Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
EPA is proposing a limited approval and limited disapproval to a revision to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP) concerning particulate matter (PM-10) emissions from emission units, electrical generation units, and fuel burning equipment. We are also proposing to approve a revision to the ICAPCD portion of the California SIP concerning oxides of nitrogen (NOX) emissions from fuel burning equipment. We are proposing action on local rules that regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act). We are taking comments on this proposal and plan to follow with a final action.
Any comments must arrive by December 20, 2002.
Mail comments to Andy Steckel, Rulemaking Office Chief (AIR-4), U.S. Environmental Protection Start Printed Page 70033Agency, Region IX, 75 Hawthorne Street, San Francisco, CA 94105.
You can inspect copies of the submitted rule revisions and EPA's technical support documents (TSDs) at our Region IX office during normal business hours. You may also see copies of the submitted rule revisions at the following locations:
Air and Radiation Docket and Information Center (6102T), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Room B-102, 1301 Constitution Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20460.
California Air Resources Board, Stationary Source Division, Rule Evaluation Section, 1001 “I” Street, Sacramento, CA 95814.
Imperial County Air Pollution Control District, 150 South 9th Street, El Centro, CA 92243.
A copy of the rule may also be available via the Internet at http://www.arb.ca.gov/drdb/drdbltxt.htm. Please be advised that this is not an EPA website and may not contain the same version of the rule that was submitted to EPA.Start Further Info
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:
Al Petersen, Rulemaking Office (AIR-4), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region IX; (415) 947-4118.End Further Info End Preamble Start Supplemental Information
Throughout this document, “we,” “us” and “our” refer to EPA.
Table of Contents
I. The State's Submittal
A. What rules did the State submit?
B. Are there other versions of these rules?
C. What are the changes in the submitted rules?
II. EPA's Evaluation and Action
A. How is EPA evaluating the rules?
B. Do the rules meet the evaluation criteria?
C. What are the rule deficiencies?
D. Proposed action and public comment
III. Background Information
A. Why were these rules submitted?
IV. Administrative Requirements
I. The State's Submittal
A. What Rules Did the State Submit?
Table 1 lists the rules addressed by this proposal with the dates that they were adopted by local air agencies and submitted by the California Air Resources Board (CARB).
|Local agency||Rule No.||Rule title||Adopted||Submitted|
|ICAPCD||403||General Limitations on the Discharge of Air Contaminants||07/24/01||10/30/01|
|ICAPCD||400||Fuel Burning Equipment—Oxides of Nitrogen||09/14/99||05/26/00|
On January 18, 2002 and October 6, 2000, respectively, these rule submittals were found to meet the completeness criteria in 40 CFR part 51 Appendix V, which must be met before formal EPA review.
B. Are There Other Versions of These Rules?
We approved versions of Rule 403 into the SIP on May 31, 1972 (37 FR 10842) as Rule 131, on February 3, 1989 (54 FR 5448) as Rule 403, and on January 27, 1981 (46 FR 8471) as Rules 404 and 406. We approved a version of Rule 400 into the SIP on May 31, 1972 (37 FR 10842) as Rule 131.
C. What Are the Changes in the Submitted Rules?
The significant changes to SIP Rule 131 are as follows:
- The limitation to not emit more than 200 pounds per hour of sulfur dioxide was moved to submitted Rule 405.B.4.a.2, which was approved by EPA on February 7, 2002 (67 FR 5727).
- The limitation to not emit more than 10 pounds per hour of combustion contaminants from fuel burning equipment was moved to submitted Rule 403.B.5.
- The limitation to not emit more than 140 pounds per hour of nitrogen oxides (NO2) was moved to submitted Rule 400.B.
SIP Rule 404 would be superseded by submitted Rule 403.B.1. SIP Rule 406 would be superseded by submitted Rule 403.B.3.
Additional changes in submitted Rule 403 relative to all of the SIP rules are as follows:
- 403.B.1: The limitation on the mass discharge of particulate matter from emission units was made more stringent.
- 403.B.2: A limitation on the discharge concentration of air contaminants from emission units was added.
- 403.B.4: A very stringent limitation on the discharge concentration of combustion contaminants from electrical utility generating units was added.
- 403.C: Compliance test methods were added.
An additional change in submitted Rule 400 relative to SIP Rule 131 is as follows:
- 400.C: Compliance test methods, monitoring requirements, and a records retention period were added.
The TSDs have more information about these rules.
II. EPA's Evaluation and Action
A. How Is EPA Evaluating the Rules?
Generally, PM-10 SIP rules must be enforceable (see section 110(a) of the Act) and must not relax existing requirements (see sections 110(l) and 193).Sections 172(c)(1) and 189(a) of the CAA require moderate PM-10 nonattainment areas with significant PM-10 sources to adopt reasonably available control measures (RACM), including reasonably available control technology (RACT). RACM/RACT is not required for source categories that are not significant (de minimis) and do not have major sources. See Addendum to the General Preamble for the Implementation of Title I of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, 59 FR 41998 (August 16, 1994). Based on the latest emissions inventory data contained in Imperial County PM-10 State Implementation Plan Attainment Demonstration, Draft Report (July 2001), Imperial County has at least three major PM sources: Santa Fe Pacific Gold Corp (541 tpy), U.S. Gypsum (Plaster City) (156 tpy), and American Girl Mine (136 tpy). Therefore, we conclude that submitted rule 403 must meet RACT in the absence of a demonstration by the State that these major sources do not contribute significantly to PM-10 levels which exceed the PM-10 NAAQS in the area. We also note that ICAPCD's Draft Report, which formed a basis for our 2001 attainment finding, refers to Rule 403 as one of the controls that should be considered RACT for stationary sources in Imperial County (see pages 37-38 of that report).
Generally, NOX SIP rules must be enforceable (see section 110(a) of the Act), must require Reasonably Available Control Technology (RACT) for major sources in ozone nonattainment areas (see sections 182(a)(2)(A) and 182(f)), and must not relax existing requirements (see sections 110(l) and 193). However, the ICAPCD regulates a section 185A transitional ozone nonattainment area (see 40 CFR 81.305). Section 185A of the Act exempts transitional areas from all subpart 2 Start Printed Page 70034requirements until December 31, 1991, and that exemption continues until EPA redesignates the area as attainment or designates the area as nonattainment under section 107(d)(4). See 57 FR 13498, at 13525 (April 16, 1992). Submitted Rule 400 improves upon the SIP by adding test methods, monitoring requirements, and a record retention period, all of which improve the practical enforceability of the NOX emissions limits contained in the rule.
Guidance and policy documents that we used to define specific enforceability and RACM/RACT requirements include the following:
- Requirements for Preparation, Adoption, and Submittal of Implementation Plans, U.S. EPA, 40 CFR part 51.
- General Preamble for the Implementation of Title I of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, 57 FR 13498, 13540 (April 16, 1992).
- Addendum to the General Preamble for the Implementation of Title I of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, 59 FR 41998 (August 16, 1994).
- PM-10 Guideline Document (EPA-452/R-93-008).
- Imperial County PM-10 State Implementation Plan Attainment Demonstration, Draft Report (July 2001).
- State Implementation Plans (SIPs): Policy Regarding Excess Emissions During Malfunctions, Startup, and Shutdown, Steven A. Herman, memorandum (September 20, 1999).
- Issues Relating to VOC Regulation Cutpoints, Deficiencies, and Deviations; Clarification to Appendix D of November 24, 1987 Federal Register Notice, (Blue Book), notice of availability published in the May 25, 1988 Federal Register.
- State Implementation Plans; Nitrogen Oxides Supplement to the General Preamble for the Implementation of Title I of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (the “NOX Supplement to the General Preamble”), U.S. EPA, 57 FR 55620 (November 25, 1992).
B. Do the Rules Meet the Evaluation Criteria?
Rule 403 improves the SIP by establishing more stringent PM-10 emission limits and by adding test methods. This rule is largely consistent with the relevant policy and guidance regarding enforceability, RACT and SIP relaxations. Rule provisions which do not meet the evaluation criteria are summarized below and discussed further in the TSD.
Rule 400 improves the SIP by adding test methods, monitoring requirements, and a record retention period, all of which improve the practical enforceability of the NOX emissions limits contained in the rule. This rule is consistent with the relevent policy regarding enforceability, RACT, and SIP relaxations. These issues are discussed further in the TSD.
C. What Are the Rule Deficiencies?
The following are deficiencies that preclude full approval:
- Rule 403 should have monitoring and recordkeeping requirements in order to assure compliance with PM emission standards.
- Rule 403 should have some limitation on the period or conditions allowed for the exemption from PM emission standards during start-up and load changes.
D. Proposed Action and Public Comment
As authorized in sections 110(k)(3) and 301(a) of the Act, EPA is proposing a limited approval of submitted ICAPCD Rule 403 to improve the SIP. If finalized, this action would incorporate the submitted rule into the SIP, including those provisions identified as deficient. This approval is limited because EPA is simultaneously proposing a limited disapproval of the rule under section 110(k)(3). If this disapproval is finalized, sanctions will be imposed under section 179 of the Act unless EPA approves subsequent SIP revisions that correct the rule deficiencies within 18 months. These sanctions would be imposed according to 40 CFR 52.31. A final disapproval would also trigger the federal implementation plan (FIP) requirement under section 110(c). Note that the submitted rule has been adopted by the ICAPCD, and EPA's final limited disapproval would not prevent the local agency from enforcing it.
We are proposing full approval of submitted ICAPCD Rule 400 because we believe it fulfills all relevant requirements. We will accept comments from the public on the proposed limited approval/limited disapproval of ICAPCD Rule 403 and proposed full approval of ICAPCD Rule 400 for the next 30 days.
III. Background Information
A. Why Were These Rules Submitted?
PM-10 harms human health and the environment. Section 110(a) of the CAA requires states to submit regulations that control PM-10 emissions. Table 2 lists some of the national milestones leading to the submittal of local agency PM-10 rules.
|March 3, 1978||EPA promulgated a list of total suspended particulate (TSP) nonattainment areas under the Clean Air Act, as amended in 1977. 43 FR 8962; 40 CFR 81.305.|
|July 1, 1987||EPA replaced the TSP standards with new PM standards applying only up to 10 microns in diameter (PM-10). 52 FR 24672.|
|November 15, 1990||Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 were enacted, Pub. L. 101-549, 104 Stat. 2399, codified at 42 U.S.C. 7401-7671 q.|
|November 15, 1990||PM-10 areas meeting the qualifications of section 107(d)(4)(B) of the CAA were designated nonattainment by operation of law and classified as moderate pursuant to section 188(a). States are required by section 110(a) to submit rules regulating PM-10 emissions in order to achieve the attainment dates specified in section 188(c).|
NOX helps produce ground-level nitrogen dioxide, ozone, smog, and particulate matter which harm human health and the environment. Section 110(a) of the CAA requires states to submit regulations that control NOX emissions. Table 3 lists some of the national milestones leading to the submittal of these local agency NOX rules.
|March 3, 1978||EPA promulgated a list of ozone nonattainment areas under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1977. 43 FR 8962; 40 CFR 81.305.|
|May 26, 1988||EPA notified Governors that parts of their SIPs were inadequate to attain and maintain the ozone standard and requested that they correct the deficiencies (EPA's SIP- Call). See section 110(a)(2)(H) of the pre-amended Act.|
|November 15, 1990||Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 were enacted. Pub. L. 101-549, 104 Stat. 2399, codified at 42 U.S.C. 7401-7671 q.|
|Start Printed Page 70035|
|May 15, 1991||Section 182(a)(2)(A) requires that ozone nonattainment areas correct deficient RACT rules by this date.|
IV. Administrative Requirements
A. Executive Order 12866
The Office of Management and Budget has exempted this regulatory action from Executive Order 12866, Regulatory Planning and Review.
This proposed rule is not subject to Executive Order 13211, “Actions Concerning Regulations That Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use” (66 Fed. Reg. 28355 (May 22, 2001)) because it is not a significant regulatory action under Executive Order 12866.
Executive Order 13045, entitled Protection of Children from Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks (62 FR 19885, April 23, 1997), applies to any rule that: (1) Is determined to be “economically significant” as defined under Executive Order 12866, and (2) concerns an environmental health or safety risk that EPA has reason to believe may have a disproportionate effect on children. If the regulatory action meets both criteria, the Agency must evaluate the environmental health or safety effects of the planned rule on children, and explain why the planned regulation is preferable to other potentially effective and reasonably feasible alternatives considered by the Agency.
This rule is not subject to Executive Order 13045 because it does not involve decisions intended to mitigate environmental health or safety risks.
Executive Order 13132, entitled Federalism (64 FR 43255, August 10, 1999) revokes and replaces Executive Orders 12612, Federalism and 12875, Enhancing the Intergovernmental Partnership. Executive Order 13132 requires EPA to develop an accountable process to ensure “meaningful and timely input by State and local officials in the development of regulatory policies that have federalism implications.” “Policies that have federalism implications” is defined in the Executive Order to include regulations that have “substantial direct effects on the States, on the relationship between the national government and the States, or on the distribution of power and responsibilities among the various levels of government.” Under Executive Order 13132, EPA may not issue a regulation that has federalism implications, that imposes substantial direct compliance costs, and that is not required by statute, unless the Federal government provides the funds necessary to pay the direct compliance costs incurred by State and local governments, or EPA consults with State and local officials early in the process of developing the proposed regulation. EPA also may not issue a regulation that has federalism implications and that preempts State law unless the Agency consults with State and local officials early in the process of developing the proposed regulation.
This proposed rule will not have substantial direct effects on the States, on the relationship between the national government and the States, or on the distribution of power and responsibilities among the various levels of government, as specified in Executive Order 13132, because it merely acts on a state rule implementing a federal standard, and does not alter the relationship or the distribution of power and responsibilities established in the Clean Air Act. Thus, the requirements of section 6 of the Executive Order do not apply to this proposed rule.
Executive Order 13175, entitled “Consultation and Coordination with Indian Tribal Governments” (65 FR 67249, November 6, 2000), requires EPA to develop an accountable process to ensure “meaningful and timely input by tribal officials in the development of regulatory policies that have tribal implications.” “Policies that have tribal implications” is defined in the Executive Order to include regulations that have “substantial direct effects on one or more Indian tribes, on the relationship between the Federal government and the Indian tribes, or on the distribution of power and responsibilities between the Federal government and Indian tribes.”
This proposed rule does not have tribal implications. It will not have substantial direct effects on tribal governments, on the relationship between the Federal government and Indian tribes, or on the distribution of power and responsibilities between the Federal government and Indian tribes, as specified in Executive Order 13175. Thus, Executive Order 13175 does not apply to this rule. In the spirit of Executive Order 13175, and consistent with EPA policy to promote communications between EPA and tribal governments, EPA specifically solicits additional comment on this proposed rule from tribal officials.
F. Regulatory Flexibility Act
The Regulatory Flexibility Act (RFA) generally requires an agency to conduct a regulatory flexibility analysis of any rule subject to notice and comment rulemaking requirements unless the agency certifies that the rule will not have a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities. Small entities include small businesses, small not-for-profit enterprises, and small governmental jurisdictions.
This proposed rule will not have a significant impact on a substantial number of small entities because SIP approvals under section 110 and subchapter I, part D of the Clean Air Act do not create any new requirements but simply act on requirements that the State is already imposing. Therefore, because the Federal SIP approval does not create any new requirements, I certify that this action will not have a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities.
EPA's proposed disapproval of the state request under section 110 and subchapter I, part D of the Clean Air Act does not affect any existing requirements applicable to small entities. Any pre-existing federal requirements remain in place after this disapproval. Federal disapproval of the state submittal does not affect state enforceability. Moreover, EPA's disapproval of the submittal does not impose any new Federal requirements. Therefore, I certify that this action will not have a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities.
Moreover, due to the nature of the Federal-State relationship under the Clean Air Act, preparation of flexibility analysis would constitute Federal inquiry into the economic reasonableness of state action. The Clean Air Act forbids EPA to base its actions concerning SIPs on such grounds. Union Electric Co. v. U.S. EPA, 427 U.S. 246, 255-66 (1976); 42 U.S.C. 7410(a)(2).
G. Unfunded Mandates
Under section 202 of the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995 (“Unfunded Mandates Act”), signed into law on March 22, 1995, EPA must prepare a budgetary impact statement to accompany any proposed or final rule that includes a Federal mandate that Start Printed Page 70036may result in estimated costs to State, local, or tribal governments in the aggregate; or to the private sector, of $100 million or more. Under section 205, EPA must select the most cost-effective and least burdensome alternative that achieves the objectives of the rule and is consistent with statutory requirements. Section 203 requires EPA to establish a plan for informing and advising any small governments that may be significantly or uniquely impacted by the rule.
EPA has determined that the proposed action does not include a Federal mandate that may result in estimated costs of $100 million or more to either State, local, or tribal governments in the aggregate, or to the private sector. This proposed Federal action acts on pre-existing requirements under State or local law, and imposes no new requirements. Accordingly, no additional costs to State, local, or tribal governments, or to the private sector, result from this action.
H. National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act
Section 12 of the National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act (NTTAA) of 1995 requires Federal agencies to evaluate existing technical standards when developing a new regulation. To comply with NTTAA, EPA must consider and use “voluntary consensus standards” (VCS) if available and applicable when developing programs and policies unless doing so would be inconsistent with applicable law or otherwise impractical.
EPA believes that VCS are inapplicable to today's proposed action because it does not require the public to perform activities conducive to the use of VCS.Start List of Subjects
List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52
- Environmental protection
- Air pollution control
- Intergovernmental relations
- Nitrogen oxides
- Particulate matter
- Reporting and recordkeeping requirements
Dated: October 29, 2002.
Acting Regional Administrator, Region IX.
[FR Doc. 02-29477 Filed 11-19-02; 8:45 am]
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