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Tepraloxydim; Pesticide Tolerance

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Information about this document as published in the Federal Register.

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AGENCY:

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

ACTION:

Final rule.

SUMMARY:

This regulation establishes a tolerance for residues of tepraloxydim in or on imported flax, seed; lentil, seed; and pea, dry seed. BASF requested this tolerance under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA).

DATES:

This regulation is effective September 26, 2007. Objections and requests for hearings must be received on or before November 26, 2007, and must be filed in accordance with the instructions provided in 40 CFR part 178 (see also Unit I.C. of the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION).

ADDRESSES:

EPA has established a docket for this action under docket identification (ID) number EPA-HQ-OPP-2007-0145. To access the electronic docket, go to http://www.regulations.gov, select “Advanced Search,” then “Docket Search.” Insert the docket ID number where indicated and select the “Submit” button. Follow the instructions on the regulations.gov website to view the docket index or access available documents. All documents in the docket are listed in the docket index available in regulations.gov. Although listed in the index, some information is not publicly available, e.g., Confidential Business Information (CBI) or other information whose disclosure is restricted by statute. Certain other material, such as copyrighted material, is not placed on the Internet and will be publicly available only in hard copy form. Publicly available docket materials are available in the electronic docket at http://www.regulations.gov, or, if only available in hard copy, at the OPP Regulatory Public Docket in Rm. S-4400, One Potomac Yard (South Bldg.), 2777 S. Crystal Dr., Arlington, VA. The Docket Facility is open from 8:30 a.m. to 4 p.m., Monday through Friday, excluding legal holidays. The Docket Facility telephone number is (703) 305-5805.

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FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:

Jim Tompkins, Registration Division (7505P), Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Washington, DC 20460-0001; telephone number: (703) 305-5697; e-mail address: tompkins.jim@epa.gov.

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SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:

I. General Information

A. Does this Action Apply to Me?

You may be potentially affected by this action if you are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer. Potentially affected entities may include, but are not limited to those engaged in the following activities:

  • Crop production (NAICS code 111), e.g., agricultural workers; greenhouse, nursery, and floriculture workers; farmers.
  • Animal production (NAICS code 112), e.g., cattle ranchers and farmers, dairy cattle farmers, livestock farmers.
  • Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311), e.g., agricultural workers; farmers; greenhouse, nursery, and floriculture workers; ranchers; pesticide applicators.
  • Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS code 32532), e.g., agricultural workers; commercial applicators; farmers; greenhouse, nursery, and floriculture workers; residential users.

This listing is not intended to be exhaustive, but rather to provide a guide for readers regarding entities likely to be affected by this action. Other types of entities not listed in this unit could also be affected. The North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS) codes have been provided to assist you and others in determining whether this action might apply to certain entities. If you have any questions regarding the applicability of this action to a particular entity, consult Start Printed Page 54585the person listed under FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT.

B. How Can I Access Electronic Copies of this Document?

In addition to accessing an electronic copy of this Federal Register document through the electronic docket at http://www.regulations.gov, you may access this Federal Register document electronically through the EPA Internet under the “Federal Register” listings at http://www.epa.gov/​fedrgstr. You may also access a frequently updated electronic version of EPA's tolerance regulations at 40 CFR part 180 through the Government Printing Office's pilot e-CFR site at http://www.gpoaccess.gov/​ecfr.

C. Can I File an Objection or Hearing Request?

Under section 408(g) of FFDCA, any person may file an objection to any aspect of this regulation and may also request a hearing on those objections. You must file your objection or request a hearing on this regulation in accordance with the instructions provided in 40 CFR part 178. To ensure proper receipt by EPA, you must identify docket ID number EPA-HQ-OPP-2007-0145 in the subject line on the first page of your submission. All requests must be in writing, and must be mailed or delivered to the Hearing Clerk as required by 40 CFR part 178 on or before November 26, 2007.

In addition to filing an objection or hearing request with the Hearing Clerk as described in 40 CFR part 178, please submit a copy of the filing that does not contain any CBI for inclusion in the public docket that is described in ADDRESSES. Information not marked confidential pursuant to 40 CFR part 2 may be disclosed publicly by EPA without prior notice. Submit this copy, identified by docket ID number EPA-HQ-OPP-2007-0145, by one of the following methods:

  • Federal eRulemaking Portal: http://www.regulations.gov. Follow the on-line instructions for submitting comments.
  • Mail: Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP) Regulatory Public Docket (7502P), Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Washington, DC 20460-0001.
  • Delivery: OPP Regulatory Public Docket (7502P), Environmental Protection Agency, Rm. S-4400, One Potomac Yard (South Bldg.), 2777 S. Crystal Dr., Arlington, VA. Deliveries are only accepted during the Docket's normal hours of operation (8:30 a.m. to 4 p.m., Monday through Friday, excluding legal holidays). Special arrangements should be made for deliveries of boxed information. The Docket Facility telephone number is (703) 305-5805.

II. Petition for Tolerance

In the Federal Register of May 9, 2007 (72 FR 26372) (FRL-8121-5), EPA issued a notice pursuant to section 408(d)(3) of FFDCA, 21 U.S.C. 346a(d)(3), announcing the filing of a pesticide petition (PP 6E7046) by BASF, 26 Davis Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. The petition requested that 40 CFR 180.573 be amended by establishing a tolerance for residues of the herbicide tepraloxdydim (2-[1-[[[(2E)-3-chloro-2-propenyl]oxy]imino]propyl]-3-hydroxy-5-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-4-yl)-2-cyclohexen-1-one) and its metabolites convertible to GP (3-(tetrahydropyran-4-yl)pentane-1,5-dioic acid) and OH-GP (3-hydroxy-3-(tetrahydropyran-4-yl)pentane-1,5-dioic acid), calculated as tepraloxydim, in or on imported flax, seed; lentil, seed; and pea, dry, seed at 0.10 parts per million (ppm). That notice referenced a summary of the petition prepared by BASF, the registrant, which is available to the public in the docket, http://www.regulations.gov. There were no comments received in response to the notice of filing.

III. Aggregate Risk Assessment and Determination of Safety

Section 408(b)(2)(A)(i) of FFDCA allows EPA to establish a tolerance (the legal limit for a pesticide chemical residue in or on a food) only if EPA determines that the tolerance is “safe.” Section 408(b)(2)(A)(ii) of FFDCA defines “safe” to mean that “there is a reasonable certainty that no harm will result from aggregate exposure to the pesticide chemical residue, including all anticipated dietary exposures and all other exposures for which there is reliable information.” This includes exposure through drinking water and in residential settings, but does not include occupational exposure. Section 408(b)(2)(C) of FFDCA requires EPA to give special consideration to exposure of infants and children to the pesticide chemical residue in establishing a tolerance and to “ensure that there is a reasonable certainty that no harm will result to infants and children from aggregate exposure to the pesticide chemical residue. . . .” These provisions were added to FFDCA by the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996.

Consistent with FFDCA section 408(b)(2)(D), and the factors specified in FFDCA section 408(b)(2)(D), EPA has reviewed the available scientific data and other relevant information in support of this action. EPA has sufficient data to assess the hazards of and to make a determination on aggregate exposure for the petitioned-for tolerance for residues of tepraloxydim on imported flax, seed; lentil, seed; and pea, dry, seed at 0.10 ppm. EPA's assessment of exposures and risks associated with establishing the tolerance follows.

A. Toxicological Profile

EPA has evaluated the available toxicity data and considered its validity, completeness, and reliability as well as the relationship of the results of the studies to human risk. EPA has also considered available information concerning the variability of the sensitivities of major identifiable subgroups of consumers, including infants and children. Specific information on the studies received and the nature of the adverse effects caused by tepraloxydim as well as the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) and the lowest-observed-adverse-effect-level (LOAEL) from the toxicity studies can be found at http://www.regulations.gov. The referenced document is available in the docket established by this action, which is described under ADDRESSES, and is identified as document 3 (pages 44-47) in docket ID number EPA-HQ-OPP-2007-0145 in that docket.

B. Toxicological Endpoints

For hazards that have a threshold below which there is no appreciable risk, the toxicological level of concern (LOC) is derived from the highest dose at which no adverse effects are observed (the NOAEL) in the toxicology study identified as appropriate for use in risk assessment. However, if a NOAEL cannot be determined, the lowest dose at which adverse effects of concern are identified (the LOAEL) is sometimes used for risk assessment. Uncertainty/safety factors (UFs) are used in conjunction with the Point of Departure (POD) to take into account uncertainties inherent in the extrapolation from laboratory animal data to humans and in the variations in sensitivity among members of the human population as well as other unknowns. Safety is assessed for acute and chronic risks by comparing aggregate exposure to the pesticide to the acute population adjusted dose (aPAD) and chronic population adjusted dose (cPAD). The aPAD and cPAD are calculated by dividing the POD by all applicable UFs. Short-, intermediate-, and long-term risks are evaluated by comparing aggregate exposure to the POD to ensure Start Printed Page 54586that the LOC called for by the product of all applicable UFs is not exceeded.

For non-threshold risks, the Agency assumes that any amount of exposure will lead to some degree of risk and estimates risk in terms of the probability of occurrence of additional adverse cases. Generally, cancer risks are considered non-threshold. For more information on the general principles EPA uses in risk characterization and a complete description of the risk assessment process, see http://www.epa.gov/​fedrgstr/​EPA-PEST/​1997/​November/​Day-26/​p30948.htm.

A summary of the toxicological endpoints for tepraloxydim used for human risk assessment can be found at http://www.regulations.gov in document 3 (pages 22-23) in docket ID number EPA-HQ-OPP-2007-0145.

C. Exposure Assessment

1. Dietary exposure from food and feed uses. In evaluating dietary exposure to tepraloxydim, EPA considered exposure under the petitioned-for tolerances as well as all existing tepraloxydim tolerances in (40 CFR 180.573). EPA assessed dietary exposures from tepraloxydim in food as follows:

i. Acute exposure. Quantitative acute dietary exposure and risk assessments are performed for a food-use pesticide, if a toxicological study has indicated the possibility of an effect of concern occurring as a result of a 1-day or single exposure.

In estimating acute dietary exposure, EPA used food consumption information from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) 1994-1996 and 1998 Nationwide Continuing Surveys of Food Intake by Individuals (CSFII). As to residue levels in food, EPA assumed all foods for which there are tolerances were treated and contain tolerance-level residues.

ii. Chronic exposure. In conducting the chronic dietary exposure assessment EPA used the food consumption data from the USDA 1994-1996 and 1998 CSFII. As to residue levels in food, EPA assumed all foods for which there are tolerances were treated and contain tolerance-level residues.

iii. Cancer. Tepraloxydim is classified as “Data are inadequate for an assessment of human carcinogenic potential”, because there was some evidence of liver tumors in female rats at the high dose in the carcinogenicity phase of the study, but not in the chronic phase of the study. Female mice developed liver tumors at an excessively toxic dose. Male mice had non-neoplastic liver changes similar to or exceeding those seen in female mice at the same dose, though there was no increase in liver tumor incidences. Tepraloxydim was not mutagenic in a battery of assays. Considering all of this evidence, tepraloxydim is not expected to pose a cancer risk for humans, and a quantitative cancer risk assessment was not conducted.

iv. Anticipated residue and percent crop treated (PCT) information. EPA did not use anticipated residues or PCT information in the dietary assessment for tepraloxydim. The acute and chronic dietary exposure analyses were based on tolerance level residues and 100 PCT assumptions.

2. Dietary exposure from drinking water. The Agency lacks sufficient monitoring data to complete a comprehensive dietary exposure analysis and risk assessment for tepraloxydim in drinking water. Because the Agency does not have comprehensive monitoring data, drinking water concentration estimates are made by reliance on simulation or modeling, taking into account data on the environmental fate characteristics of tepraloxydim. Further information regarding EPA drinking water models used in pesticide exposure assessment can be found at http://www.epa.gov/​oppefed1/​models/​water/​index.htm.

Based on the First Index Reservoir Screening Tool (FIRST) and Screening Concentration in Groundwater (SCI-GROW) models, the estimated environmental concentrations (EECs) of tepraloxydim for acute exposures are estimated to be 1.4 parts per billion (ppb) for surface water and 0.002 ppb for ground water. The EECs for chronic exposures are estimated to be 0.7 ppb for surface water and 0.002 ppb for ground water.

Modeled estimates of drinking water concentrations were directly entered into the dietary exposure model. For acute dietary risk assessment, the water concentration value of 1.4 ppb was used to assess the contribution to drinking water. For chronic dietary risk assessment, the water concentration of value 0.7 ppb was used to assess the contribution to drinking water.

3. From non-dietary exposure. The term “residential exposure” is used in this document to refer to non-occupational, non-dietary exposure (e.g., for lawn and garden pest control, indoor pest control, termiticides, and flea and tick control on pets).

Tepraloxydim is not registered for use on any sites that would result in residential exposure.

4. Cumulative effects from substances with a common mechanism of toxicity. Section 408(b)(2)(D)(v) of FFDCA requires that, when considering whether to establish, modify, or revoke a tolerance, the Agency consider “available information” concerning the cumulative effects of a particular pesticide's residues and “other substances that have a common mechanism of toxicity.”

Unlike other pesticides for which EPA has followed a cumulative risk approach based on a common mechanism of toxicity, EPA has not made a common mechanism of toxicity finding as to and any other substances and tepraloxydim does not appear to produce a toxic metabolite produced by other substances. For the purposes of this tolerance action, therefore, EPA has not assumed that tepraloxydim has a common mechanism of toxicity with other substances. For information regarding EPA's efforts to determine which chemicals have a common mechanism of toxicity and to evaluate the cumulative effects of such chemicals, see EPA's website at http://www.epa.gov/​pesticides/​cumulative.

D. Safety Factor for Infants and Children

1. In general. Section 408 of FFDCA provides that EPA shall apply an additional (“10X”) tenfold margin of safety for infants and children in the case of threshold effects to account for prenatal and postnatal toxicity and the completeness of the database on toxicity and exposure unless EPA determines based on reliable data that a different margin of safety will be safe for infants and children. This additional margin of safety is commonly referred to as the FQPA safety factor. In applying this provision, EPA either retains the default value of 10X when reliable data do not support the choice of a different factor, or, if reliable data are available, EPA uses a different additional FQPA safety factor value based on the use of traditional UFs and/or special FQPA safety factors, as appropriate.

2. Prenatal and postnatal sensitivity. There were qualitative and quantitative prenatal susceptibility in the rat developmental toxicity study. The developmental findings with a NOAEL of 40 milligrams/kilograms/day (mg/kg/day) were well characterized and included increased developmental sensitivity in the form of reduced fetal body weights, retarded ossification indicative of delayed maturation and the presence of hydroureter at 120 mg/kg/day (developmental LOAEL). Rare malformations (dilation of both heart ventricles and filiform tail) were also detected at the high dose of 360 mg/kg/day. The maternal toxicity NOAEL/LOAEL of 120/360 mg/kg/day was based on reduced body weight gain and food Start Printed Page 54587consumption. There was no evidence of increased susceptibility following prenatal exposure to rabbits, nor was there evidence of increased susceptibility following prenatal and/or postnatal exposure to rats (in the rat reproduction and fertility effects study). The degree of concern is low for the increased susceptibility seen the developmental study in rats (prenatal exposure) since a clear NOAEL/LOAEL was established for developmental toxicity, and since the endpoints of concern were used for the most sensitive population of concern (Females 13-49). There is no uncertainty for prenatal and/or postnatal toxicity.

3. Conclusion. The 10X FQPA safety factor was retained for assessing the acute dietary risk to the general population (including infants and children), due to the lack of a NOAEL in the acute neurotoxicity study. The 10X FQPA safety factor was reduced to 1X for assessing the acute dietary risk to females (13-49 years of age) and for assessing the chronic dietary risk to all populations based on the following conclusions.

i. The toxicity database for tepraloxydim is complete.

ii. While there are indications that tepraloxydim is neurotoxic at doses far higher than those currently being used for the acute and chronic dietary risk assessments, the two generation reproduction study showed no clinical signs indicative of neurotoxicity in the parental animals or offspring, nor was there evidence for increased susceptibility. The Agency concluded there is no need for a developmental neurotoxicity study or additional UFs to account for neurotoxicity.

iii. There are no residual concerns regarding increased sensitivity in the young. There were no qualitative or quantitative prenatal or postnatal susceptibility issues in the developmental toxicity study in rabbits and 2-generation reproduction toxicity study in rats. Although increased sensitivity was seen in the developmental rat study, the degree of concern is low as to this finding because a clear NOAEL/LOAEL was established for developmental toxicity, and the endpoints of concern were used for assessing risk to the most sensitive population of concern (Females 13-49).

iv. The dietary food exposure assessment was performed based on 100%CT and tolerance-level residues. Conservative ground water and surface water modeling estimates were used. The drinking water assessment utilized values generated by models and associated modeling parameters which are designed to provide conservative, health protective, high-end estimates of water concentrations. These assessments will not underestimate the exposure and risks posed by tepraloxydim.

E. Aggregate Risks and Determination of Safety

Safety is assessed for acute and chronic risks by comparing aggregate exposure to the pesticide to the aPAD and cPAD. The aPAD and cPAD are calculated by dividing the LOC by all applicable UFs. For linear cancer risks, EPA calculates the probability of additional cancer cases given aggregate exposure. Short-, intermediate-, and long-term risks are evaluated by comparing the LOC to ensure that the Margin of exposure called for by the product of all applicable UFs is not exceeded.

1. Acute risk. Using the exposure assumptions discussed in this unit for acute exposure, the acute dietary exposure from food and water to tepraloxydim will occupy 2% of the aPAD for the population group (children 1-2 years old) receiving the greatest exposure.

2. Chronic risk. Using the exposure assumptions described in this unit for chronic exposure, EPA has concluded that exposure to tepraloxydim from food and water will utilize 10% of the cPAD for the population group (children 1-2 years old) receiving the greatest exposure.

3. Short-term risk. Short-term aggregate exposure takes into account residential exposure plus chronic exposure to food and water (considered to be a background exposure level). Tepraloxydim is not registered for use on any sites that would result in residential exposure. Therefore, the aggregate risk is the sum of the risk from food and water, which does not exceed the Agency's level of concern.

4. Intermediate-term risk. Intermediate-term aggregate exposure takes into account residential exposure plus chronic exposure to food and water (considered to be a background exposure level). Tepraloxydim is not registered for use on any sites that would result in residential exposure. Therefore, the aggregate risk is the sum of the risk from food and water, which do not exceed the Agency's level of concern.

5. Aggregate cancer risk for U.S. population. Tepraloxydim is not expected to pose a cancer risk for humans.

6. Determination of safety. Based on these risk assessments, EPA concludes that there is a reasonable certainty that no harm will result to the general population or to infants and children from aggregate exposure to tepraloxydim residues.

IV. Other Considerations

A. Analytical Enforcement Methodology

Adequate enforcement methodology is available to enforce the tolerance expression. The analytical method involves extraction, concentration, precipitation, centrifugation/filtration, oxidation, partition, and clean-up. Samples are then analyzed by GC-MS (selected ion monitoring). The LOQ is 0.05 ppm for each analyte.

The method may be requested from: Chief, Analytical Chemistry Branch, Environmental Science Center, 701 Mapes Rd., Ft. Meade, MD 20755-5350; telephone number: (410) 305-2905; e-mail address: residuemethods@epa.gov.

B. International Residue Limits

No Codex maximum residue limits (MRLs) have been established for residues of tepraloxydim on any crops at this time.

V. Conclusion

Therefore, the tolerance is established for residues tepraloxdydim (2-[1-[[[(2E)-3-chloro-2-propenyl]oxy]imino]propyl]-3-hydroxy-5-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-4-yl)-2-cyclohexen-1-one) and its metabolites convertible to GP (3-(tetrahydropyran-4-yl)pentane-1,5-dioic acid) and OH-GP (3-hydroxy-3-(tetrahydropyran-4-yl)pentane-1,5-dioic acid), calculated as tepraloxydim, in or on flax, seed; lentil, seed; and pea, dry, seed at 0.10 parts per million (ppm).

VI. Statutory and Executive Order Reviews

This final rule establishes a tolerance under section 408(d) of FFDCA in response to a petition submitted to the Agency. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has exempted these types of actions from review under Executive Order 12866, entitled Regulatory Planning and Review (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993). Because this rule has been exempted from review under Executive Order 12866, this rule is not subject to Executive Order 13211, Actions Concerning Regulations That Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use (66 FR 28355, May 22, 2001) or Executive Order 13045, entitled Protection of Children from Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks (62 FR 19885, April 23, 1997). This final rule does not contain any information collections subject to OMB approval under the Paperwork Reduction Act (PRA), 44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq., nor does it require any special considerations under Executive Order Start Printed Page 5458812898, entitled Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations (59 FR 7629, February 16, 1994).

Since tolerances and exemptions that are established on the basis of a petition under section 408(d) of FFDCA, such as the tolerance in this final rule, do not require the issuance of a proposed rule, the requirements of the Regulatory Flexibility Act (RFA) (5 U.S.C. 601 et seq.) do not apply.

This final rule directly regulates growers, food processors, food handlers, and food retailers, not States or tribes, nor does this action alter the relationships or distribution of power and responsibilities established by Congress in the preemption provisions of section 408(n)(4) of FFDCA. As such, the Agency has determined that this action will not have a substantial direct effect on States or tribal governments, on the relationship between the national government and the States or tribal governments, or on the distribution of power and responsibilities among the various levels of government or between the Federal Government and Indian tribes. Thus, the Agency has determined that Executive Order 13132, entitled Federalism (64 FR 43255, August 10, 1999) and Executive Order 13175, entitled Consultation and Coordination with Indian Tribal Governments (65 FR 67249, November 6, 2000) do not apply to this rule. In addition, this rule does not impose any enforceable duty or contain any unfunded mandate as described under Title II of the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995 (UMRA) (Public Law 104-4).

This action does not involve any technical standards that would require Agency consideration of voluntary consensus standards pursuant to section 12(d) of the National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995 (NTTAA), Public Law 104-113, section 12(d) (15 U.S.C. 272 note).

VII. Congressional Review Act

The Congressional Review Act, 5 U.S.C. 801 et seq., generally provides that before a rule may take effect, the agency promulgating the rule must submit a rule report to each House of the Congress and to the Comptroller General of the United States. EPA will submit a report containing this rule and other required information to the U.S. Senate, the U.S. House of Representatives, and the Comptroller General of the United States prior to publication of this final rule in the Federal Register. This final rule is not a “major rule” as defined by 5 U.S.C. 804(2).

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List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 180

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Dated: September 13, 2007.

Lois Rossi,

Director, Registration Division, Office of Pesticide Programs.

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Therefore, 40 CFR chapter I is amended as follows:

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PART 180—[AMENDED]

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1. The authority citation for part 180 continues to read as follows:

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Authority: 21 U.S.C. 321(q), 346a and 371.

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2. Section 180.573 is amended by alphabetically adding the following commodities to the table in paragraph (a)(1) to read as follows:

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Tepraloxydim; tolerances for residues.

(a) General. (1) * * *

CommodityParts per million
*    *    *    *    *  
Flax, seed0.10
Lentil, seed0.10
Pea, dry, seed0.10
*    *    *    *    *  
* * * * *
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[FR Doc. E7-18850 Filed 9-25-07; 8:45 am]

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