225.19(c). A highway-rail grade crossing accident/incident is “[a]ny impact between railroad on-track equipment and an automobile, bus, truck, motorcycle, bicycle, farm vehicle, or pedestrian at a highway-rail grade crossing.” 49 CFR 225.5, read in light of 49 CFR 225.19(c). Rail equipment accidents/incidents are defined in 49 CFR 225.19(c) to include “collisions, derailments, fires, explosions, acts of God, and other events involving the operation of on-track equipment (standing or moving) * * * that result in damage to railroad property that is greater than the reporting threshold.” Currently the reporting threshold is $9,200. 74 FR 65458 (Dec. 10, 2009).

Back to Context

4. FRA has statutory authority to assess civil penalties in the range of $650 (minimum) to $25,000 (ordinary maximum) for ordinary violations of its regulations. FRA may assess a penalty at the statutory aggravated maximum of $100,000 only “when a grossly negligent violation or a pattern of repeated violations has caused an imminent hazard of death or injury to individuals, or has caused death or injury.” A $100,000, statutory aggravated maximum penalty is the equivalent of a Level A Plus and is, therefore, off the scale. The standard of “imminent hazard” of death or injury (the standard for a civil penalty at the aggravated maximum penalty) is different from the standard of “extremely likely” to result in death or injury (the standard for Level A penalties on the severity scale). Imminent hazards are hazards that are likely to occur without delay or that actually may be occurring at the time the violation is taken. In contrast, a hazard that is extremely likely to result in a railroad accident/incident or another accident/incident causing death, injury, or occupational disease has a high probability of causing one or more of those adverse events sooner or later, but is not necessarily likely to occur without delay or contemporaneously when the violation is taken.

Back to Context

6. Defect codes were developed by FRA in order to facilitate computerization of inspection data generated by FRA inspectors by providing a digital format for every CFR section. Defect codes are analytical tools only and are subject to change without notice.

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7. For example, BLET stated that the penalty for 49 CFR 214.103(ii) (“Failure to use fall protection”) would increase 340 percent. Expressing the original penalty amounts in 2006 dollars (for consistency with the first proposed penalty schedules that were published on December 5, 2006), the increase would actually have been 204 percent; however, with the proposed penalties in this notice, the increase in real dollars would be 559 percent. Similarly, for 49 CFR 218.22(c)(5) (“Utility employees: Assignment conditions: Performing functions not listed”), BLET found an 87.5 percent increase. Measured in 2006 dollars, the difference between the current penalties and the originally-proposed revised penalties would have been 15 percent, and with the proposed penalties in this notice, the real difference would be about 46 percent. For 49 CFR 219.11(b)(1) (“General conditions for chemical tests: Employee unlawfully refuses to participate in testing”), BLET calculated a 120 percent increase, the change in real dollars from the original proposal would have been 41 percent. With the proposed penalties in this New Proposal, the increase would be about 22 percent (Upon reevaluating the severity scale rankings in the Initial Proposal, FRA lowered the severity scale ranking for violations of § 219.11(b)(1) from a proposed “A” to a proposed “D” level penalty.) In each of these examples, the rules concern areas of significant risk. Consequentially, FRA has determined that higher proposed penalties are necessary and justified.

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