Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), Department of Justice.
The Deputy Administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) is issuing this final rule to temporarily place alpha-methyltryptamine (AMT) and 5-methoxy-N,N-diisopropyltryptamine (5-MeO-DIPT) into Schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act (CSA) pursuant to the temporary scheduling provisions of the CSA. This final action is based on a finding by the DEA Deputy Administrator that the placement of AMT and 5-MeO-DIPT into Schedule I of the CSA is necessary to avoid an imminent hazard to the public safety. As a result of this rule, the criminal sanctions and regulatory controls of Schedule I substances under the CSA will be applicable to the manufacture, distribution, and possession of AMT and 5-MeO-DIPT.
April; 4. 2003.Start Further Info
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:
Frank Sapienza, Chief, Drug and Chemical Evaluation Section, Drug Enforcement Administration, Washington, DC 20537, (202) 307-7183.Start Printed Page 16428End Further Info End Preamble Start Supplemental Information
Under What Authority Are AMT and 5-MeO-DIPT Being Temporarily Scheduled?
The Comprehensive Crime Control Act of 1984 (Pub. L. 98-473), which was signed into law on October 12, 1984, amended section 201 of the CSA (21 U.S.C. 811) to give the Attorney General the authority to temporarily place a substance into Schedule I of the CSA for one year without regard to the requirements of 21 U.S.C. 811(b) if he finds that such action is necessary to avoid an imminent hazard to the public safety. The Attorney General may extend the temporary scheduling up to 6 months. A substance may be temporarily scheduled under the emergency provisions of the CSA if that substance is not listed in any other schedule under section 202 of the CSA (21 U.S.C. 812) or if there is no exemption or approval in effect under 21 U.S.C. 355 for the substance. The Attorney General has delegated his authority under 21 U.S.C. 811 to the Administrator of DEA (28 CFR 0.100). The Administrator has redelegated this function to the Deputy Administrator, pursuant to 28 CFR 0.104.
A notice of intent to temporarily place AMT and 5-MeO-DIPT into Schedule I of the CSA was published in the Federal Register on January 28, 2003 (68 FR 4127). The Deputy Administrator transmitted notice of his intention to temporarily place AMT and 5-MeO-DIPT into Schedule I of the CSA to the Assistant Secretary for Health of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). In response to this notification, the Food and Drug Administration has advised DEA that there are no exceptions or approvals in effect under 21 U.S.C. 355 of the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act for AMT and 5-MeO-DIPT and HHS has no objection to DEA's intention to temporarily place alpha-methyltryptamine and 5-methoxy-N,N-diisopropytryptamine into Schedule I of the CSA.
What Factors Were Considered in the Determination To Temporarily Schedule AMT and 5-MeO-DIPT?
As set forth under 21 U.S.C. 811(h), the Deputy Administrator has considered the available data and the following three factors under the CSA (21 U.S.C. 811(c)) that are required for a determination to temporarily schedule a substance:
4. Its history and current pattern of abuse;
5. The scope, duration, and significance of abuse; and
6. What, if any, risk there is to the public health.
Additionally, DEA has considered the three criteria for placing a substance into Schedule I of the CSA (21 U.S.C. 812). The data available and reviewed for AMT and 5-MeO-DIPT indicate that they have a high potential for abuse, no currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States and are not safe for use under medical supervision.
What Are AMT and 5-MeO DIPT?
Alpha-methyltryptamine (AMT) and 5-methosy-N, N-diisopropytryptamine (5-MeO-DIPT) are tryptamine (indoleethylamine) derivatives and share several similarities with the Schedule I tryptamine hallucinogens, alpha-ethyltryptamine (AET) and N, N-demethyltryptamine (DMT), respectively. Several other tryptamines also produce hallucinogenic/stimulant effects and are controlled as Schedule I substances under the CSA (bufotenine, diethyltryptamine, psilocybin and psilocyn). Although tryptamine itself appears to lack consistent hallucinogenic/stimulant effects, substitutions on the indole ring and the ethylamine side-chain of this molecule result in pharmacologically active substances (McKenna and Towers, J. Psychoactive Drugs, 16:347-358, 1984).
The chemical structures of AMT and 5-MeO-DIPT possess the critical features necessary for hallucinogenic/stimulant activity. Thus, both AMT and 5-MeO-DIPT are likely to have a pharmacological profile substantially similar to other Schedule I tryptamine derivatives such as DMT and AET. In drug discrimination studies, both AMT and 5-MeO-DIPT substitute for 1-(2,5-dimethosy-4-methylphenyl)-aminopropane (DOM), a phenethylamine-based hallucinogen in Schedule I of the CSA. The potencies of DOM-like discriminative stimulus effects of these and several other similar tryptamine derivatives correlate well with their hallucinogenic potencies in humans (Glennon et al., Eur. J. Pharmacol. 86: 453-459, 1983).
AMT shares other pharmacological properties with Schedule I hallucinogens such as AET, AMT increases systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressures. The behavioral effects of orally administered AMT (20 mg) in humans are slow in onset, occurring after 3 to 4 hours, and gradually subsiding after 12 to 24 hours, but may last up to 2 days in some subjects. The majority of the subjects report nervous tension, irritability, restlessness, inability to sleep, blurry vision, mydriasis and equate the effects of a 20 mg dose to those of 50 micrograms of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) (Hollister et al., J. Nervous Ment. Dis., 131:428-434, 1960; Murphree et al., Clin. Pharmacol. Ther., 2: 722-726, 1961). AMT also produces hallucinations and dextroamphetamine-like mood elevating effects.
5-MeO-DIPT also produces pharmacological effects similar to those of other Schedule I hallucinogens such as DMT. The synthesis and preliminary human psychopharmacology study on 5-MeO-DIPT was first published in 1981 (Shulgin and Carter, Comm. Physhopharmacol. 4: 363-369, 1981), 5-MeO-DIPT is an orally active hallucinogen. Following oral administration of 6-10 mg. 5-MeO-DIPT produces subjective effects with an onset at about 20-30 minutes, a peak at about 1-1.5 hours and a duration of about 3-6 hours. Subjects who have been administered 5-MeO-DIPT are talkative and disinhibited. 5-MeO-DIPT causes mydriasis. High doses of 5-MeO-DIPT produce nausea, jaw clenching, muscle tension and overt hallucinations with both auditory and visual distortions.
Why Are AMT and 5-MeO-DIPT Being Controlled?
The continued trafficking and abuse of AMT and 5-;MeO-DIPT pose an imminent hazard to public safety. The popularity and use of hallucinogenic/stimulant substances at raves (all-night dance parties) and other social venues have been a major problem in Europe since the 1990s. In the past several years, this activity has spread to the United States. The Schedule I controlled substance 3,4-methylendioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or Ecstasy) and its analogues are the most frequently abused drugs at these raves. Their abuse has been associated with both acute and long-term public health and safety problems. Raves have also become venues for the trafficking and abuse of new, non-controlled substances distributed as legal substitutes for, or in addition to, MDMA. 5-MeO-DIPT and AMT belong to such a group of substances.
Data gathered from published studies, supplemented by reports on Internet websites indicate that these are often administered orally at doses ranging from 15-40 mg for AMT ant 6-20 mg for 5-MeO-DIPT . Other routes of administration include smoking and snorting. Data from law-enforcement officials indicate that 5-MeO-DIPT is often sold as “Foxy” or “Foxy Methoxy”, while MAT has been sold as “Spirals” at lease in one case. Both substances have been commonly Start Printed Page 16429encountered in tablet and capsule forms.
According to forensic laboratory data, the first encounter of AMT and 5-MeO-DIPT occurred in 1999. Since then, law enforcement officials in Arizona, California, Colorado, Delaware, Florida, Idaho, Illinois, Iowa, New Jersey, Oregon, Texas, Virginia, Washington, Wisconsin and the District of Columbia have encountered these substances. According to the Florida Department of Law Enforcement (FDLE), the abuse by teens and young adults of AMT and 5-MeO-DIPT is an emerging problem. There have been reports of abuse of AMT and 5-MeO-DIPT at clubs and raves in Arizona, California, Florida and New York. Many tryptamine-based substances are illicitly available from United States and foreign chemical companies and from individuals through the Internet. A gram of AMT or 5-MeO-DIPT as bulk powdered costs less than $150 from illicit sources on the Internet. DEA is not aware of any legitimate medical or scientific use of AMT and 5-MeO-DIPT. There is recent evidence suggesting the attempted clandestine production of AMT and 5-MeO-DIPT in Nevada, Virginia and Washington, DC.
AMT and 5-MeO-DIPT share substantial chemical and pharmacological similarities with other Schedule I tryptamine-based hallucinogens in Schedule I of the CSA (AET and DMT). This makes it likely that these drugs cause similar health hazards. Tryptamine, the parent molecule of AMT and 5-MeO-DIPT, is known to produce convulsions and death in animals (Tedeschi et al., J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 126:223-232, 1959). AMT and 5-MeO-DIPT, similar to other tryptamine- or phenethylamine-based hallucinogens, through the alteration of sensory perception and judgement can pose serious health risks to the user and the general public. further, there have been several self-reports on Internet Web sites describing the reported abuse of these substances in combination with other controlled drugs, namely MDMA, marijuana, gamma hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and 2,5-dimethoxy-4-(n)-propylthiophenethylamine (2C-T-7). This practice of drug abuse involving combinations poses additional health risks to the users and the general public. Available information indicates that AMT and 5-MeO-DIPT lack any approved therapeutic use in the United States. The safety of these substances for use in humans has not been studied.
What Is the Effect of This Final Rule?
With the issuance of this final order, AMT and 5-MeO-DIPT become subject to regulatory controls and administrative, civil and criminal sanctions applicable to the manufacture, distribution, dispensing, importing and exporting of a Schedule I controlled substance.
1. Registration. Any person who manufactures, distributes, dispenses, imports or exports AMT and 5-MeO-DIPT or who engages in research or conducts instructional activities with respect to AMT and 5-MeO-DIPT or who proposes to engage in such activities must submit an application for Schedule I registration in accordance with part 1301 of Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) by May 5, 2003.
2. Security. AMT and 5-MeO-DIPT are subject to Secheule I security requirements and must be manufactured, distributed and stored in accordance with §§ 1301.71, 1301.72(a), (c), and (d), 1301.73, 1301.74, 1301.75 (a) and (c) and 1301.76 of Title 21 Code of Federal Regulations.
3. Labeling and packaging. All labels and labeling for commercial containers of AMT and 5-MeO-DIPT which are distributed on or after May 5, 2003 shall comply with requirements of §§ 1302.03-1302.07 of Title 21 of the Code Federal Regulations.
4. Quotas. Quotas for AMT and 5-MeO-DIPT are established pursuant to part 1303 of title 21 of the code of Federal Regulations.
5. Inventory. Every registrant required to keep records who possesses any quantity of AMT and 5-MeO-DIPT is required to keep inventory of all stocks of the substances on hand pursuant to §§ 1304.03, 1304.04 and 1304.11 of Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations. Every registrant who desires registration in Schedule I for AMT and 5-MeO-DIPT shall conduct an inventory of all stocks of AMT and 5-MeO-DIPT on or before May 5, 2003.
6. Records. All registrants are required to keep records pursuant to §§ 1304.03, 1304.04 and §§ 1304.21-1304.23 of Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations.
7. Reports. All registrants required to submit reports in accordance with §§ 1304.31 through §§ 1304.33 of Title 21 of the Code Federal Regulations shall do so regarding AMT and 5-MeO-DIPT.
8. Order Forms. All registrants involved in the distribution of AMT and 5-MeO-DIPT must comply with the order form requirements of part 1305 of Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations.
9. Importation and Exportation. All importation and exportation of AMT and 5-MeO-DIPT shall be in compliance with part 1312 of Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations.
10. Criminal Liability. Any activity with AMT and 5-MeO-DIPT not authorized by, or in violation of, the CSA or the Controlled Substances Import and Export Act occurring on or after April 4, 2003 is unlawful.
Regulatory Flexibility Act
The Deputy Administrator hereby certifies that this rulemaking has been drafted in accordance with the Regulatory Flexibility Act (5 U.S.C. 605(b)), has reviewed this regulation, and by approving it certifies that this regulation will not have a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities. This action temporarily places AMT and 5-MeO-DIPT into Schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act.
This regulation meets the applicable standards set forth in Sections 3(a) and 3(b)(2) of Executive order 12988 Civil Justice Reform.
Executive Order 13132 Federalism
This rule will not have substantial direct effects on the States, on the relationship between the national government and the States, or on the distribution of power and responsibilities among the various levels of government. Therefore, in accordance with Executive Order 13132, it is determined that this rule will not have sufficient federalism implications to warrant the preparation of a Federalism Assessment.
Unfunded Mandates Reform Act
This rule will not result in the expenditure by State, local and tribal governments, in the aggregate, or by the private sector, of $100,000,000 or more in any one year, and it will not significantly or uniquely affect small governments. Therefore, no actions were deemed necessary under provisions of the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995.
Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act of 1996
This rule is not a major rule as defined by § 804 of the Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act of 1996. This rule will not result in an annual effect on the economy of $100,000,000 or more; a major increase in costs or prices; or significant adverse effects on competition, employment, investment, productivity, innovation, or on the ability of United States-based Start Printed Page 16430companies to compete with foreign-based companies in domestic and export markets.Start List of Subjects
List of Subjects in 21 CFR Part 1308
- Administrative practice and procedure
- Drug traffic control
- Prescription drugs
- Reporting and Record keeping requirements
Under the authority vested in the Attorney General by section 201(h) of the CSA (21 U.S.C. 811(h)), and delegated to the Administrator of the DEA by 28 CFR 0.100, and redelegated to the Deputy Administrator pursuant to 28 CFR 0.104, the Deputy Administrator hereby amends 21 CFR part 1308 as follows:End Amendment Part Start Part
PART 1308—SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES [Amended]End Part Start Amendment Part
1. The authority citation for 21 CFR Part 1308 continues to read as follows:End Amendment Part Start Amendment Part
2. Section 1308.11 is amended by adding paragraphs (g)(6) and (g)(7) to read as follows:End Amendment Part
(g) * * *
(6) Alpha-methyltryptamine (AMT), its isomers, salts and salts of isomers—7432.
(7) 5-methoxy-N,N-diisopropyltryptamine (5-MeO-DIPT), its isomers, salts and salts of isomers—7439.
Dated: March 27, 2003.
John B. Brown III,
[FR Doc. 03-8171 Filed 4-3-03; 8:45 am]
BILLING CODE 4410-09-M