Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT.
Final special conditions; request for comments
These special conditions are issued for Boeing Model 747SP series; 747-100 series; and 747-200B, -200C, and -200F series airplanes. These airplanes will have a novel or unusual design feature when compared to the state of technology envisioned in the airworthiness standards for transport category airplanes. The airplane modification includes the installation of an Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS), which performs critical functions. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not contain adequate or appropriate safety standards for the protection of this system from the effects of high-intensity-radiated fields (HIRF). These special conditions contain the additional safety standards that the Administrator considers necessary to establish a level of safety equivalent to that established by the existing airworthiness standards.
The effective date of these special conditions is June 10, 2003. Comments must be received on or before July 18, 2003.
Comments on these special conditions may be mailed in duplicate to: Federal Aviation Administration, Transport Airplane Directorate, Attention: Rules Docket (ANM-113), Docket No. NM257, 1601 Lind Avenue, SW., Renton, Washington 98055-4056; or delivered in duplicate to the Transport Airplane Directorate at the above address. All comments must be marked: Docket No. NM257.Start Further Info
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:
Greg Dunn, FAA, Airplane and Flight Crew Branch, ANM-111, Transport Airplane Directorate, Aircraft Certification Service, 1601 Lind Avenue, SW., Renton, Washington 98055-4056; telephone (425) 227-2799; facsimile (425) 227-1149.End Further Info End Preamble Start Supplemental Information
The FAA has determined that notice and opportunity for public comment in accordance with 14 CFR 11.38 are unnecessary, because the FAA has provided previous opportunities to comment on substantially identical special conditions and has fully considered and addressed all the substantive comments received. Based on a review of the comment history and the comment resolution, the FAA is satisfied that new comments are unlikely. The FAA, therefore, finds that good cause exists for making these special conditions effective upon issuance.
However, the FAA invites interested persons to participate in this rulemaking by submitting written comments, data, or views. The most helpful comments reference a specific portion of the special conditions, explain the reason for any recommended change, and include supporting data. We ask that you send us two copies of written comments.
We will file in the docket all comments we receive, as well as a report summarizing each substantive public contact with FAA personnel concerning these special conditions. The docket is available for public inspection before and after the comment closing date. If you wish to review the docket in person, go to the address in the ADDRESSES section of this preamble between 7:30 a.m. and 4 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays.
We will consider all comments we receive on or before the closing date for comments. We will consider comments filed late if it is possible to do so without incurring expense or delay. We may change these special conditions based on the comments we receive.
If you want the FAA to acknowledge receipt of your comments on these special conditions, include with your comments a pre-addressed, stamped postcard on which the docket number appears. We will stamp the date on the postcard and mail it back to you.
On May 1, 2002, J.R.G Design submitted an application to the New York Aircraft Certification Office for a Supplemental Type Certificate (STC). The Boeing Model 747SP series; 747-100 series; and 747-200B, -200C, and -200F series airplanes are being modified for use by a head of state; they are non N-registered airplanes operating under part 91. This project involves replacing round dial displays in the cockpit with four EFIS displays. The EFIS upgrade is for multiple airplane installations. These systems may be vulnerable to HIRF external to the airplane.
Type Certification Basis
Under the provisions of 14 CFR 21.17, J.R.G Design, Inc. must show that Boeing Model 747SP series; 747-100 series; and 747-200B, -200C, and -200F series airplanes meet the applicable provisions in effect on the date of application for the supplemental type certificate or applicable provisions of 14 CFR part 25, as amended by Amendments 21-1 through 25-106, for areas affected by the change to the greatest extent feasible. If the Administrator finds that the applicable airworthiness regulations (i.e., part 25 as amended) do not contain adequate or appropriate safety standards for Boeing Model 747SP series; 747-100 series; and 747-200 series airplanes because of a novel or unusual design feature, special conditions are prescribed under the provisions of § 21.16.
In addition to the applicable airworthiness regulations and special conditions, Boeing Model 747SP series; 747-100 series; and 747-200B, -200C, and -200F series airplanes must comply with the fuel vent and exhaust emission requirements of 14 CFR part 34 and the noise certification requirements of 14 CFR part 36, and the FAA must issue a finding of regulatory adequacy pursuant to § 611 of Public Law 92-574, the “Noise Control Act of 1972.”
Special conditions, as defined in 14 CFR 11.19, are issued in accordance with § 11.38 and become part of the type Start Printed Page 36450certification basis in accordance with § 21.101(a)(2).
Special conditions are initially applicable to the model for which they are issued. Should the type certificate for that model be amended later to include any other model that incorporates the same novel or unusual design feature, these special conditions would also apply to the other model under the provisions of § 21.101(a)(1), Amendment 21-69, effective September 16, 1991.
Novel or Unusual Design Features
As noted earlier, Boeing Model 747SP series; 747-100 series; and 747-200B, -200C, and -200F series airplanes will incorporate four EFIS displays (two for each pilot) that will perform critical functions. These systems may be vulnerable to HIRF external to the airplane. The current airworthiness standards of part 25 do not contain adequate or appropriate safety standards for the protection of this equipment from the adverse effects of HIRF. Accordingly, these systems are considered to be novel or unusual designs.
There is no specific regulation that addresses protection requirements for electrical and electronic systems from HIRF. Increased power levels from ground-based radio transmitters and the growing use of sensitive avionics/electronics and electrical systems to command and control airplanes have made it necessary to provide adequate protection.
To ensure that a level of safety is achieved equivalent to that intended by the regulations incorporated by reference, special conditions are needed for Boeing Model 747SP series; 747-100 series; and 747-200B, -200C, and -200F series airplanes. These special conditions require that avionic/electronic and electrical systems that perform critical functions be designed and installed to preclude component damage and interruption of function due to both the direct and indirect effects of HIRF.
High-Intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF)
With the trend toward increased power levels from ground-based transmitters and the advent of space and satellite communications, coupled with electronic command and control of the airplane, the immunity of critical avionic/electronic and electrical systems to HIRF must be established.
It is not possible to precisely define the HIRF to which the airplane will be exposed in service. There is also uncertainty concerning the effectiveness of airframe shielding for HIRF. Furthermore, coupling of electromagnetic energy to cockpit-installed equipment through the cockpit window apertures is undefined. Based on surveys and analysis of existing HIRF emitters, an adequate level of protection exists when compliance with the HIRF protection special condition is shown with either paragraph 1 or 2 below:
1. A minimum threat of 100 volts rms (root-mean-square) per meter electric field strength from 10 KHz to 18 GHz.
a. The threat must be applied to the system elements and their associated wiring harnesses without the benefit of airframe shielding.
b. Demonstration of this level of protection is established through system tests and analysis.
2. A threat external to the airframe of the field strengths identified in the table below for the frequency ranges indicated. Both peak and average field strength components from the table are to be demonstrated.
|Frequency||Field strength (volts per meter)|
|10 kHz-100 kHz||50|
|100 kHz-500 kHz||50|
|500 kHz-2 MHz||50|
|2 MHz-30 MHz||100|
|30 MHzs-70 MHz||50|
|70 MHz-100 MHz||50|
|100 MHz-200 MHz||100|
|200 MHz-400 MHz||100|
|400 MHz-700 MHz||700|
|700 MHz-1 GHz||700|
|1 GHz-2 GHz||2000|
|2 GHz-4 GHz||3000|
|6 GHz-8 GHz||1000|
|8 GHz-12 GHz||3000|
|12 GHz-18 GHz||2000|
|18 GHz-40 GHz||600|
|Note.— The field strengths are expressed in terms of peak of the root-mean-square (rms) over the complete modulation period.|
The threat levels identified above are the result of an FAA review of existing studies on the subject of HIRF, in light of the ongoing work of the Electromagnetic Effects Harmonization Working Group of the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee.
As discussed above, these special conditions are applicable to Boeing Model 747SP series; 747-110 series; and 747-200B, -200C, and -200F series airplanes. Should J.R.G. Design apply at a later date for a type certificate change for these airplane models incorporating the same novel or unusual design feature, these special conditions would apply to those airplanes as well, under the provisions of § 21.101(a)(1), Amendment 21-69, effective September 16, 1991.
This action affects only certain novel or unusual design features on Boeing Model 747SP series; 747-100 series; and 747-200B, -200C, and -200F series airplanes. It is not a rule of general applicability and affects only the applicant which applied to the FAA for approval of these features on the airplane. The FAA has determined that notice and opportunity for public comment are unnecessary, because the FAA has provided previous opportunities to comment on substantially identical special conditions and has fully considered and addressed all the substantive comments received. The FAA is satisfied that new comments are unlikely and finds, therefore, that good cause exists for making these special conditions effective upon issuance.Start List of Subjects
List of Subjects in 14 CFR Part 25End List of Subjects
The authority citation for these special conditions is as follows:
The Special Conditions
Accordingly, pursuant to the authority delegated to me by the Administrator, the following special conditions are issued as part of the type certification basis for Boeing Model 747SP series; 747-100 series; and 747-200B, -200C, and -200F series airplanes.
1. Protection From Unwanted Effects of High-Intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF). Each electrical and electronic system that performs critical functions must be designed and installed to ensure that the operation and operational capability of these systems to perform critical functions are not adversely affected when the airplane is exposed to high-intensity radiated fields.
2. For the purpose of these special conditions, the following definition applies: Critical Functions: Functions whose failure would contribute to or cause a failure condition that would prevent the continued safe flight and landing of the airplane.Start Signature
Issued in Renton, Washington on June 10, 2003.
Kalene C. Yanamura,
Acting Manager, Transport Airplane Directorate, Aircraft Certification Service.
[FR Doc. 03-15401 Filed 6-17-03; 8:45 am]
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