Council on Environmental Quality.
Notice of proposed rulemaking and opportunity for comment.
The Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) is proposing to amend its Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) regulations to reflect its current policy and practice and to implement changes to the FOIA. These proposed regulations reaffirm CEQ's commitment to providing the fullest possible disclosure of records to the public. The proposal provides for an online FOIA Requester Service Center and Reading Room; electronic FOIA requests; access to records published or released under FOIA in electronic format, provided the record is readily reproducible in that form or format; designation of a Chief FOIA Officer and FOIA Public Liaison; referral of requests to appropriate Federal agencies or consultation with another agency, if appropriate; review of requests in order of receipt; multi-tracking of FOIA requests based on the amount of time and work involved in processing requests; revision of CEQ's initial determination period from 10 days to 20 days, beginning on the date CEQ receives a written request; assignment of individualized tracking numbers for certain requests; tolling of the time limit CEQ has to act on a request; expedited processing of FOIA requests upon a showing of compelling need; CEQ consultations with a requester to determine if a FOIA request may be modified to allow for a timely response, or to arrange an alternative timeframe for a response; informing the requester of the volume of requested material withheld and the extent of deletions in records released in response to a FOIA request; reduction in time for appeal from 45 to 30 days of denial of a request; extension of the time limit to respond to a request in “unusual circumstances”; and aggregation of clearly related requests by a single requester or group of requesters. Further, CEQ's fee structure is revised to include a method for computing fees based upon the classification of the requester and the base pay of the employee making the search, an increase of copying costs from $0.10 to $0.15 per page, and a provision for waiving fees. Additional Start Printed Page 58577administrative changes including reorganizing, renumbering, and renaming of the FOIA subsections and updating addresses and telephone numbers are also proposed.
Comments due on or before December 14, 2009.
All comments concerning the proposed rule must be submitted in either electronic or written form. Electronic mail comments should be sent to firstname.lastname@example.org and should include in the body of the e-mail message the commenter's full name and postal service address. Written comments should be addressed and mailed to Edward A. Boling, Chief FOIA Officer, Council on Environmental Quality, 722 Jackson Place, NW., Washington, DC 20503. Faxed comments should be sent to (202) 456-0753. Copies of all communications received will be available for public inspection and copying at the address above.Start Further Info
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:
Elizabeth Moss, FOIA Coordinator, 722 Jackson Place, NW., Washington, DC 20503 or (202) 456-6550.End Further Info End Preamble Start Supplemental Information
CEQ coordinates Federal environmental efforts and works closely with agencies and other White House offices in the development of environmental policies and initiatives. CEQ was established within the Executive Office of the President by Congress as part of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, 42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq. (NEPA) and additional responsibilities were provided by the Environmental Quality Improvement Act of 1970, 42 U.S.C. 4372 et seq. CEQ's current FOIA regulations are published at 40 CFR Part 1515 and are available on the CEQ's Web site at: http://www.whitehouse.gov/administration/eop/ceq/foia. Promulgated in 1977, 42 FR 65158 (Dec. 30, 1977), they have not been revised since to reflect current law or CEQ's policy and practice of conducting its activities in an open manner and providing the public with accurate and timely information about its activities. Amendments to the FOIA, including the “Openness Promotes Effectiveness in our National Government Act of 2007” (OPEN Government Act of 2007), Public Law 110-175, 121 Stat. 2524 (Dec. 31, 2007) and the “Electronic Freedom of Information Act Amendments of 1996” (1996 Act), Public Law 104-231, 110 Stat. 3048 (Oct. 2, 1996), require changes in CEQ FOIA practices to promote openness and transparency in government, provide for public access to information in an electronic format and ensure a prompt and effective response to the public's requests for information. In addition, the Freedom of Information Reform Act of 1986 (1986 Act), Public Law 99-570, 100 Stat. 3207 (1986), the DOJ's “New FOIA Fee Waiver Policy Guidance” (April 2, 1987) and the OMB's Uniform FOIA Fee Schedule and Guidelines, 52 FR 10012, March 27, 1987, established pursuant to the FOIA, require amendments to the FOIA fee provisions, including a method for computing fees that is based upon the classification of the requester and the base pay of the employee making the search and a provision for waiving fees. Finally, the Presidential Memorandum of January 21, 2009, “Transparency and Openness,” 74 FR 4685, and the Attorney General's March 19, 2009 FOIA policy guidance have advised Federal agencies to apply a presumption of disclosure in FOIA decision-making. The Attorney General's guidance further advises that agencies should release information to the fullest extent of the law, including information that may be legally withheld, provided there is no foreseeable harm to an interest protected by an exemption or the disclosure is not prohibited by law.
Consistent with these laws and guidance, CEQ undertook a comprehensive review of its FOIA regulations and, as a result proposes to revise its regulations to more clearly reflect current law and CEQ's current organizational structure, record system configuration and FOIA policy and practice and to eliminate outdated regulatory provisions. CEQ has modeled many of the provisions in today's rules on similar regulations previously adopted by other Federal agencies. Thus, many are identical to or closely resemble the requirements adopted by other Federal agencies, and as such represent regulatory “best practices” concerning FOIA procedures. The fee provisions reflect OMB's FOIA fee provisions. Additional provisions reorganize and renumber current FOIA regulations to reflect and implement the FOIA amendments referenced above.
CEQ's policy of disclosure follows the Presidential Memorandum and the Attorney General's guidance. Congress established CEQ to advise the President on matters of environmental policy. Therefore, members of the public should be advised that communications between CEQ and the President (and their staffs) may be confidential and thus may not be released if they fall within a FOIA exemption. However, based on the recommendation of the CEQ FOIA Officer or Appeals Officer, CEQ considers the release of an entire record, even if it comes within an exemption or contains policy advice, if its disclosure would not impair Executive Branch policymaking processes or CEQ's participation in decision-making. CEQ requests comments on the following changes in particular.
Section 1515.1. The FOIA, 5 U.S.C. 552, allows the public access to Federal agency records except those that are protected from release by nine specified exemptions. Language is added to the end of this section advising requesters that the regulations should be read together with the FOIA.
Sections 1515.2(b) and 1515.2(c). Section 1515.2(b) and Section 1515.2(c) are deleted in their entirety. Information about CEQ's purpose and functions is available online at http://www.whitehouse.gov/administration/eop/ceq. In 1995 Congress passed the Federal Reports Elimination and Sunset Act (Pub. L. 104-66) aimed at reducing paperwork in government, in part through the elimination of a list of reports identified in House Document No. 103-7. CEQ's Environmental Quality Report was listed on page 41. In addition, CEQ no longer maintains the “Quarterly Reports” referred to in Section 1515.2(c).
Sections 1515.3(a) and (c). These sections have been revised to reflect the current organizational structure of CEQ. Although the National Environmental Policy Act creates CEQ to have three members appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate (42 U.S.C. 4342), in accordance with CEQ annual appropriations, the Council consists of one member.
Section 1515.3(e). This section has been deleted to reflect CEQ's current organizational structure. CEQ currently has an Associate Director for Communications but does not have a “Public Affairs” office.
Section 1515.3(f). The hours of operation and CEQ telephone number and zip code have been updated in this section.
Section 1515.4(a). The OPEN Government Act of 2007, amending 5 U.S.C. 552(j), requires agencies to designate a Chief FOIA Officer who is responsible for the efficient and appropriate compliance with and implementation of the FOIA. At CEQ, this official may also serve as the FOIA Appeals Officer and, along with the FOIA Public Liaison designated in Subsection 1515.3(d), is designated to provide a clear point of contact for the public in dealing with the CEQ on FOIA matters. Thus, a new Section 1515.4(a) implements these laws and incorporates Start Printed Page 58578the information described in the current Section 1515.5(a).
Section 1515.4(b). The OPEN Government Act of 2007, amending 5 U.S.C. 552(k)(6), requires agencies to designate a FOIA Public Liaison who reports to the Chief FOIA Officer and whose role is to provide information to the public regarding the status of its FOIA requests and to receive “concerns about the service a requester has received from the [FOIA Requester Service] Center.” The OPEN Government Act of 2007, at 5 U.S.C. 552(l), further directs the Public Liaison to “assist, as appropriate, in reducing delays, increasing transparency and understanding of the status of requests, and resolving disputes.” At CEQ, the FOIA Public Liaison is the FOIA Officer responsible for reviewing and making the initial determination on a FOIA request. Thus, a new Section 1515.4(b) is added to implement these laws and CEQ current practice.
Section 1515.5(a). The language in this section has been deleted, and the information concerning CEQ's “Chief FOIA Officer” and “Appeals Officer” has been moved to a new Section 1515.4. In addition, this section has been renamed “Availability of Records.” Pursuant to Section 2(c)(i) of E.O. 13392, CEQ maintains an online FOIA Requester Service Center “which shall serve as the first place that a FOIA requester can contact to seek information concerning the status of the person's FOIA request and appropriate information about the agency's FOIA response.” The 1996 FOIA Amendments, amending 5 U.S.C. 552(a)(2), require agencies to make records that may be the subject of future requests, including computer telecommunications, created on or after November 1, 1996, available by electronic means. Accordingly, language is added to this section to implement these laws.
Section 1515.5(b)(1). To reflect current CEQ practice, the language in this section is deleted in its entirety and replaced with the process the public follows when requesting information from CEQ. Like the original section, the new Section 1515.5(b)(1) requires all requests to be in writing and provides updated address and telephone contact information. It has also been revised to add language notifying requesters that they may submit FOIA requests via e-mail or facsimile.
Section 1515.5(b)(2). The first two sentences of this section are deleted in their entirety, and the information contained in these deletions is reorganized and stated in Section 1515.5(b)(1). The language in current Section 1515.5(b)(3) is moved to this section. Additionally, the 1996 Amendments, amending 5 U.S.C. 552(a)(3)(B), require agencies to provide records in the form or format requested “if the record is readily reproducible by the agency in that form or format.” Accordingly, language is added to this section notifying requesters to specify the form or format in which they wish to receive their response; otherwise CEQ will produce the request in the form or format most accessible to CEQ. Requesters are advised that FOIA requests themselves are part of CEQ's agency records subject to public release under FOIA.
Section 1515.5(b)(3). The language in this section has been reorganized and incorporated into Section 1515.5(b)(2). In addition, the OPEN Government Act of 2007, amending 5 U.S.C. 552(a)(6)(B)(iii)(III), grants agencies the authority to consult with another agency with a substantial interest in the determination of the request. The 1996 Amendments, amending 5 U.S.C. 552(a)(6)(D)(i) and (ii), allow agencies to provide for multitrack processing of requests for records based on the amount of time and/or work involved in processing of requests and to allow a FOIA requester whose request does not qualify for the fastest multitrack processing an opportunity to limit the scope of the request in order to qualify for faster processing. Thus language is added to this section to implement these amendments.
Section 1515.5(b)(5). The OPEN Government Act of 2007, amending 5 U.S.C. 552(a)(6)(A), provides that the statutory time period for determination commences “on the date on which the request is first received by the appropriate component of the agency, but in any event not later than ten days after the request is first received by any component of the agency that is designated in the agency's regulations under this section to receive requests.” The language in the current Section 1515.5(b)(5) is deleted to reflect current law. In addition, the new Section 1515.6 contains new language notifying requesters that the determination period begins on the date CEQ receives the request.
Section 1515.6(a). This section renumbers and revises current Section 1515.5(c)(1). The 1996 Act, amending 5 U.S.C. 552(a)(6)(A)(i), lengthened the time within which agencies must respond to FOIA requests from 10 to 20 working days. Moreover, the OPEN Government Act of 2007 added Sections 552(a)(6)(A)(ii)(I) and (II) to the FOIA which provide authority for agencies to toll the 20 day determination period. Specifically, an agency “may make one request to the requester for information and toll” the statutory time period “while it is awaiting such information that it has reasonably requested from the requester.” It may also toll the time period “if necessary to clarify with the requester issues regarding fee assessment.” There is no limit given for the number of times the agency may go back to a requester to clarify issues regarding fee assessments, which may need to be done in stages as the records are being located and processed. In both situations, the requester's response to the agency's request “ends the tolling period.” Accordingly, the time limit for determination is revised and language is added to this subsection to implement these laws.
Section 1515.6(b). The OPEN Government Act of 2007, which added 5 U.S.C. 552(a)(7), requires agencies to assign a tracking number for each request that will require more than 10 days to process and provide requesters with information regarding the status of their request. It further requires agencies to establish a phone number or an internet site to enable requesters to inquire about the status of their request. Accordingly, this section has been added to implement these requirements.
Section 1515.6(c). This section renumbers current Section 1515.5(c)(2).
Section 1515.6(d). This section renumbers and revises current Section 1515.5(c)(4). The 1996 Act and the OPEN Government Act of 2007, amending 5 U.S.C. 552(a)(2), require agencies in the event of a denial, in whole or in part, to indicate the extent of any deletion made in released records and publicly available records and to inform the requester of the estimated volume of material withheld. Thus language is added to this section to implement these laws.
Section 1515.7. The 1996 Act, amending 5 U.S.C. 552(a)(6)(E)(i), directs agencies to provide for expedited processing of FOIA requests in cases of “compelling need” and in other cases, if any, determined by the agency. Thus this new subsection 1515.7 is added which tracks the language of the FOIA amendments. The FOIA also sets out procedures for handling requests for expedited processing and for appeals which are followed and incorporated in this section.
Section 1515.8(a). This section renumbers and revises current § 1515.5(d)(1) and explains the appeals process to a FOIA request determination. In order to streamline CEQ's FOIA process and provide prompt responses, the time period for Start Printed Page 58579filing an appeal is reduced from 45 to 30 days.
Section 1515.8(b). This section is added to advise requesters that they may file written appeals via e-mail or facsimile.
Section 1515.8(d). This section renumbers and revises current § 1515.5(d)(4). Language is added to notify requesters that the 20 day appeal determination period does not include Saturdays, Sundays, and Federal holidays.
Section 1515.9. This section renumbers and revises current Section 1515.5(e). The FOIA at 5 U.S.C. 552(a)(6)(B) and Section 1515.5(e) of CEQ's current regulations permit CEQ, upon written notice to the requester, to extend the time limit for acting on a request or appeal if “unusual circumstances” exist. The 1996 Act, amending 5 U.S.C. 552(a)(6)(B)(ii), expanded this authority to permit agencies to further extend the response time by notifying the requesters and providing them with an opportunity to either limit the scope of their request so that no extension is needed, or to arrange with the agency an alternative time frame for processing the request. Accordingly, a new § 1515.9(b) is added to implement this law, and the definition of “unusual circumstances” currently at § 1515.5(e)(i), (ii) and (iii) is renumbered and restated in a new § 1515.9(c).
Section 1515.10(a). The 1996 Act, amending 5 U.S.C. 522(a)(3)(C) and (D) requires agencies to provide requested records in any form or format requested, if the record is readily reproducible by the agency in that form or format. Agencies must make reasonable efforts to maintain their records in forms or formats that are reproducible electronically and to search for requested records in electronic form or format, except when such efforts would significantly interfere with the operation of the agency's automated information system. Accordingly, language is added to this section to implement this law. Language is also added to this section advising requesters that CEQ will make requested materials available at its online FOIA Center.
Section 1515.10(b). The OPEN Government Act of 2007, amending 5 U.S.C. 522(b), amends the current FOIA provision listing exemptions and generally requiring agencies to indicate directly “on the released portion of the record” the amount of information deleted, by adding the requirement that agencies also indicate “the exemption under which the deletion is made.” Accordingly, this section is added as § 1515.10(b) which follows the language of this law.
Section 1515.10(c). In a Memorandum to Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies dated January 21, 2009, the President directed Federal agencies to implement the FOIA with a presumption of openness and in favor of disclosure. CEQ is committed to operating transparently and subject to public scrutiny and accountability. Accordingly, this section is deleted. CEQ's relationship with the President is referenced in the Preamble of the Notice of Proposed Rulemaking.
Section 1515.11. The current § 1515.15 regarding “Costs” is deleted in its entirety, and is replaced with updated fee structure and policy, §§ 1515.11 through 1515.15, to be consistent with “The Freedom of Information Reform Act of 1986,” Public Law 99-570, 1801-1804, 100 Stat. 3207, 3207-48 (1986), which established the current FOIA fee structure and waiver standard; and subsequent policy guidance and guidelines issued by the U.S. Department of Justice, “New FOIA Fee Waiver Policy Guidance” (4-2-87), and the Office of Management and Budget, “Uniform Freedom of Information Act Fee Schedule and Guidelines.” 52 FR 1007, March 27, 1987. CEQ's fee structure includes a method for computing fees that is based upon the classification of the requester and the base pay of the employee making the search, an increase of copying costs from $0.10 to $0.15 per page, and provides for waiver of fees.
Section 1515.16. This new proposed section advises requesters that CEQ's FOIA regulations do not “entitle any person, as of right, to any service or to the disclosure of any records to which such person is not entitled under the FOIA.”
Regulatory Analysis and Notices
Administrative Procedure Act
This proposed rulemaking is in compliance with the Administrative Procedure Act (5 U.S.C. 553) and allows for a 30-day comment period. Interested persons are invited to submit written comments to CEQ on this proposed regulation, to be received within 30 days of publication of this Notice. CEQ will review all comments received and consider any modifications to this proposal which appear warranted.
Regulatory Flexibility Act
For purposes of the Regulatory Flexibility Act (RFA) (5 U.S.C. chapter 6), the proposed rule, if adopted, will not have a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities. The proposed rule addresses only the procedures to be followed: (1) To request CEQ records; or (2) in the production or disclosure of CEQ materials and information in litigation where CEQ is not a party. Under the FOIA, agencies may recover only the direct costs of searching for, reviewing, and duplicating the records processed for certain categories of requesters. CEQ's proposed fee structure is in accordance with DOJ guidelines and based upon OMB fee schedules which calculate costs based upon the category of requester and kind of employee duplicating the records. Thus, fees assessed by CEQ are nominal and will not have a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities within the meaning of the RFA.
Unfunded Mandates Reform Act
For purposes of the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995 (2 U.S.C. chapter 25, subchapter II), the proposed rule would not significantly or uniquely affect small governments and would not result in increased expenditures by State, local, and tribal governments, in the aggregate, or by the private sector, of $100 million or more (as adjusted for inflation).
Executive Order 12866
In issuing this proposed regulation, CEQ has adhered to the regulatory philosophy and the applicable principles of regulation as set forth in Section 1 of Executive Order 12866, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. This proposed rule has not been reviewed by the Office of Management and Budget under that Executive Order since it is not a significant regulatory action within the meaning of the Executive Order.
CEQ has reviewed this proposed regulation in light of Section 3 of Executive Order 12988, Civil Justice Reform, and certifies that it meets the applicable standards provided therein.
Paperwork Reduction Act
The Paperwork Reduction Act (44 U.S.C. chapter 35) does not apply because this proposed regulation does not impose any reporting or recordkeeping requirements.
National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)
The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq., and the CEQ regulations which implement the NEPA, 40 CFR 1500-1508, impose requirements for considering the environmental impacts Start Printed Page 58580of proposed agency decisions and actions. They provide for each agency to develop a list of categories of actions called categorical exclusions (CEs) that are determined through agency experience to typically have no significant environmental impact and thus may generally be excluded from detailed analysis and documentation. It further directs agencies to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) for “major Federal actions significantly affecting the quality of the human environment.” If an action may have a significant impact and the agency has not decided to prepare an EIS, the agency must prepare an environmental assessment (EA). If, as a result of this assessment, the agency makes a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI), no further action is necessary. If it will have a significant effect, then the agency uses the EA to develop an EIS.
Overview: CEQ's NEPA regulations do not have a CE for either the dissemination of information under the FOIA or the preparation, revision, and adoption of regulations, directives, and other guidance documents. Thus, CEQ includes in this Notice an EA to determine whether these proposed revisions to CEQ's FOIA regulations may or may not have a significant impact on the human environment. Because as set forth below, the proposed rules pertain solely to procedures regarding the dissemination of information and will have not only a minimal impact on CEQ resources, including paper consumption, but will conserve resources and improve the FOIA process, CEQ proposes a finding that the proposed regulations will have no significant impact on the human environment and therefore, an EIS is not required.
Purpose and Need: As set forth above in the Supplemental Information section, CEQ's FOIA regulations were adopted in 1977 and have not been updated since to reflect FOIA amendments and CEQ policy and practice. As such, the current regulations fail to reflect current FOIA requirements including timelines for CEQ response to requests, provision of and access to online resources, increased use of technology to reduce paperwork including the use of electronic formats, practices with respect to aggregating requests, requests for expedited processing, and implementation of multi-track processing. CEQ's FOIA Improvement Plan, dated September 6, 2006, identified the need to amend these regulations, but this action has been delayed by staffing constraints. CEQ is undertaking revisions at this time in response to the President's Memorandum, amendments to the FOIA, and the Department of Justice Attorney General guidelines referenced above in the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section.
Proposed Action and Alternatives: A summary of the proposed action is set forth above in the Summary section. Under a “no action” alternative, CEQ would continue to operate under its 1977 regulations and the current law, addressing inconsistencies between the two on a case-by-case basis. CEQ has decided that this approach is undesirable because it is confusing to the public and requires CEQ staff to address inconsistencies between CEQ procedures and the law that are obviated by updating CEQ's regulations.
CEQ considered an alternative of a more expansive regulation, which would include statements of policy in this Federal Register notice and details of CEQ's internal organization under its FOIA Improvement Plan described in its FOIA Annual Reports.
The CEQ preferred alternative is as proposed in this Federal Register Notice which reflects CEQ's current practice and procedure at a level of detail that is appropriate for agency FOIA regulations. CEQ has an online reading room which it continues to update and by which it provides the public information concerning its operations thereby eliminating paperwork and streamlining its FOIA operations. CEQ has designated FOIA officials and staff to improve processing of and response to FOIA requests, which allows CEQ to deliver the FOIA product in a manner which is consistent with law and regulation and meets the requirements and expectations of the public. For example, the final regulations would ensure the public has the opportunity to obtain information in the format of its choice (including electronic formats) when it is feasible for CEQ to produce the information in the requested manner.
Environmental Effects of Alternatives: CEQ's FOIA implementation affects the environment primarily through use of paper and energy for copying and distribution. CEQ's use of paper and energy has remained within the range typical of the operations of a small office. Prior to the implementation of its online reading room, CEQ responded to requests by providing paper copies of documents requested. This output has ranged from approximately 7,000 to 75,000 pages of records for one request. CEQ has also responded to requests for certain e-mails by printing them out on recycled paper, scanning them into portable document format (.pdf), and forwarding them to the requester. By adopting the proposed regulations, CEQ is codifying its current practice of increasing the use of electronic formats in response to requests, which has reduced expenditure of CEQ resources, including employee time and paperwork. To place this paper use in context, the typical office worker uses about 10,000 sheets of copier paper per year. DOE, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Facts about U.S. Paper Use (http://eetd.lbl.gov/paper/ideas/html/uspaperuse.htm).
Decision: Based on the analysis above, CEQ proposes to find that implementation of the proposed regulations in this notice would reduce the paperwork and resources CEQ expends in response to FOIA requests, streamline CEQ's FOIA procedures, and make CEQ more accessible and responsive to the public. Thus, there would be no significant impacts associated with implementation of the proposed action. CEQ makes this Finding of No Significant Impact and no further environmental assessment is required. Public comment is invited on this environmental assessment.
List of Agencies and Persons Consulted: Department of Justice, Office of Information and Privacy and the Office of the Federal Environmental Executive have reviewed and commented on this EA and Notice of Proposed Rulemaking.Start List of Subjects
List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 1515
- Administrative practice and procedures
- Conflict of interests
- Freedom of information
- Government employees
Accordingly, for the reasons set forth in the preamble, the Council on Environmental Quality proposes to revise 40 CFR 1515 to read as follows:Start Part
PART 1515—FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROCEDURES
- FOIA procedures.
- About the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ).
- CEQ organization.
- CEQ FOIA Officials.
- Making a Freedom of Information Act request.
- CEQ's response to a request.
- Expedited processing.
- Appeals.Start Printed Page 58581
- Extending CEQ's time to respond.
- Obtaining available information.
- Fees in general.
- Fees for categories of requesters.
- Other charges.
- Payment and waiver.
- Other rights and services.
The Freedom of Information Act (5 U.S.C. 552), as amended, commonly known as FOIA, is a Federal law that creates a procedure for any person to request official documents and other records from United States Government agencies. The law requires every Federal agency to make available to the public the material requested, unless the material falls under one of the limited exemptions stated in Section 552(b) of the Act. These procedures explain how the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ)—one of several agencies in the Executive Office of the President—will carry out the FOIA. They are written from the standpoint of an FOIA requester and should be read together with the FOIA, which provides additional information about access to records maintained by CEQ. This information is furnished for the guidance of the public and in compliance with the requirements of Section 552 of title 5, United States Code, as amended.
Organization of CEQ
The Council on Environmental Quality (“CEQ” or “the Council”) was created by the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, as amended (42 U.S.C. 4321 through 4347). The Council's authority is primarily derived from that Act, the Environmental Quality Improvement Act of 1970, as amended (42 U.S.C. 4371-4374), Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1977 (July 15, 1977), and Executive Order 11514, “Protection and Enhancement of Environmental Quality,” March 5, 1970, as amended by Executive Order 11991, May 24, 1977.
(a) The Council is made up of a Chair appointed by the President and subject to approval by the Senate who serves in a full-time capacity. Congress has allowed CEQ to consist of a Council of one member who serves as Chairman or Chair.
(b) The National Environmental Policy Act and the Environmental Quality Improvement Act give the Council the authority to hire any officers and staff that may be necessary to carry out responsibilities and functions specified in these two Acts. Also, the use of consultants and experts is permitted.
(c) In addition to the Chair, the Council has program and legal staff.
(d) The Council has no field or regional offices.
(e) The Council is located at 722 Jackson Place, NW., Washington, DC 20503. Office hours are 9 a.m.-5:30 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. To meet with any of the staff, please write or phone ahead for an appointment. The main number is 202-456-6224.
(a) The Chair shall appoint a Chief Freedom of Information Act Officer (Chief FOIA Officer) who is responsible for overseeing the Council's administration of the Freedom of Information Act and for receiving, routing and overseeing the processing of all Freedom of Information requests as set forth in these regulations. The Chair shall appoint an Appeals Officer, who is responsible for processing and acting upon any appeals and may designate one or more CEQ officials, as appropriate, as FOIA Officers authorized to oversee and process FOIA requests. The Chief FOIA Officer may serve as the Appeals Officer.
(b) The Chief FOIA officer shall designate a FOIA Public Liaison who is the supervisory official to whom a FOIA requester can raise concerns about the service the FOIA requester has received from the CEQ FOIA Center, described in section 1515.5(a), following an initial response from the staff of the CEQ FOIA Center staff. The FOIA Public Liaison shall assist, as appropriate, in reducing delays and increasing understanding of the status of requests. The Chief FOIA officer shall also designate a CEQ FOIA Officer responsible for overseeing CEQ's day-to-day administration of the FOIA and for receiving, routing, and overseeing the processing of all FOIA requests.
Procedures for Requesting Records
(a) Availability of records. The Council maintains a World Wide Web site, http:/www.whitehouse.gov/administration/eop/ceq, and an online Freedom of Information Act Requester Service Center (“Center”), http://www.whitehouse.gov/administration/eop/ceq/foia. From the Center, a requester can find contact information regarding the CEQ's FOIA Public Liaison, as defined in section 1515.4(b), and access CEQ's Online Reading Room where CEQ makes available records pertaining to matters within the scope of 5 U.S.C. 552(a)(2), as amended, and environmental issues and other documents that, because of the nature of their subject matter, are likely to be the subject of FOIA requests. To save both time and money, CEQ strongly urges requesters to review documents currently available from the Center's Online Reading Room before submitting a request.
(b) Requesting information from the Council. (1) Requesters must make a Freedom of Information Act request in writing. For quickest possible handling, it should be sent via e-mail to: email@example.com and must include in the subject line of the e-mail message: “Freedom of Information Act Request.” Written requests may also be faxed to (202) 456-0753 or addressed and mailed to: Council on Environmental Quality, Executive Office of the President, 722 Jackson Place, NW., Washington, DC 20503. Requesters should mark both the request letter and the envelope “Freedom of Information Act Request” and include their name, address, and sufficient contact information to allow follow up regarding the scope and status of your request.
(2) The request should identify or reasonably describe the desired record. It should be as specific as possible, so that the item can be readily found. Blanket requests, such as requests for “all materials relating to” a specified subject are not recommended. Requesters should specify the preferred form or format (including electronic format) for the response. CEQ will accommodate such requests, if the record is readily reproducible in that form or format. Please be aware that FOIA requests and responses may themselves be made available for public inspection.
(3) The CEQ FOIA Officer is responsible for acting on all initial requests; however, he or she may consult and refer, pursuant to section 552(a)(6)(B)(iii)(III) of the FOIA, with Start Printed Page 58582another agency if he or she determines that that agency is better able to act on the request. Whenever the CEQ FOIA Officer refers all or any part of the responsibility for responding to a request to another agency, he or she will notify the requester of the referral, the name of the agency and agency official to whom it has been referred, and which portion of the request has been referred. Unless a request is deemed “expedited” as set forth in section 1515.7 below, the CEQ FOIA Officer will respond to requests in order of receipt. CEQ may use two or more processing tracks by distinguishing between simple and more complex requests based on the amount of time and work needed to process the request. CEQ may provide requesters on a slower track an opportunity to limit the scope of their request in order to qualify for faster processing.
(4) The Council will make a reasonable effort to assist with defining the request to eliminate extraneous and unwanted materials and to keep search and copying fees to a minimum. If budgetary constraints exist, the requester should indicate the maximum fee he or she is prepared to pay to acquire the information. (See also § 1515.11)
(5) The Freedom of Information Act does not require a government agency to create or research information; rather, it only requires that existing records be made available to the public.
(a) Upon receipt of any written request for information or records, under the Act, the CEQ FOIA Officer or his or her designee will decide how to respond to—or “make an initial determination on”—the request within 20 days (excepting Saturdays, Sundays and Federal holidays) from the date CEQ receives the request. The CEQ FOIA Officer will provide written notification of the determination, including, if applicable, notification that the request has been referred to another agency for consultation as set forth above in Section 1515.5(b)(3). CEQ may make one request to the requester for information and toll the 20-day period while it is awaiting such information that it has reasonably requested from the requester. It may also toll the 20-day period if necessary to clarify with the requester issues regarding fee assessment. In either case, CEQ's receipt of the requester's response to its request for information or clarification ends the tolling period.
(b) Requests received by the CEQ FOIA Officer or his or her designee will be assigned an individualized tracking number, if they will take more than 10 days to process. Requesters may call the FOIA Public Liaison at (202) 456-6224 and, using the tracking number, obtain information about the request, including the date on which CEQ originally received the request and an estimated date on which CEQ will complete action on the request.
(c) If it is appropriate to grant the request, a staff member will immediately collect the requested materials in order to accompany, wherever possible, the Freedom of Information Officer's letter conveying the decision.
(d) If a request is denied in part or in full, the letter conveying the decision will be signed by the CEQ FOIA Officer, and will include: The reasons for any denial, including any FOIA exemption(s) applied by the FOIA Officer in denying the request; an estimate of the volume of records or information withheld, in number of pages or in some other reasonable form of estimation. This estimate does not need to be provided if the volume is otherwise indicated through exemptions on records disclosed in part, or if providing an estimate would harm an interest protected by an applicable exemption; and the procedure for filing an appeal.
(a) Requests and appeals will be taken out of order and given expedited treatment whenever it is determined that they involve:
(1) Circumstances in which the lack of expedited treatment could reasonably be expected to pose an imminent threat to the life or physical safety of an individual; or
(2) An urgency to inform the public about an actual or alleged Federal Government activity, if made by a person primarily engaged in disseminating information.
(b) A request for expedited processing may be made at the time of the initial request for records or at any later time.
(c) A requester who seeks expedited processing must submit a written statement, certified to be true and correct to the best of that person's knowledge and belief, explaining in detail the basis for requesting expedited processing. For example, a requester within the category described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, if not a full-time member of the news media, must establish that he or she is a person whose main professional activity or occupation is information dissemination, though it need not be his or her sole occupation. A requester within category (a)(2) of this section must also establish a particular urgency to inform the public about the government activity involved in the request, beyond the public's right to know about government activity generally. Formal certification may be waived as a matter of administrative discretion.
(d) Within 10 days of its receipt of a request for expedited processing, the CEQ FOIA Officer will decide whether to grant it and will notify the requester of the decision. If a request for expedited treatment is granted, the request will be given priority and will be processed as soon as practicable. If a request for expedited processing is denied, any appeal of that decision will be acted on expeditiously.
(a) The requester may appeal an adverse determination, in any respect, to the CEQ FOIA Appeals Officer. Any appeal must be received by CEQ within 60 days of the date on the CEQ letter denying the request.
(b) Appeals must be in writing and may be sent via e-mail to: firstname.lastname@example.org. They may also be sent via facsimile to: (202) 456-0753 or via U.S. Mail addressed to: FOIA Appeals Officer, Council on Environmental Quality, Executive Office of the President, 722 Jackson Place, NW., Washington, DC 20503.
(c) The appeal letter should specify the records requested and ask the Appeals Officer to review the determination made by the Freedom of Information Officer. The letter should explain the basis for the appeal.
(d) The Appeals Officer will decide the appeal—or “make a final determination”—within 20 working days (excepting Saturdays, Sundays and Federal holidays) from the date CEQ receives the appeal. The Appeals Officer (or designee) will send a letter to the requester conveying the decision as soon as it is made. If an appeal is denied, in part or in whole, the letter will also include the provisions for judicial review.
(a) In unusual circumstances as defined in paragraph (c) of this section, the time limits for responding to a request (§§ 1515.6(a) and 1515.8(d)) may be extended by the Council for not more than 10 working days. Extensions may be granted by the CEQ FOIA Officer in the case of initial requests and by the Appeals Officer in the case of any appeals. The extension period may be split between the initial request and the appeal but may not exceed 10 working days overall. Extensions will be Start Printed Page 58583confirmed in writing and set forth the reasons for the extension and the date that the final determination is expected.
(b) With respect to a request for which a written notice under this section extends the time limits prescribed under section 1515.6(a), the CEQ FOIA Officer will notify the requester, if the request cannot be processed within the time limit specified in § 1515.6(a) and provide an opportunity to limit the scope of the request, so that it may be processed within that time limit or an opportunity to arrange an alternative time frame for processing the request or a modified request. A requester's refusal to reasonably modify the request or arrange such an alternative time frame will be considered as a factor in determining whether exceptional circumstances exist for purposes of 5 U.S.C. 552(a)(6)(C). When CEQ reasonably believes that a requester, or a group of requesters, has submitted a request constituting a single request that would otherwise satisfy the unusual circumstances specified under this section, CEQ may aggregate those requests for purposes of this paragraph. Multiple requests involving unrelated matters will not be aggregated.
(c) The term “unusual circumstances” means:
(1) The need to search for and collect the requested records from establishments that are separate from the office processing the request;
(2) The need to search for, collect, and appropriately examine a voluminous amount of separate and distinct records which are demanded in a single request; or
(3) The need for consultation, which will be conducted with all practicable speed, with another agency having a substantial interest in the determination of the request or among two or more components of the agency having substantial subject-matter interest therein.
Availability of Information
(a) When a request for information has been granted in whole or in part, CEQ will notify the requester in writing, inform the requester in the notice of any fee charged under § 1515.11 and will disclose records to the requester promptly on payment of any applicable fees. The requested material may be made available on CEQ's Online FOIA Center, http://www.whitehouse.gov/administration/eop/ceq/foia, and also in the form or format requested if the record is readily reproducible in that form or format with reasonable effort. When a form or format of the response is not requested, CEQ will respond in the form or format in which the document is most accessible to CEQ. “Readily reproducible” means, with respect to electronic format, that the requested record or records can be downloaded or transferred intact to a computer disk or other electronic medium using equipment currently in use by CEQ.
(b) Records disclosed in part will be marked or annotated to show information deleted, unless doing so would harm an interest protected by an applicable exemption. The location of the information deleted will also be indicated in the record, if technically feasible.
For purposes of these regulations:
Commercial use request means a request from or on behalf of a person who seeks information for a use or purpose that furthers the requester's or other person's commercial, trade, or profit interests.
Direct costs means those costs incurred in searching for and duplicating (and, in the case of commercial use requests, reviewing) documents to respond to a FOIA request. Direct costs include, for example, salaries of employees who perform the work and costs of conducting large-scale computer searches.
Duplicate means to copy records to be released to the FOIA requester. Copies can take the form of paper, audio-visual materials, or electronic records, among others.
Educational institution means a preschool, a public or private elementary or secondary school, an institution of graduate higher education, an institution of undergraduate higher education, an institution of professional education, and an institution of vocational education, that operates a program or programs of scholarly research.
Non-commercial scientific institution means an institution that is not operated on a commercial basis and that operates solely for the purpose of conducting scientific research the results of which are not intended to promote any particular product or industry.
Representative of the news media means any person or entity that gathers information of potential interest to a segment of the public, uses its editorial skills to turn the raw materials into a distinct work, and distributes that work to an audience.
Review means to examine a record to determine whether any portion of the record may be withheld and to process a record for disclosure, including by redacting it.
Search for means look for and retrieve records covered by a FOIA request, including by looking page-by-page or line-by-line to identify responsive material within individual records.
CEQ shall charge fees that recoup the full allowable direct costs it incurs in responding to FOIA requests. CEQ may assess charges for time spent searching for records even if CEQ fails to locate the records or if the records are located and determined to be exempt from disclosure. In general, CEQ shall apply the following fee schedule, subject to §§ 1515.13 through 1515.15:
(a) Manual searches. Time devoted to manual searches shall be charged on the basis of the salary of the employee(s) conducting the search (basic hourly rate(s) of pay for the employee(s), plus 16 percent).
(b) Electronic searches. Fees shall reflect the direct cost of conducting the search. This will include the cost of operating the central processing unit for that portion of operating time that is directly attributable to searching for and printing records responsive to the FOIA request and operator/programmer salary attributable to the search.
(c) Record reviews. Time devoted to reviewing records shall be charged on the same basis as under paragraph (a) of this section, but shall only be applicable to the review of records located in response to commercial use requests.
(d) Duplication. Fees for copying paper records or for printing electronic records shall be assessed at a rate of $.15 per page. For other types of copies such as disks or audio visual tapes, CEQ shall charge the direct cost of producing the document(s). If total costs are expected to exceed $25, the FOIA Officer shall notify the requester, unless the requester has indicated in advance a willingness to pay fees as high as those anticipated. If a requester wishes to limit costs, the FOIA Officer shall provide the requester an opportunity to reformulate the request in order to reduce costs. If the requester reformulates a request, it shall be considered a new request and the 20-day period described in § 1515.6(a) shall be deemed to begin when the FOIA Officer receives the request.
(e)(1) Advance payments required. The FOIA Officer may require a requester to make an advance deposit of up to the amount of the entire anticipated fee before the FOIA Officer begins to process the request if:
(i) The FOIA Officer estimates that the fee will exceed $250; or Start Printed Page 58584
(ii) The requester has previously failed to pay a fee in a timely fashion.
(2) When the FOIA Officer requires a requester to make an advance payment, the 20-day period described in § 1515.6(a) shall begin when the FOIA Officer receives the payment.
(f) No assessment of fee. CEQ shall not charge a fee to any requester if:
(1) The cost of collecting the fee would be equal to or greater than the fee itself; or
(2) After the effective date of these regulations CEQ fails to comply with a time limit under the Freedom of Information Act for responding to the request for records where no unusual or exceptional circumstances apply.
CEQ shall assess fees for certain categories of requesters as follows:
(a) Commercial use requesters. In responding to commercial use requests, CEQ shall assess fees that recover the full direct costs of searching for, reviewing, and duplicating records.
(b) Educational and non-commercial scientific institutions. CEQ shall provide records to requesters in this category for the cost of duplication alone, excluding charges for the first 100 pages. To qualify for inclusion in this fee category, a requester must show that the request is authorized by and is made under the auspices of a qualifying institution and that the records are sought to further scholarly research, not an individual goal.
(c) Representatives of the news media. CEQ shall provide records to requesters in this category for the cost of duplication alone, excluding charges for the first 100 pages.
(d) All other requesters. CEQ shall charge requesters who do not fall within paragraphs (a) through (c) of this section fees that recover the full direct cost of searching for and duplicating records, excluding charges for the first 100 pages of reproduction and the first two hours of search time.
CEQ may apply other charges, including the following:
(a) Special charges. CEQ shall recover the full cost of providing special services, such as sending records by express mail, to the extent that CEQ elects to provide them.
(b) Interest charges. CEQ may begin assessing interest charges on an unpaid bill starting on the 31st day following the day on which the FOIA Officer sent the billing. Interest shall be charged at the rate prescribed in 31 U.S.C. 3717 and will accrue from the date of billing.
(c) Aggregating requests. When the FOIA Officer reasonably believes that a requester or a group of requesters acting in concert is attempting to divide a request into a series of requests for the purpose of avoiding fees, the FOIA Officer shall aggregate those requests and charge accordingly.
(a) Remittances. Payment shall be made in the form of check or money order made payable to the Treasury of the United States. At the time the FOIA Officer notifies a requester of the applicable fees, the Officer shall inform the requester of where to send the payment.
(b) Waiver of fees. CEQ may waive all or part of any fee provided for in §§ 1515.12 and 1515.13 when the FOIA Officer deems that disclosure of the information is in the general public's interest because it is likely to contribute significantly to public understanding of the operations or activities of the government and is not primarily in the commercial interest of the requester. In determining whether a fee should be waived, the FOIA Officer may consider whether:
(1) The subject matter specifically concerns identifiable operations or activities of the government;
(2) The information is already in the public domain;
(3) Disclosure of the information would contribute to the understanding of the public-at-large as opposed to a narrow segment of the population;
(4) Disclosure of the information would significantly enhance the public's understanding of the subject matter;
(5) Disclosure of the information would further a commercial interest of the requester; and
(6) The public's interest is greater than any commercial interest of the requester.
Nothing in this subpart will be construed to entitle any person, as of right, to any service or to the disclosure of any record to which such person is not entitled under the FOIA.
Dated: October 23, 2009.
Nancy H. Sutley,
Chair, Council on Environmental Quality.
[FR Doc. E9-27234 Filed 11-12-09; 8:45 am]
BILLING CODE 3125-W9-P