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Special Conditions: Cessna Aircraft Company; EFIS on the Cessna 172R and 172S; Protection of Systems for High Intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF)

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Start Preamble

AGENCY:

Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT.

ACTION:

Final special conditions; request for comments.

SUMMARY:

These special conditions are issued for the Cessna Aircraft Company, Model 172R and 172S airplanes. These airplanes, as modified by Cessna Aircraft Company, will have a novel or unusual design feature(s) associated with the installation of a Garmin G1000 electronic flight instrument system (EFIS) and the protection of this system from the effects of high intensity radiated field (HIRF) environments. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not contain adequate or appropriate safety standards for this design feature. These special conditions contain the additional safety standards that the Administrator considers necessary to establish a level of safety equivalent to that established by the existing airworthiness standards.

DATES:

The effective date of these special conditions is March 2, 2005. Start Printed Page 11842Comments must be received on or before April 11, 2005.

ADDRESSES:

Comments may be mailed in duplicate to: Federal Aviation Administration, Regional Counsel, ACE-7, Attention: Rules Docket Clerk, Docket No. marked: Docket No. CE219. Comments may be inspected in the Rules Docket weekdays, except Federal holidays, between 7:30 a.m. and 4 p.m.

Start Further Info

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:

Wes Ryan, Aerospace Engineer, Standards Office (ACE-110), Small Airplane Directorate, Aircraft Certification Service, Federal Aviation Administration, 901 Locust, Room 301, Kansas City, Missouri 64106; telephone (816) 329-4127.

End Further Info End Preamble Start Supplemental Information

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:

The FAA has determined that notice and opportunity for prior public comment hereon are impracticable because these procedures would significantly delay issuance of the design approval and thus delivery of the affected aircraft. In addition, the substance of these special conditions has been subject to the public comment process in several prior instances with no substantive comments received. The FAA, therefore, finds that good cause exists for making these special conditions effective upon issuance.

Comments Invited

Interested persons are invited to submit such written data, views, or arguments, as they may desire. Communications should identify the regulatory docket or notice number and be submitted in duplicate to the address specified above. All communications received on or before the closing date for comments will be considered by the Administrator. The special conditions may be changed in light of the comments received. All comments received will be available in the Rules Docket for examination by interested persons, both before and after the closing date for comments. A report summarizing each substantive public contact with FAA personnel concerning this rulemaking will be filed in the docket. Commenters wishing the FAA to acknowledge receipt of their comments submitted in response to this notice must include a self-addressed, stamped postcard on which the following statement is made: “Comments to Docket No. CE219.” The postcard will be date stamped and returned to the commenter.

Background

On January 28, 2004, Cessna Aircraft Company; One Cessna Boulevard; Post Office Box 7704; Wichita, KS 67277, made an application to the FAA for an amended type certificate for the Cessna 172R and 172S. The 172R and 172S are currently approved under TC No. 3A12. The proposed modification incorporates a novel or unusual design feature, such as digital avionics consisting of an EFIS that may be vulnerable to HIRF external to the airplane.

Type Certification Basis

Under the provisions of 14 CFR part 21, § 21.101, Cessna Aircraft Company must show that the Cessna Model 172R and 172S meet the following provisions or the applicable provisions in effect on the date of application for type certification of the Cessna 172R and 172S.

For the 172R Series:

14 CFR part 23 of the Federal Aviation Regulations effective February 1, 1965, as amended by 23-1 through 23-6, except as follows: Sec. 23.423; 23.611; 23.619; 23.623; 23.689; 23.775; 23.871; 23.1323; and 23.1563 as amended by Amendment 23-7. Sections 23.807 and 23.1524 as amended by Amendment 23-10. Sections 23.507; 23.771; 23.853(a), (b) and (c); and 23.1365 as amended by Amendment 23-14. Section 23.951 as amended by Amendment 23-15. Sections 23.607; 23.675; 23.685; 23.733; 23.787; 23.1309 and 23.1322 as amended by Amendment 23-17. Section 23.1301 as amended by Amendment 23-20. Section 23.1353; and 23.1559 as amended by Amendment 23-21. Sections 23.603; 23.605; 23.613; 23.1329 and 23.1545 as amended by Amendment 23-23. Sections 23.441 and 23.1549 as amended by Amendment 23-28. Sections 23.779 and 23.781 as amended by Amendment 23-33. Sections 23.1; 23.51 and 23.561 as amended by Amendment 23-34. Sections 23.301; 23.331; 23.351; 23.427; 23.677; 23.701; 23.735; and 23.831 as amended by Amendment 23-42. Sections 23.961; 23.1093; 23.1143(g); 23.1147(b); 23.1303; 23.1357; 23.1361 and 23.1385 as amended by Amendment 23-43. Sections 23.562(a), 23.562(b)2, 23.562(c)1, 23.562(c)2, 23.562(c)3, and 23.562(c)4 as amended by Amendment 23-44. Sections 23.33; 23.53; 23.305; 23.321; 23.485; 23.621; 23.655 and 23.731 as amended by Amendment 23-45. 14 CFR part 36 dated December 1, 1969, as amended by Amendments 36-1 through 36-21, additional certification requirements applied to the G1000 system itself, such as 23.1309 and 23.1311 as amended by Amendment 23-49, 23.1321 as amended by Amendment 23-41, and 23.1322 as amended by Amendment 23-43, exemptions, if any; and the special conditions adopted by this rulemaking action.

For the 172S series:

14 CFR part 23 effective February 1, 1965, as amended by 23-1 through 23-6, except as follows: Sections 23.423; 23.611; 23.619; 23.623; 23.689; 23.775; 23.871; 23.1323; and 23.1563 as amended by Amendment 23-7. Sections 23.807 and 23.1524 as amended by Amendment 23-10. Sections 23.507; 23.771; 23.853(a), (b) and (c); and 23.1365 as amended by Amendment 23-14. Section 23.951 as amended by Amendment 23-15. Sections 23.607; 23.675; 23.685; 23.733; 23.787; 23.1309 and 23.1322 as amended by Amendment 23-17. Section 23.1301 as amended by Amendment 23-20. Sections 23.1353; and 23.1559 as amended by Amendment 23-21. Sections 23.603; 23.605; 23.613; 23.1329 and 23.1545 as amended by Amendment 23-23. Sections 23.441 and 23.1549 as amended by Amendment 23-28. Sections 23.779 and 23.781 as amended by Amendment 23-33. Sections 23.1; 23.51 and 23.561 as amended by Amendment 23-34. Sections 23.301; 23.331; 23.351; 23.427; 23.677; 23.701; 23.735; and 23.831 as amended by Amendment 23-42. Sections 23.961; 23.1093; 23.1143(g); 23.1147(b); 23.1303; 23.1357; 23.1361 and 23.1385 as amended by Amendment 23-43. Sections 23.562(a), 23.562(b)2, 23.562(c)1, 23.562(c)2, 23.562(c)3, and 23.562(c)4 as amended by Amendment 23-44. Sections 23.33; 23.53; 23.305; 23.321; 23.485; 23.621; 23.655 and 23.731 as amended by Amendment 23-45. 14 CFR part 36 dated December 1, 1969, as amended by Amendments 36-1 through 36-21, additional certification requirements applied to the G1000 system itself, such as 23.1309 and 23.1311 as amended by Amendment 23-49, 23.1321 as amended by Amendment 23-41, and 23.1322 as amended by Amendment 23-43, exemptions, if any; and the special conditions adopted by this rulemaking action.

Discussion

If the Administrator finds that the applicable airworthiness standards do not contain adequate or appropriate safety standards because of novel or unusual design features of an airplane, special conditions are prescribed under the provisions of § 21.16.

Special conditions, as appropriate, as defined in § 11.19, are issued in accordance with § 11.38 after public notice and become part of the type certification basis in accordance with § 21.101.Start Printed Page 11843

Special conditions are initially applicable to the model for which they are issued. Should the type certificate for that model be amended later to include any other model that incorporates the same novel or unusual design feature, the special conditions would also apply to the other model under the provisions of § 21.101.

Novel or Unusual Design Features

The Cessna Model 172R and Model 172S will incorporate the following novel or unusual design features: A Garmin G1000 electronic flight instrument system (EFIS) including a primary flight display on the pilot side as well as a multifunction display in the center of the instrument panel.

Protection of Systems From High Intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF): Recent advances in technology have given rise to the application in aircraft designs of advanced electrical and electronic systems that perform functions required for continued safe flight and landing. Due to the use of sensitive solid-state advanced components in analog and digital electronics circuits, these advanced systems are readily responsive to the transient effects of induced electrical current and voltage caused by the HIRF. The HIRF can degrade electronic systems performance by damaging components or upsetting system functions.

Furthermore, the HIRF environment has undergone a transformation that was not foreseen when the current requirements were developed. Higher energy levels are radiated from transmitters that are used for radar, radio, and television. Also, the number of transmitters has increased significantly. There is also uncertainty concerning the effectiveness of airframe shielding for HIRF. Furthermore, coupling to cockpit-installed equipment through the cockpit window apertures is undefined.

The combined effect of the technological advances in airplane design and the changing environment has resulted in an increased level of vulnerability of electrical and electronic systems required for the continued safe flight and landing of the airplane. Effective measures against the effects of exposure to HIRF must be provided by the design and installation of these systems. The accepted maximum energy levels in which civilian airplane system installations must be capable of operating safely are based on surveys and analysis of existing radio frequency emitters. These special conditions require that the airplane be evaluated under these energy levels for the protection of the electronic system and its associated wiring harness. These external threat levels, which are lower than previous required values, are believed to represent the worst case to which an airplane would be exposed in the operating environment.

These special conditions require qualification of systems that perform critical functions, as installed in aircraft, to the defined HIRF environment in paragraph 1 or, as an option to a fixed value using laboratory tests, in paragraph 2, as follows:

(1) The applicant may demonstrate that the operation and operational capability of the installed electrical and electronic systems that perform critical functions are not adversely affected when the aircraft is exposed to the HIRF environment defined below:

FrequencyField strength (volts per meter)
PeakAverage
10 kHz-100kHz5050
100 kHz-500 kHz5050
500 kHz-2 MHz5050
2 MHz-30 MHz100100
30 MHz-70 MHz5050
70 MHz-100 MHz5050
100 MHz-200 MHz100100
200 MHz-400 MHz100100
400 MHz-700 MHz70050
700 MHz-1 GHz700100
1 GHz-2 GHz2000200
2 GHz-4 GHz3000200
4 GHz-6 GHz3000200
6 GHz-8 GHz1000200
8 GHz-12 GHz3000300
12 GHz-18 GHz2000200
18 GHz-40 GHz600200

The field strengths are expressed in terms of peak root-mean-square (rms) values.

or,

(2) The applicant may demonstrate by a system test and analysis that the electrical and electronic systems that perform critical functions can withstand a minimum threat of 100 volts per meter, electrical field strength, from 10 kHz to 18 GHz. When using this test to show compliance with the HIRF requirements, no credit is given for signal attenuation due to installation.

A preliminary hazard analysis must be performed by the applicant for approval by the FAA to identify either electrical or electronic systems that perform critical functions. The term “critical” means those functions, whose failure would contribute to, or cause, a failure condition that would prevent the continued safe flight and landing of the airplane. The systems identified by the hazard analysis that perform critical functions are candidates for the application of HIRF requirements. A system may perform both critical and non-critical functions. Primary electronic flight display systems, and their associated components, perform critical functions such as attitude, altitude, and airspeed indication. The HIRF requirements apply only to critical functions.

Compliance with HIRF requirements may be demonstrated by tests, analysis, models, similarity with existing systems, or any combination of these. Service experience alone is not acceptable since normal flight operations may not include an exposure to the HIRF environment. Reliance on a system with similar design features for redundancy as a means of protection against the effects of external HIRF is generally insufficient since all elements of a redundant system are likely to be exposed to the fields concurrently.

Applicability

As discussed above, these special conditions are applicable to the Cessna 172R and 172S airplanes. Should the Cessna Aircraft Company apply at a later date to modify any other model on the same type certificate to incorporate the same novel or unusual design feature, the special conditions would apply to that model as well under the provisions of § 21.101.

Conclusion

This action affects only certain novel or unusual design features on one model of airplane. It is not a rule of general applicability and affects only the applicant who applied to the FAA for approval of these features on the airplane.

The substance of these special conditions has been subjected to the notice and comment period in several prior instances and has been derived without substantive change from those previously issued. It is unlikely that prior public comment would result in a significant change from the substance contained herein. For this reason, and because a delay would significantly affect the certification of the airplane, which is imminent, the FAA has determined that prior public notice and comment are unnecessary and impracticable, and good cause exists for adopting these special conditions upon issuance. The FAA is requesting comments to allow interested persons to submit views that may not have been submitted in response to the prior opportunities for comment described above.

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List of Subjects in 14 CFR Part 23

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Citation

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The authority citation for these special conditions is as follows:

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Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40113 and 44701; 14 CFR 21.16 and 21.17; and 14 CFR 11.38 and 11.19.

End Authority

The Special Conditions

Start Amendment Part

Accordingly, pursuant to the authority delegated to me by the Administrator, the following special conditions are issued as part of the type certification basis for Cessna 172R and 172S airplanes modified by the Cessna Aircraft Company to add the Garmin G1000 EFIS system.

End Amendment Part

1. Protection of Electrical and Electronic Systems from High Intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF). Each system that performs critical functions must be designed and installed to ensure that the operations, and operational capabilities of these systems to perform critical functions, are not adversely affected when the airplane is exposed to high intensity radiated electromagnetic fields external to the airplane.

2. For the purpose of these special conditions, the following definition applies: Critical Functions: Functions whose failure would contribute to, or cause, a failure condition that would prevent the continued safe flight and landing of the airplane.

Start Signature

Issued in Kansas City, Missouri on March 2, 2005.

Nancy C. Lane,

Acting Manager, Small Airplane Directorate, Aircraft Certification Service.

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[FR Doc. 05-4745 Filed 3-9-05; 8:45 am]

BILLING CODE 4910-13-P