Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior.
Notice of initiation of 5-year reviews; availability of completed 5-year reviews.
We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, initiate 5-year reviews for 58 species under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). We request any new information on these species that may have a bearing on their classification as endangered or threatened (see Table 1 below). Based on the results of these 5-year reviews, we will make a finding on whether these species are properly classified under the Act. We also indicate in this notice the 5-year reviews we completed for species in California, Nevada and southern Oregon in FY 2007 and early FY 2008.
To allow us adequate time to conduct these reviews, we must receive your information no later than May 5, 2008. However, we will continue to accept new information about any listed species at any time.
For instructions on how to submit information and review the information that we receive on these species, see “Public Solicitation of New Information.”Start Further Info
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:
For species-specific information, contact the appropriate person listed under “Public Solicitation of New Information.” For contact information about completed 5-year reviews, see “Completed 5-Year Reviews.” Individuals who are hearing impaired or speech impaired may call the Federal Relay Service at (800) 877-8337 for TTY assistance.End Further Info End Preamble Start Supplemental Information
Why Do We Conduct a 5-Year Review?
Under the Endangered Species Act (Act) (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.), we maintain a List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants at 50 CFR 17.11 (for animals) and 17.12 (for plants) (List). We amend the List by publishing final rules in the Federal Register. Section 4(c)(2)(A) of the Act requires that we conduct a review of listed species at least once every 5 years. Section 4(c)(2)(B) requires that we determine (1) whether a species no longer meets the definition of threatened or endangered and should be removed from the List (delisted); (2) whether a species listed as endangered more properly meets the definition of threatened and should be reclassified to threatened; or (3) whether a species listed as threatened more properly meets the definition of endangered and should be reclassified to endangered. Using the best scientific and commercial data available, a species will be considered for delisting if the data substantiate that the species is neither endangered nor threatened for one or more of the following reasons: (1) The species is considered extinct; (2) the species is considered to be recovered; and/or (3) the original data available when the species was listed, or the interpretation of such data, were in error. Any change in Federal classification requires a separate rulemaking process. Therefore, we are requesting submission of any new information (best scientific and commercial data) on these species since they were originally listed or since the species' most recent status review.
Our regulations at 50 CFR 424.21 require that we publish a notice in the Federal Register announcing those species currently under review. This notice announces initiation of our active review of 58 species. This notice announces initiation of our active review of the species in Table 1.
|Common name||Scientific name||Status||Where listed||Final listing rule|
|Amargosa vole||Microtus californicus scirpensis||Endangered||U.S.A. (CA)||49 FR 45160; 11/15/1984|
|Arroyo (=arroyo southwestern) toad||Bufo californicus||Endangered||U.S.A. (CA), Mexico||59 FR 64859; 12/16/1994|
|Ash Meadows naucorid||Ambrysus amargosus||Threatened||U.S.A. (NV)||50 FR 20777; 05/20/1985|
|Bay checkerspot butterfly||Euphydryas editha bayensis||Threatened||U.S.A. (CA)||52 FR 35366; 09/18/1987|
|Big Spring spinedace||Lepidomeda mollispinis pratensis||Threatened||U.S.A. (NV)||50 FR 12298; 03/28/1995|
|Callippe silverspot butterfly||Speyeria callippe callippe||Endangered||U.S.A. (CA)||62 FR 64306; 12/05/1997|
|Carson wandering skipper||Pseudocopaeodes eunus obscurus||Endangered||U.S.A. (CA, NV)||67 FR 51116; 08/07/2002|
|Coastal California gnatcatcher||Polioptila californica californica||Threatened||U.S.A. (CA); Mexico||58 FR 16742; 03/30/1993|
|Desert tortoise, Mojave population||Gopherus agassizii||Threatened||U.S.A., except in Sonoran Desert||55 FR 12178; 04/02/1990|
|Light-footed clapper rail||Rallus longirostris levipes||Endangered||U.S.A (CA)||35 FR 16047; 10/13/1970|
|Mission blue butterfly||Icaricia icarioides missionensis||Endangered||U.S.A (CA)||41 FR 22041; 06/01/1976|
|Mount Hermon June beetle||Polyphylla barbata||Endangered||U.S.A. (CA)||62 FR 3616; 1/24/1997|
|Mohave tui chub||Gila bicolor mohavensis||Endangered||U.S.A. (CA)||35 FR 16047; 10/13/1970|
|Myrtle's silverspot butterfly||Speyeria zerene myrtleae||Endangered||U.S.A. (CA)||57 FR 27848; 06/22/1992|
|Start Printed Page 11946|
|Owen's pupfish||Cyprinodon radiosus||Endangered||U.S.A. (CA)||32 FR 4001; 3/11/1967|
|Owen's tui chub||Gila bicolor snyderi||Endangered||U.S.A. (CA)||50 FR 31592; 08/05/1985|
|Pahranagat roundtail chub||Gila robusta jordani||Endangered||U.S.A. (NV)||35 FR 16047; 10/13/1970|
|Point Arena mountain beaver||Aplodontia rufa nigra||Endangered||U.S.A (CA)||56 FR 64716; 12/12/1991|
|Quino checkerspot butterfly||Euphydryas editha quino (wrighti)||Endangered||U.S.A. (CA); Mexico||62 FR 2313; 01/16/1997|
|San Bruno elfin butterfly||Callophrys mossii bayensis||Endangered||U.S.A (CA)||41 FR 22041; 06/01/1976|
|San Bernardino kangaroo rat||Dipodomys merriami parvus||Endangered||U.S.A (CA)||63 FR 51005; 09/24/1998|
|San Clemente sage sparrow||Amphispiza belli clementeae||Threatened||U.S.A (CA)||42 FR 40682; 08/11/1977|
|Santa Cruz long-toed salamander||Ambystoma macrodactylum croceum||Endangered||U.S.A. (CA)||32 FR 4001; 3/11/1967|
|Salt marsh harvest mouse||Reithrodontomys raviventris||Endangered||U.S.A. (CA)||35 FR 16047; 10/13/1970|
|Shasta crayfish||Pacifastacus fortis||Endangered||U.S.A. (CA)||53 FR 38465; 09/30/1988|
|Unarmored threespine stickleback||Gasterosteus aculeatus williamsoni||Endangered||U.S.A. (CA)||35 FR 16047; 10/13/1970|
|Zayante band-winged grasshopper||Trimerotropis infantilis||Endangered||U.S.A. (CA)||62 FR 3616; 01/24/1997|
|Ash Meadows milk-vetch||Astragalus phoenix||Threatened||U.S.A. (NV)||50 FR 20777; 05/20/1985|
|Calistoga allocarya||Plagiobothrys strictus||Endangered||U.S.A. (CA)||62 FR 55791; 10/22/1997|
|Clara Hunt's milk-vetch||Astragalus clarianus||Endangered||U.S.A. (CA)||62 FR 55791; 10/22/1997|
|Clover lupine||Lupinus tidestromii||Endangered||U.S.A. (CA)||57 FR 27848; 06/22/1992|
|Coastal dunes milk-vetch||Astragalus tener var. titi||Endangered||U.S.A. (CA)||63 FR 43100; 8/12/1998|
|Conejo dudleya||Dudleya abramsii ssp. parva||Threatened||U.S.A. (CA)||62 FR 4172; 01/29/1997|
|Cushenberry buckwheat||Eriogonum ovalifolium var. vineum||Endangered||U.S.A (CA)||59 FR 43652; 08/24/1994|
|Cushenberry milk-vetch||Astragalus albens||Endangered||U.S.A (CA)||59 FR 43652; 08/24/1994|
|Cushenberry oxytheca||Acanthoscyphus (Oxytheca) parishii var. goodmaniana||Endangered||U.S.A (CA)||59 FR 43652; 08/24/1994|
|Fleshy owl's-clover||Castilleja campestris ssp. succulenta||Threatened||U.S.A. (CA)||62 FR 14338; 03/26/1997|
|Hickman's potentilla||Potentilla hickmanii||Endangered||U.S.A. (CA)||63 FR 43100; 08/12/1998|
|Ione buckwheat (incl.Irish Hill)||Eriogonum apricum (incl. var. prostratum)||Endangered||U.S.A. (CA)||64 FR 28403; 0526/1999|
|Ione manzanita||Arctostaphylos myrtifolia||Threatened||U.S.A. (CA)||64 FR 28403; 0526/1999|
|Kenwood Marsh checkermallow||Sidalcea oregano ssp. valida||Endangered||U.S.A. (CA)||62 FR 55791; 10/22/1997|
|Large-flowered fiddleneck||Amsinckia grandiflora||Endangered||U.S.A. (CA)||50 FR 54791; 10/22/1997|
|Marcescent dudleya||Dudleya cymosa ssp. marcescens||Threatened||U.S.A. (CA)||62 FR 4172; 01/29/1997|
|Napa bluegrass||Poa napensis||Endangered||U.S.A. (CA)||62 FR 55791; 10/22/1997|
|Nevin's barberry||Berberis nevinii||Endangered||U.S.A. (CA); Mexico||63 FR 54956; 10/13/1998|
|Parish's daisy||Erigeron parishii||Threatened||U.S.A (CA)||59 FR 43652; 08/24/1994|
|Peirson's milk-vetch||Astragalus magdalenae var. peirsonii||Threatened||U.S.A (CA)||63 FR 53596; 10/06/1998|
|Pitkin Marsh lily||Lilium pardalinum ssp. pitkinense||Endangered||U.S.A. (CA)||62 FR 55791; 10/22/1997|
|Start Printed Page 11947|
|San Bernardino Mountains bladderpod||Physaria (Lesquerella) kingii||Endangered||U.S.A (CA)||59 FR 43652; 08/24/1994|
|San Diego thornmint||Acanthomintha ilicifolia||Threatened||U.S.A. (CA); Mexico||63 FR 54937; 10/13/1998|
|Santa Monica Mountains dudleya||Dudleya cymosa ssp. Ovatifolia||Threatened||U.S.A. (CA)||62 FR 4172; 01/29/1997|
|Tiburon jewelflower||Streptanthus niger||Endangered||U.S.A. (CA)||60 FR 6671; 02/03/1995|
|Tiburon mariposa lily||Calochortus tiburonensis||Threatened||U.S.A. (CA)||60 FR 6671; 02/03/1995|
|Tiburon paintbrush||Castilleja affinis ssp. Neglecta||Endangered||U.S.A. (CA)||60 FR 6671; 02/03/1995|
|Triple-ribbed milk-vetch||Astragalus tricarinatus||Endangered||U.S.A (CA)||63 FR 53596; 10/06/1998|
|Verity's dudleya||Dudleya verityi||Threatened||U.S.A. (CA)||62 FR 4172; 01/29/1997|
|Western lily||Lilium occidentale||Endangered||U.S.A. (CA, OR)||59 FR 42171; 08/17/1994|
|White sedge||Carex albida||Endangered||U.S.A. (CA)||62 FR 55791; 10/22/1997|
What Information Do We Consider in the Review?
In our 5-year review, we consider all new information available at the time of the review. In conducting these reviews, we consider the best scientific and commercial data that has become available since the current listing determination or the most recent status review, such as—(A) Species biology including, but not limited to, population trends, distribution, abundance, demographics, and genetics; (B) Habitat conditions including, but not limited to, amount, distribution, and suitability; (C) Conservation measures that have been implemented that benefit the species; (D) Threat status and trends (see five factors under heading “How Do We Determine Whether a Species is Endangered or Threatened?”); and (E) Other new information, data, or corrections including, but not limited to, taxonomic or nomenclatural changes, identification of erroneous information contained in the List, and improved analytical methods.
Public Solicitation of New Information
We request any new information concerning the status of these wildlife and plant species. See “What Information Do We Consider in Our Review?” for specific criteria. If you submit information, support it with documentation such as maps, bibliographic references, methods used to gather and analyze the data, and/or copies of any pertinent publications, reports, or letters by knowledgeable sources. We specifically request information regarding data from any systematic surveys, as well as any studies or analysis of data that may show population size or trends; information pertaining to the biology or ecology of these species; information regarding the effects of current land management on population distribution and abundance; information on the current condition of habitat; and recent information regarding conservation measures that have been implemented to benefit the species. Additionally, we specifically request information regarding the current distribution of populations and evaluation of threats faced by the species in relation to the five listing factors (as defined in section 4(a)(1) of the Act) and the species' listed status as judged against the definition of threatened or endangered. Finally, we solicit recommendations pertaining to the development of, or potential updates to recovery plans and additional actions or studies that would benefit these species in the future.
Our practice is to make information, including names and home addresses of respondents, available for public review. Before including your address, telephone number, e-mail address, or other personal identifying information in your response, you should be aware that your entire submission—including your personal identifying information—may be made publicly available at any time. While you can ask us in your response to withhold your personal identifying information from public review, we cannot guarantee that we will be able to do so. We will not consider anonymous comments. To the extent consistent with applicable law, we will make all submissions from organizations or businesses, and from individuals identifying themselves as representatives or officials of organizations or businesses, available for public inspection in their entirety. Comments and materials received will be available for public inspection, by appointment, during normal business hours at the offices where the comments are submitted.
Mail or hand-deliver information on the following species to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service at the corresponding address below. You may also view information we receive in response to this notice, as well as other documentation in our files, at the following locations by appointment, during normal business hours.
For coastal California gnatcatcher, light-footed clapper rail, Quino checkerspot butterfly, San Bernardino kangaroo rat, San Clemente sage sparrow, Cushenbury buckwheat, Cushenbury milk-vetch, Cushenbury oxytheca, Nevin's barberry, Parish's daisy, Peirson's milk-vetch, San Bernardino Mountains bladderpod, San Diego thornmint, and triple-ribbed milk-vetch, send information to Field Supervisor, Attention: 5-Year Review, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Carlsbad Fish and Wildlife Office, 6010 Hidden Valley Road, Carlsbad, CA 92011. Information may also be submitted electronically at firstname.lastname@example.org. To obtain further information, contact Scott Sobiech at the Carlsbad Fish and Wildlife Office at (760) 431-9440.
For the Amargosa vole, arroyo (= arroyo southwestern) toad, Mount Hermon june beetle, Mohave tui chub, Owens pupfish, Owens tui chub, Santa Start Printed Page 11948Cruz long-toed salamander, unarmored three-spine stickleback, Zayante band-winged grasshopper, coastal dunes milk-vetch, Conejo dudleya, Hickman's potentilla, marcescent dudleya, Santa Monica Mountains dudleya, and Verity's dudleya, send information to Field Supervisor, Attention: 5-Year Review, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Ventura Fish and Wildlife Office, 2493 Portola Road, Suite B, Ventura, CA 93003. Information may also be submitted electronically at email@example.com. To obtain further information on the animal species, contact Mike McCrary at the Ventura Fish and Wildlife Office at (805) 644-1766. To obtain further information on the plant species, contact Connie Rutherford at the Ventura Fish and Wildlife Office at (805) 644-1766.
For bay checkerspot butterfly, callippe silverspot butterfly, mission blue butterfly, Myrtle's silverspot butterfly, San Bruno elfin butterfly, salt marsh harvest mouse, Shasta crayfish, Calistoga allocarya, Clara Hunt's milk-vetch, clover lupine, fleshy owl's-clover, Ione buckwheat (including Irish Hill), Ione manzanita, Kenwood Marsh checkermallow, large-flowered fiddleneck, Napa bluegrass, Pitkin Marsh lily, Tiburon jewelflower, Tiburon mariposa lily, Tiburon paintbrush and white sedge, send information to Field Supervisor, Attention: 5-Year Review, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Sacramento Fish and Wildlife Office, 2800 Cottage Way, Room W-2605, Sacramento, CA 95825. Information may also be submitted electronically at firstname.lastname@example.org. To obtain further information, contact Kirsten Tarp at the Sacramento Fish and Wildlife Office at (916) 414-6600.
For Ash Meadows naucorid, Big Spring spinedace, Carson wandering skipper, desert tortoise (Mohave population), Pahranagat roundtail chub, and Ash Meadows milk-vetch, send information to Field Supervisor, Attention: 5-Year Review, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Nevada Fish and Wildlife Office, 1340 Financial Blvd., Suite 234, Reno, NV 89502. Information may also be submitted electronically at email@example.com. To obtain further information on Ash Meadows naucorid, Big Spring spinedace, Pahranagat roundtail chub and Ash Meadows milk-vetch, contact Janet Bair at the Southern Nevada Field at (702) 515-5230. To obtain further information on Carson wandering skipper, contact Selena Werdon at the Nevada Fish and Wildlife Office at (775) 861-6300. To obtain further information on desert tortoise, contact Roy Averill-Murray at the Nevada Fish and Wildlife Office at (775) 861-6300.
For Point Arena Mountain beaver and western lily, send information to Field Supervisor, Attention: 5-Year Review, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Arcata Fish and Wildlife Office, 11655 Heindon Road, Arcata, CA 95521. Information may also be submitted electronically at firstname.lastname@example.org for Point Arena Mountain beaver and email@example.com for western lily. To obtain further information on Point Arena Mountain beaver, contact Robin Hamlin at the Arcata Fish and Wildlife Office at (707) 822-7201. To obtain further information on western lily, contact Dave Imper at the Arcata Fish and Wildlife Office at (707) 822-7201.
All electronic information must be submitted in Text format or Rich Text format. Include the following identifier in the subject line of the e-mail: Information on 5-year review for [NAME OF SPECIES], and include your name and return address in the body of your message.
How Are These Species Currently Listed?
The current listing status of species for which 5-year reviews are being initiated by this notice is identified in Table 1 above. The current status may also be found on the List, which covers all listed species, and which is available on our Internet site at http://endangered.fws.gov/wildlife.html#Species.
Definitions Related to This Notice
To help you submit information about the species we are reviewing, we provide the following definitions:
Species includes any species or subspecies of fish, wildlife, or plant, and any distinct population segment of any species of vertebrate, which interbreeds when mature;
Endangered species means any species that is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range; and
Threatened species means any species that is likely to become an endangered species within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its range.
How Do We Determine Whether a Species Is Endangered or Threatened?
Section 4(a)(1) of the Act requires that we determine whether a species is endangered or threatened based on one or more of the five following factors: (A) The present or threatened destruction, modification, or curtailment of its habitat or range; (B) Overutilization for commercial, recreational, scientific, or educational purposes; (C) Disease or predation; (D) The inadequacy of existing regulatory mechanisms; or (E)Other natural or manmade factors affecting its continued existence. Section 4(b)(1)(A) of the Act requires that our determination be made on the basis of the best scientific and commercial data available.
What Could Happen as a Result of Our Review?
For each species under review, if we find new information that indicates a change in classification may be warranted, we may propose a new rule that could do one of the following: (a) Reclassify the species from threatened to endangered (uplist); (b) reclassify the species from endangered to threatened (downlist); or (c) remove the species from the List (delist). If we determine that a change in classification is not warranted, then the species will remain on the List under its current status.
Completed 5-Year Reviews
We also take this opportunity to inform the public of 39 5-year reviews that we completed in FY 2007 and early FY 2008 for species in California, Nevada, and southern Oregon. These 39 reviews can be found at http://www.fws.gov/cno/es/5yr.html. Any recommended change in listing status will require a separate rulemaking process. The table below summarizes the results of these reviews: Start Printed Page 11949
|Common name||Scientific name||Recommendation||Lead Fish and Wildlife Office||Contact|
|Brown pelican||Pelecanus occidentalis||Delist||Region 2||Steve Chambers at (505) 248-6658|
|California freshwater shrimp||Syncaris pacifica||No status change||Sacramento||Al Donner at (916) 414-6600|
|Conservancy fairy shrimp||Branchinecta conservatio||No status change||Sacramento||Al Donner at (916) 414-6600|
|Kern primrose sphinx moth||Euproserpinus euterpe||No status change||Sacramento||Al Donner at (916) 414-6600|
|Laguna Mountains skipper||Pyrgus ruralis lagunae||No status change||Carlsbad||Jane Hendron at (760) 431-9440|
|Longhorn fairy shrimp||Branchinecta longiantenna||No status change||Sacramento||Al Donner at (916) 414-6600|
|Lost River sucker||Deltistes luxatus||Downlist||Klamath Falls||Curt Mullis at (541) 885-8481|
|Lotis blue butterfly||Lycaeides argyrognomon lotis||No status change||Arcata|
|Shortnose sucker||Chasmistes brevirostris||No status change||Klamath Falls||Curt Mullis at (541) 885-8481|
|Tidewater goby||Eucyclogobius newberryi||Downlist||Ventura||Lois Grunwald at (805) 644-1766|
|Vernal pool fairy shrimp||Branchinecta lynchi||No status change||Sacramento||Al Donner at (916) 414-6600|
|Vernal pool tadpole shrimp||Lepidurus packardi||No status change||Sacramento||Al Donner at (916) 414-6600|
|Amargosa niterwort||Nitrophila mohavensis||No status change||Nevada||Jeannie Stafford at (775) 861-6300|
|Ash Meadows gumplant||Grindelia fraxino-pratensis||No status change||Nevada||Jeannie Stafford at (775) 861-6300|
|Ben Lomond spineflower||Chorizanthe pungens var. hartwegiana||No status change||Ventura||Lois Grunwald at (805) 644-1766|
|Catalina Island mountain mahogany||Cercocarpus traskiae||No status change||Carlsbad||Jane Hendron at (760) 431-9440|
|Chinese Camp brodiaea||Brodiaea pallida||No status change||Sacramento||Al Donner at (916) 414-6600|
|Chorro Creek bog thistle||Cirsium fontinale var. obispoense||No status change||Ventura||Lois Grunwald at (805) 644-1766|
|Eureka Valley dunegrass||Swallenia alexandrae||Delist||Ventura||Lois Grunwald at (805) 644-1766|
|Eureka Valley evening primrose||Oenothera avita ssp. eurekensis||Delist||Ventura||Lois Grunwald at (805) 644-1766|
|Greene's tuctoria||Tuctoria greenei||No status change||Sacramento||Al Donner at (916) 414-6600|
|Hartweg's golden sunburst||Pseudobahia bahiifolia||No status change||Sacramento||Al Donner at (916) 414-6600|
|Hoffman's rockcress||Arabis hoffmannii||No status change||Ventura||Lois Grunwald at (805) 644-1766|
|Howell's spineflower||Chorizanthe howellii||No status change||Arcata||Randy Brown at (707) 822-7201|
|Keck's checkermallow||Sidalcea keckii||No status change||Sacramento||Al Donner at (916) 414-6600|
|Mariposa pussypaws||Calyptridium pulchellum||No status change||Sacramento||Al Donner at (916) 414-6600|
|Orcutt's spineflower||Chorizanthe orcuttiana||No status change||Carlsbad||Jane Hendron at (760) 431-9440|
|Red Hills vervain||Verbena californica||No status change||Sacramento||Al Donner at (916) 414-6600|
|San Clemente Island broom||Lotus dendroideus ssp. traskiae||Downlist||Carlsbad||Jane Hendron at (760) 431-9440|
|San Clemente Island bushmallow||Malacothamnus clementinus||Downlist||Carlsbad||Jane Hendron at (760) 431-9440|
|San Clemente Island paintbrush||Castilleja grisea||Downlist||Carlsbad||Jane Hendron at (760) 431-9440|
|San Clemente Island woodland star||Lithophragma maximum||No status change||Carlsbad||Jane Hendron at (760) 431-9440|
|Start Printed Page 11950|
|San Joaquin adobe sunburst||Pseudobahia peirsonii||No status change||Sacramento||Al Donner at (916) 414-6600|
|Santa Barbara Island live-forever||Dudleya traskiae||No status change||Ventura||Lois Grunwald at (805) 644-1766|
|Santa Cruz Island bushmallow||Malacothamnus fasciculatus var. nesioticus||No status change||Ventura||Lois Grunwald at (805) 644-1766|
|Santa Rosa Island manzanita||Arctostaphylos confertiflora||No status change||Ventura||Lois Grunwald at (805) 644-1766|
|Showy Indian clover||Trifolium amoenum||No status change||Sacramento||Al Donner at (916) 414-6600|
|Soft-leaved paintbrush||Castilleja mollis||No status change||Ventura||Lois Grunwald at (805) 644-1766|
|Yreka phlox||Phlox hirsuta||No status change||Yreka||Matt Baun or Nadine Kanim at (530) 842-5763|
Dated: February 27, 2008.
Regional Director, Region 8, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
[FR Doc. E8-4258 Filed 3-4-08; 8:45 am]
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