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Special Conditions: Cessna Model 501 and 551 Series Airplanes; High-Intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF)

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Information about this document as published in the Federal Register.

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AGENCY:

Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT.

ACTION:

Final special conditions; request for comments.

SUMMARY:

These special conditions are issued for Cessna Aircraft Company Cessna Model 501 and 551 series airplanes modified by ElectroSonics. These modified airplanes will have a novel or unusual design feature when compared to the state of technology envisioned in the airworthiness standards for transport category airplanes. The modification incorporates the installation of dual air data display unit systems that perform critical functions. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not contain adequate or appropriate safety standards for the protection of these systems from the effects of high-intensity-radiated fields (HIRF). These special conditions contain the additional safety standards that the Administrator considers necessary to establish a level of safety equivalent to that established by the existing airworthiness standards.

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DATES:

The effective date of these special conditions is April 17, 2002. Comments must be received on or before May 29, 2002.

ADDRESSES:

Comments on these special conditions may be mailed in duplicate to: Federal Aviation Administration, Transport Airplane Directorate, Attention: Rules Docket (ANM-113), Docket No. NM216, 1601 Lind Avenue SW., Renton, Washington 98055-4056; or delivered in duplicate to the Transport Airplane Directorate at the above address. All comments must be marked: Docket No. NM216. Comments may be inspected in the Rules Docket weekdays, except Federal holidays, between 7:30 a.m. and 4 p.m.

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FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:

Greg Dunn, FAA, Airplane and Flight Crew Interface Branch, ANM-111, Transport Airplane Directorate, Aircraft Certification Service, 1601 Lind Avenue SW., Renton, Washington 98055-4056; telephone (425) 227-2799; facsimile (425) 227-1149.

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SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:

Comments Invited

The FAA has determined that notice and opportunity for prior public comment hereon are impracticable because these procedures would significantly delay certification and thus delivery of the affected airplanes. In addition, the substance of these special conditions has been subject to the public comment process in several prior instances with no substantive comments received. The FAA therefore finds that good cause exists for making these special conditions effective upon issuance; however, the FAA invites interested persons to participate in this rulemaking by submitting written comments, data, or views. The most helpful comments reference a specific portion of the special conditions, explain the reason for any recommended change, and include supporting data. We ask that you send us two copies of written comments.

We will file in the docket all comments we receive, as well as a report summarizing each substantive public contact with FAA personnel concerning these special conditions. The docket is available for public inspection before and after the comment closing date. If you wish to review the docket in person, go to the address in the ADDRESSES section of this preamble between 7:30 a.m. and 4 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays.

We will consider all comments we receive on or before the closing date for comments. We will consider comments filed late if it is possible to do so without incurring expense or delay. We may change these special conditions in light of the comments we receive.

If you want the FAA to acknowledge receipt of your comments on this proposal, include with your comments a pre-addressed, stamped postcard on which the docket number appears. We will stamp the date on the postcard and mail it back to you.

Background

On March 20, 2002, ElectroSonics, 4391 International Gateway, Columbus, Ohio, applied for a Supplemental Type Certificate (STC) to modify Cessna Model 501 and 551 series airplanes. The Cessna Model 501 and 551 series airplanes are normal category turbine powered airplanes. The Cessna Model 501 series airplanes are powered by two Pratt & Whitney JT15D-1(A/B) turbofan engines and have a maximum takeoff weight of 11,850 pounds. These airplanes operate with either a 1-pilot or 2-pilot crew and can hold up to 8 passengers. The Cessna Model 551 series airplanes are powered by two Pratt & Whitney JT15D-4 turbofan engines and have a maximum takeoff weight of 12,500 pounds. These airplanes operate with either a 1-pilot or 2-pilot crew and can hold up to 10 passengers. The modification incorporates the installation of Innovative Solutions & Support Air Data Display Units (ADDU). The ADDU is a replacement for the existing analog flight instrumentation, while also providing additional functional capability and redundancy in the system. The avionics/electronics and electrical systems installed in this airplane have the potential to be vulnerable to high-intensity radiated fields (HIRF) external to the airplane.

Type Certification Basis

Under the provisions of 14 CFR 21.101, ElectroSonics must show that the Cessna Model 501 and 551 series airplanes, as modified to include the new air data display units, continue to meet the applicable provisions of the regulations incorporated by reference in Type Certificate No. A27CE, or the applicable regulations in effect on the date of application for the change. The regulations incorporated by reference in the type certificate are commonly referred to as the “original type certification basis.” The regulations included in the certification basis for the Cessna 501 airplanes include part 23 of the Federal Aviation Regulations effective February 1, 1965, as amended by Amendments 23-1 through 23-16, with certain exceptions, and section 23.1385 as amended through Amendment 23-20; part 25, effective February 1, 1965, as amended by Amendments 25-1 through 25-37, with certain exceptions; part 36, effective December 1, 1969, as amended by Amendments 36-1 through 36-5; SFAR 27, Fuel Venting (replaced by part 34, effective September 10, 1990); plus additional requirements listed in the type certificate data sheet that are not relevant to these special conditions.

The regulations included in the certification basis for the Cessna Model 551 series airplanes include part 23 of the Federal Aviation Regulations effective February 1, 1965, as amended by Amendments 23-1 through 23-16, with certain exceptions, sections 23.1143(e) and 23.1385(c) as amended through Amendments 23-18, and sections 23.1301 and 23.1335 as amended by Amendments through 23-20; part 25 effective February 1, 1965, as amended by Amendments 25-1 through 25-37 with certain exceptions, and sections 25.901(c), 25.903(e)(3), and 25.1351(d) as amended through Amendments 25-41; part 36, effective December 1, 1969, as amended by Amendments 36-1 through 36-6; SFAR 27, as amended by Amendments 27-1 through 27-3, Fuel Venting (replaced by part 34, effective September 10, 1990). For the Bendix EFS-10, Sperry EDZ-600, Sperry EDZ-601, and Sperry EDZ-603 electronic flight instrument systems only, compliance has been shown with the following regulations: sections 25.1301, 25.1303(b), and 25.1322 as amended through Amendment 25-38; sections 25.1309, 25.1321(a), (b), (d), and (e), 25.1331, 25.1333, and 25.1335 as amended through Amendments 25-41; plus additional requirements listed in the type certificate data sheet that are not relevant to these special conditions.

If the Administrator finds that the applicable airworthiness regulations (that is, 14 CRF part 25, as amended) do not contain adequate or appropriate safety standards for the Cessna Model 501 and 551 series airplanes modified by ElectroSonics because of a novel or unusual design feature, special conditions are prescribed under the provisions of § 21.16.

Note:

Although 14 CFR part 25 is referenced in these special conditions, the Cessna Model 501 and 551 series airplanes are certified under both part 25 and part 23. The applicable airworthiness regulations under part 23, as they relate to HIRF, are the same as those under part 25.

In addition to the applicable airworthiness regulations and special conditions, these Cessna Model 501 and 551 series airplanes must comply with the fuel vent and exhaust emission requirements of 14 CFR part 34 and the Start Printed Page 20889noise certification requirements of part 36.

Special conditions, as defined in 14 CFR 11.19, are issued in accordance with § 11.38, and become part of the type certification basis in accordance with § 21.101(b)(2).

Special conditions are initially applicable to the model for which they are issued. Should ElectroSonics apply at a later date for a supplemental type certificate to modify any other model already included on the same type certificate to incorporate the same novel or unusual design feature, these special conditions would also apply to the other model under the provisions of § 21.101(a)(1).

Novel or Unusual Design Features

As noted earlier, the Cessna Model 501and 551 series airplanes modified by ElectroSonics will incorporate dual air data display unit systems that will perform critical functions. These systems may be vulnerable to high-intensity radiated fields (HIRF) external to the airplane. The current airworthiness standards of (14 CFR part 25) do not contain adequate or appropriate safety standards that address protecting this equipment from the adverse effects of HIRF. Accordingly, this system is considered to be a novel or unusual design feature.

Discussion

There is no specific regulation that addresses protection requirements for electrical and electronic systems from HIRF. Increased power levels from ground-based radio transmitters and the growing use of sensitive avionics/electronics and electrical systems to command and control airplanes have made it necessary to provide adequate protection.

To ensure that a level of safety is achieved that is equivalent to that intended by the regulations incorporated by reference, special conditions are needed for the Cessna Model 501 and 551 series airplanes modified by ElectroSonics to include the dual air data display unit systems. These special conditions require that new avionics/electronics and electrical systems that perform critical functions be designed and installed to preclude component damage and interruption of function due to both the direct and indirect effects of HIRF.

High-Intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF)

With the trend toward increased power levels from ground-based transmitters, plus the advent of space and satellite communications coupled with electronic command and control of the airplane, the immunity of critical avionics/electronics and electrical systems to HIRF must be established.

It is not possible to precisely define the HIRF to which the airplane will be exposed in service. There is also uncertainty concerning the effectiveness of airframe shielding for HIRF. Furthermore, coupling of electromagnetic energy to cockpit-installed equipment through the cockpit window apertures is undefined. Based on surveys and analysis of existing HIRF emitters, an adequate level of protection exists when compliance with the HIRF protection special condition is shown with either paragraph 1 OR 2 below:

1. A minimum threat of 100 volts rms (root-mean-square) per meter electric field strength from 10 KHz to 18 GHz.

a. The threat must be applied to the system elements and their associated wiring harnesses without the benefit of airframe shielding.

b. Demonstration of this level of protection is established through system tests and analysis.

2. A threat external to the airframe of the field strengths indicated in the table below for the frequency ranges indicated. Both peak and average field strength components from the table below are to be demonstrated.

FrequencyField strength (volts per meter)
PeakAverage
10 kHz-100 kHz5050
100 kHz-500 kHz5050
500 kHz-2 MHz5050
2 MHz-30 MHz100100
30 MHz-70 MHz5050
70 MHz-100 MHz5050
100 MHz-200 MHz100100
200 MHz-400 MHz100100
400 MHz-700 MHz70050
700 MHz-1 GHz700100
1 GHz-2 GHz2000200
2 GHz-4 GHz3000200
4 GHz-6 GHz3000200
6 GHz-8 GHz1000200
8 GHz-12 GHz3000300
12 GHz-18 GHz2000200
18 GHz-40 GHz600200
 The field strengths are expressed in terms of peak of the root-mean-square (rms) over the complete modulation period.

The threat levels identified above are the result of an FAA review of existing studies on the subject of HIRF, in light of the ongoing work of the Electromagnetic Effects Harmonization Working Group of the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee.

Applicability

As discussed above, these special conditions are applicable to Cessna Model 501 and 551 series airplanes modified by ElectroSonics to include Innovative Solutions & Support Air Data Display Units. Should ElectroSonics apply at a later date for a supplemental type certificate to modify any other model included on the same type certificate to incorporate the same novel or unusual design feature, these special conditions would apply to that model as well under the provisions of 14 CFR 21.101(a)(1).

Conclusion

This action affects only certain novel or unusual design features on the Cessna Model 501 and 551 series airplanes modified by ElectroSonics. It is not a rule of general applicability and affects only the applicant who applied to the FAA for approval of these features on the airplane.

The substance of the special conditions for these airplanes has been subjected to notice and comment period in several prior instances and has been derived without substantive change from those previously issued. Because a delay would significantly affect the certification of the airplanes, which is imminent, the FAA has determined that prior public notice and comment are unnecessary and impracticable, and good cause exists for adopting these special conditions upon issuance. The FAA is requesting comments to allow interested persons to submit views that may not have been submitted in response to the prior opportunities for comment described above.

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List of Subjects in 14 CFR Part 25

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The authority citation for these special conditions is as follows:

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Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40113, 44701, 44702, 44704.

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The Special Conditions

Accordingly, pursuant to the authority delegated to me by the Administrator, the following special conditions are issued as part of the supplemental type certification basis for the Cessna Aircraft Company Cessna Model 501 and 551 series airplanes modified by ElectroSonics.

1. Protection from Unwanted Effects of High-Intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF). Each electrical and electronic system that performs critical functions must be designed and installed to ensure that the operation and operational capability of these systems to perform critical functions are not adversely affected when the airplane is exposed to high-intensity radiated fields. Start Printed Page 20890

2. For the purpose of these special conditions, the following definition applies:

Critical Functions: Functions whose failure would contribute to or cause a failure condition that would prevent the continued safe flight and landing of the airplane.

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Issued in Renton, Washington, on April 17, 2002.

Lirio Liu-Nelson,

Acting Manager, Transport Airplane Directorate, Aircraft Certification Service, ANM-100.

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[FR Doc. 02-9943 Filed 4-26-02; 8:45 am]

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