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Workforce Investment Act; Lower Living Standard Income Level

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Employment and Training Administration, Labor.


Notice of determination of lower living standard income level.


Under Title I of the Workforce Investment Act (WIA) of 1998 (Pub. L. 105-220), the Secretary of Labor annually determines the Lower Living Standard Income level (LLSIL) for uses described in the law. WIA defines the term “Low Income Individual” as one who qualifies under various criteria, including an individual who received income for a six-month period that does not exceed the higher level of the poverty line or 70 percent of the LLSIL. This issuance provides the Secretary's annual LLSIL for 2007 and references the current 2007 Health and Human Services “Poverty Guidelines.”


Effective Date: This notice is effective on the date of publication in the Federal Register.


Send written comments to: Mr. Evan Rosenberg, Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW., Room N-4464, Washington, DC 20210.

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Please contact Mr. Evan Rosenberg, telephone 202-693-3593; fax 202-693-3532 (these are not toll free numbers).

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It is the purpose of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 “to provide workforce investment activities, through statewide and local workforce investment systems, Start Printed Page 30859that increase the employment, retention, and earnings of participants, and increase occupational skill attainment by participants, and as a result, improve the quality of the workforce, reduce welfare dependency, and enhance the productivity and competitiveness of the Nation.”

The LLSIL is used for several purposes under WIA. Specifically, WIA Section 101(25) defines the term “low income individual” for eligibility purposes, and Sections 127(b)(2)(C) and 132(b)(1)(B)(v)(IV) define the terms “disadvantaged youth” and “disadvantaged adult” in terms of the poverty line or LLSIL for state formula allotments. The Governor and state/local workforce investment boards (WIBs) use the LLSIL for determining eligibility for youth, eligibility for employed adult workers for certain services and for the Work Opportunity Tax Credit (WOTC). We encourage the Governors and state/local WIBs to consult WIA regulations and the preamble to the WIA Final Rule (published at 65 FR 49294 August 11, 2000) for more specific guidance in applying the LLSIL to program requirements. The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) published the annual 2007 update of the poverty-level guidelines in the Federal Register at 72 FR 3147-3148 on January 24, 2007. The HHS 2007 Poverty guidelines may also be found on the Internet at:​poverty/​07fedreg.htm. ETA plans to have the 2007 LLSIL available on its Web site at​llsil/​.

WIA Section 101(24) defines the LLSIL as “that income level (adjusted for regional, metropolitan, urban and rural differences and family size) determined annually by the Secretary [of Labor] based on the most recent lower living family budget issued by the Secretary.” The most recent lower living family budget was issued by the Secretary in the fall of 1981. The four-person urban family budget estimates, previously published by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), provided the basis for the Secretary to determine the LLSIL. BLS terminated the four-person family budget series in 1982, after publication of the fall 1981 estimates. Currently, BLS provides data to ETA through which it develops the LLSIL tables.

ETA published the 2006 updates to the LLSIL in the Federal Register of June 1, 2006, at 71 FR 31215. This notice again updates the LLSIL to reflect cost of living increases for 2006, by applying the percentage change in the December 2006, Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (CPI-U), compared with the December 2005, CPI-U to each of the June 1, 2006, LLSIL figures. Those updated figures for a family-of-four are listed in Table 1, by region for both metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas. Figures in all of the accompanying tables are rounded up to the nearest tenth. Since low income individuals, “disadvantaged adult” and “disadvantaged youth” may be determined by family income at 70 percent of the LLSIL, pursuant to WIA Sections 101(25), 127(b)(2)(C), and 132(b)(1)(B)(v)(IV), respectively, those figures are listed below as well.

Jurisdictions included in the various regions, based generally on Census Divisions of the U.S. Department of Commerce, are as follows:


Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Virgin Islands.


Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin.


Alabama, American Samoa, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Northern Marianas, Oklahoma, Palau, Puerto Rico, South Carolina, Kentucky, Louisiana, Marshall Islands, Maryland, Micronesia, Mississippi, North Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia.


Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.

Additionally, separate figures have been provided for Alaska, Hawaii, and Guam as indicated in Table 2.

For Alaska, Hawaii, and Guam, the year 2006 figures were updated from the June 1, 2006, “State Index” based on the ratio of the urban change in the state (using Anchorage for Alaska and Honolulu for Hawaii and Guam) compared to the West regional metropolitan change, and then applying that index to the West regional metropolitan change.

Data on 23 selected MSAs are also available. These are based on semiannual CPI-U changes for a 12-month period ending in December 2006. The updated LLSIL figures for these MSAs and 70 percent of the LLSIL are reported in Table 3.

Table 4 below lists each of the various figures at 70 percent of the updated 2007 LLSIL for family sizes of one to six persons. For families larger than six persons, an amount equal to the difference between the six-person and the five-person family income levels should be added to the six-person family income level for each additional person in the family. Where the poverty level for a particular family size is greater than the corresponding LLSIL figure, the figure is indicated in parentheses. Table 5, 100 percent of LLSIL, is used to determine self-sufficiency as noted at 20 CFR 663.230 of WIA Regulations and WIA Section 134(d)(3)(A)(ii).

Use of These Data

Governors should designate the appropriate LLSILs for use within the state from Tables 1 through 3. Tables 4 and 5 may be used with any of the levels designated. The Governor's designation may be provided by disseminating information on MSAs and metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas within the state, or it may involve further calculations. For example, the State of New Jersey may have four or more LLSIL figures for Northeast metropolitan, Northeast non-metropolitan, portions of the State in the New York City MSA, and those in the Philadelphia MSA. If a workforce investment area includes areas that would be covered by more than one figure, the Governor may determine which is to be used.

Under 20 CFR 661.110, a state's policies and measures for the workforce investment system shall be accepted by the Secretary to the extent that they are consistent with the WIA and the WIA regulations.

Disclaimer on Statistical Uses

It should be noted, the publication of these figures is only for the purpose of meeting the requirements specified by WIA as defined in the law and regulations. BLS has not revised the lower living family budget since 1981, and has no plans to do so. The four-person urban family budget estimates series has been terminated. The CPI-U adjustments used to update the LLSIL for this publication are not precisely comparable, most notably because certain tax items were included in the 1981 LLSIL, but are not in the CPI-U. Thus, these figures should not be used for any statistical purposes, and are valid only for those purposes under WIA as defined in the law and regulations. Start Printed Page 30860

Lower Living Standard Income Level for 2007

Under Title I of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (Pub. L. 105-220) (WIA), the Secretary of Labor annually determines the Lower Living Standard Income Level (LLSIL). This Notice announces the LLSIL Tables for 2007. WIA requires the Department of Labor to update and publish the LLSIL tables annually. The LLSIL tables are used for several purposes under WIA, determining eligibility for youth and for the Work Opportunity Tax Credit.

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Signed at Washington, DC, this 29th day, of May, 2007.

Emily Stover DeRocco,

Assistant Secretary, ETA.

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Table 1.—Lower Living Standard Income Level (for a Family of Four Persons) by Region 1

Region 22007 adjusted LLSIL70 percent LLSIL
Non-Metro 334,63024,240
Non-Metro 434,08023,860
1 For ease of use, these figures have been rounded to the next highest ten dollars.
2 Metropolitan area measures were calculated from the weighted average CPI-Us for city size classes A and B/C. Non-metropolitan area measures were calculated from the CPI-Us for city size class D.
3 Non-metropolitan area percent changes for the Northeast region are no longer available. The Non-metropolitan percent change was calculated using the U.S. average CPI-U for city size Class D.
4 Non-metropolitan area percent changes for the West region are unpublished data.

Table 2.—Lower Living Standard Income Level (for a Family of Four Persons)—Alaska, Hawaii and Guam 1

Region2007 adjusted LLSIL70 percent LLSIL
Non-Metro 242,76029,930
Hawaii, Guam:
Non-Metro 245,65031,960
1 Rounded to next highest ten dollars.
2 Non-Metropolitan percent changes for Alaska, Hawaii and Guam were calculated from the CPI-Us for city size Class D in the Western Region.

Table 3.—Lower Living Standard Income Level (for a Family of Four Persons) 23 MSAs 1

Metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs)2007 Adjusted LLSIL70 percent LLSIL
Anchorage, AK$43,340$30,340
Atlanta, GA30,47021,330
Boston-Brockton-Nashua, MA/NH/ME/CT39,52027,670
Chicago-Gary-Kenosha, IL/IN/WI33,58023,510
Cincinnati-Hamilton, OH/KY/IN32,41022,690
Cleveland-Akron, OH33,02023,120
Dallas-Ft. Worth, TX29,51020,660
Denver-Boulder-Greeley, CO34,04023,830
Detroit-Ann Arbor-Flint, MI31,71022,200
Honolulu, HI46,37032,460
Houston-Galveston-Brazoria, TX28,70020,090
Kansas City, MO/KS31,25021,870
Los Angeles-Riverside-Orange County, CA37,22026,050
Milwaukee-Racine, WI31,86022,300
Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN/WI32,35022,640
New York-Northern NJ-Long Island, NY/NJ/CT/PA38,16026,710
Philadelphia-Wilmington-Atlantic City, PA/NJ/DE/MD35,23024,660
Pittsburgh, PA38,51026,960
St. Louis, MO/IL30,92021,650
San Diego, CA39,98027,990
San Francisco-Oakland-San Jose, CA37,48026,240
Seattle-Tacoma-Bremerton, WA37,81026,470
Washington-Baltimore, DC/MD/VA/WV 238,29026,800
1 Rounded to next highest ten dollars.
2 Baltimore and Washington are now calculated as a single metropolitan statistical area.

Table 4.—Seventy Percent of Updated 2007 Lower Living Standard Income Level (LLSIL), by Family Size

To use the seventy percent LLSIL value, where it is stipulated for WIA programs, individuals must begin by locating the region or metropolitan area where they reside. These are listed in Tables 1, 2 and 3. Individuals must locate their region or metropolitan statistical area and then find the seventy percent LLSIL amount for that location. The seventy percent LLSIL figures are listed in the last column to the right on each of the three tables. These figures apply to a family of four. Larger and smaller family eligibility is based on a percentage of the family of four. To determine eligibility for other size families consult the table below.

To use Table 4, locate the seventy percent LLSIL value that applies to the Start Printed Page 30861individual's region or metropolitan area from Tables 1, 2 or 3. Find the same number in the “family of four” column of Table 4. Move left or right across that row to the size that corresponds to the individual's family unit. That figure is the maximum household income the individual is permitted in order to qualify as economically disadvantaged under WIA.

Where the HHS poverty level for a particular family size is greater than the corresponding LLSIL figure, the LLSIL figure appears in a shaded block. Individuals from these size families may consult the 2007 HHS poverty guidelines found in the Federal Register, Vol. 72, No. 15, January 24, 2007, pp. 3147-3148 (on the Internet at​poverty/​07fedreg.htm) to find the higher eligibility standard. Individuals from Alaska and Hawaii should consult the HHS guidelines for the generally higher poverty levels that apply in their states.

Family of oneFamily of twoFamily of threeFamily of fourFamily of fiveFamily of six

Table 5.—Updated 2007 LLSIL (100%), by Family Size

To use the LLSIL to determine the minimum level for establishing self-sufficiency criteria at the state or local level, begin by locating the metropolitan area or region from Table 1, 2 or 3. The individual must locate their region or metropolitan statistical area and then find the 2007 Adjusted LLSIL amount for that location. These figures apply to a family of four. Locate the corresponding number in the family of four in the column below. Move left or right across that row to the size that corresponds to the individual's family unit. That figure is the minimum figure States must set for determining whether employment leads to self-sufficiency under WIA programs.

Family of oneFamily of twoFamily of threeFamily of fourFamily of fiveFamily of six
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[FR Doc. E7-10662 Filed 6-1-07; 8:45 am]