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Proposed Rule

Occupational Injury and Illness Recording and Reporting Requirements-NAICS Update and Reporting Revisions

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Information about this document as published in the Federal Register.

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Start Preamble

AGENCY:

Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor.

ACTION:

Proposed rule.

SUMMARY:

OSHA is proposing to update Appendix A to Subpart B of its Injury and Illness Recording and Reporting regulation. Appendix A contains a list of industries that are partially exempt from maintaining records of occupational injuries and illnesses, generally due to their relatively low rates of occupational injury and illness. The current list of industries is based on the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system. In 1997, the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) was introduced to classify establishments by industry. The proposed rule would update Appendix A by replacing it with a list of industries based on NAICS and more recent injury and illness data.

The proposed rule would also require employers to report to OSHA, within eight hours, all work-related fatalities and all work-related in-patient hospitalizations; and within 24 hours, all work-related amputations. The current regulation requires an employer to report to OSHA, within eight hours, all work-related fatalities and in-patient hospitalizations of three or more employees.

DATES:

Written comments: Comments must be submitted by September 20, 2011.

ADDRESSES:

Written comments: You may submit comments, identified by docket number OSHA-2010-0019, or regulatory information number (RIN) 1218-AC50, by any of the following methods:

Electronically: You may submit comments electronically at http://www.regulations.gov, which is the Federal e-rulemaking portal. Follow the Start Printed Page 36415instructions on the Web site for making electronic submissions;

Fax: If your submission, including attachments, does not exceed 10 pages, you may fax it to the OSHA docket office at (202) 693-1648; or

Mail, hand delivery, express mail, messenger, or courier service: You must submit three copies of your comments and attachments to the OSHA Docket Office, Docket Number OSHA-2010-0019, U.S. Department of Labor, Room N-2625, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20210; telephone (202) 693-2350 (OSHA's TTY number is (877) 889-5627). Deliveries (hand, express mail, messenger, and courier service) are accepted during the Department of Labor's and docket office's normal business hours, 8:15 a.m.-4:45 p.m.

Instructions for submitting comments: All submissions must include the docket number (Docket No. OSHA-2010-0019) or the RIN (RIN 1218-AC50) for this rulemaking. Because of security-related procedures, submission by regular mail may result in significant delay. Please contact the OSHA docket office for information about security procedures for making submissions by hand delivery, express delivery, and messenger or courier service.

All comments, including any personal information you provide, are placed in the public docket without change and may be made available online at http://www.regulations.gov. Therefore, OSHA cautions you about submitting personal information such as social security numbers and birthdates.

Docket: To read or download submissions in response to this Federal Register notice, go to docket number OSHA-2010-0019, at http://regulations.gov. All submissions are listed in the http://regulations.gov index, however, some information (e.g., copyrighted material) is not publicly available to read or download through that Web site. All submissions, including copyrighted material, are available for inspection and copying at the OSHA docket office.

Electronic copies of this Federal Register document are available at http://www.regulations.gov. This document, as well as news releases and other relevant information, is available at OSHA's Web site at http://www.osha.gov.

Start Further Info

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:

For press inquiries: OSHA Office of Communications, Room N-3647, U.S. Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20210; telephone (202)-693-1999.

For general and technical information on the proposed rule: OSHA Office of Statistical Analysis, Room N-3641, U.S. Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20210; telephone (202) 693-2400.

End Further Info End Preamble Start Supplemental Information

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:

OSHA's current regulation at Section 1904.2 partially exempts certain lower-hazard industries classified in Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes 52 through 89 from injury and illness recordkeeping requirements. Lower hazard industries are those industries with an average Days Away, Restricted, or Transferred (DART) rate at or below 75 percent of the national average DART rate. The DART rate represents the total non-fatal injuries and illnesses resulting in days away from work, restricted work activity, and/or job transfer per 100 full-time employees for a given period of time (usually 1 year). The current list of partially exempt industries, which is included in Appendix A to Subpart B, is based on injury and illness data compiled by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) for 1997, 1998 and 1999.

OSHA is proposing to revise the list of partially exempt industries in Appendix A using the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). The revised list in proposed Appendix A is based on DART rates compiled by BLS for 2007, 2008 and 2009. Industries listed in proposed Appendix A would still be required to keep records if requested to do so by BLS in connection with its Annual Survey (29 CFR 1904.42), or by OSHA in connection with its Data Initiative (29 CFR 1904.41).

OSHA is also proposing to revise Section 1904.39, which currently requires an employer to report to OSHA, within eight hours, all work-related fatalities and in-patient hospitalizations of three or more employees. The proposed rule would require an employer to report to OSHA, within eight hours, all work-related fatalities and all work-related in-patient hospitalizations; and within 24 hours, all work-related amputations.

This regulation was developed in accordance with the principles of Executive Order 12866 and Executive Order 13563. Executive Order 12866 requires that OSHA estimate the benefits, costs, and net benefits of proposed regulations. The Agency estimates the regulation will cost approximately $8.5 million, on an annualized basis. As discussed elsewhere in this preamble, the Agency believes the annual benefits, while unquantified, are significantly in excess of the annual costs.

I. Legal Authority

OSHA is issuing this proposed revision of the Recordkeeping regulation pursuant to authority expressly granted by sections 8 and 24 of the Occupational Safety and Health Act (the “OSH Act” or “Act) (29 U.S.C. 657, 673). Section 8(c)(1) requires each employer to “make, keep and preserve, and make available to the Secretary [of Labor] or the Secretary of Health and Human Services, such records regarding his activities relating to this Act as the Secretary, in cooperation with the Secretary of Health and Human Services, may prescribe by regulation as necessary or appropriate for the enforcement of this Act or for developing information regarding the causes and prevention of occupational accidents and illnesses.” Section 8(c)(2) directs the Secretary to prescribe regulations “requiring employers to maintain accurate records of, and to make periodic reports on, work-related deaths, injuries and illnesses other than minor injuries requiring only first aid treatment and which do not involve medical treatment, loss of consciousness, restriction of work or motion, or transfer to another job” (29 U.S.C. 657(c)(2). Section 8(g)(2) of the OSH Act broadly empowers the Secretary to “prescribe such rules and regulations as [s]he may deem necessary to carry out [her] responsibilities under the Act” (29 U.S.C. 657(g)(2)).

Section 24 of the OSH Act contains a similar grant of authority. It requires the Secretary to “develop and maintain an effective program of collection, compilation, and analysis of occupational safety and health statistics ” and “compile accurate statistics on work injuries and illnesses which shall include all disabling, serious, or significant injuries and illnesses, whether or not involving loss of time from work, other than minor injuries requiring only first aid treatment and which do not involve medical treatment, loss of consciousness, restriction of work or motion, or transfer to another job” (29 U.S.C. 673(a)). Section 24 also requires employers to “file such reports [of work injuries and illnesses] with the Secretary” as she may prescribe by regulation (29 U.S.C. 673(e)).

In addition, the Secretary's responsibilities under the OSH Act are defined largely by its enumerated purposes, which include “[p]roviding appropriate reporting procedures that will help achieve the objectives of this Act and accurately describe the nature of the occupational safety and health problem” (29 U.S.C. 651(b)(12)).Start Printed Page 36416

The OSH Act authorizes the Secretary to issue two types of occupational safety and health rules; standards and regulations. Standards, which are authorized by section 6 of the OSH Act, specify remedial measures to be taken to prevent and control employee exposure to identified occupational hazards; while regulations are the means to effectuate other statutory purposes, including the collection and discrimination of records of occupational injuries and illnesses. Courts of appeal have held that OSHA recordkeeping rules are regulations and not standards (Louisiana Chemical Ass'n v. Bingham, 657 F.2d 777, 782-785 (5th Cir. 1981); Workplace Health & Safety Council v. Reich, 56 F.3d 1465, 1467-1469 (DC Cir. 1995).

II. Summary and Explanation of the Proposed Rule

A. Section 1904.2—Partial Exemption for Establishments in Certain Industries

Background

Although the OSH Act gives OSHA the authority to require all employers covered by the Act to keep records of employee injuries and illnesses, major classes of employers are partially exempted from Part 1904. First, as provided in Section 1904.1, employers with 10 or fewer employees are partially exempt from keeping OSHA injury and illness records. Second, as provided in section 1904.2, establishments in certain lower-hazard industry classifications are also partially exempt.

The partial exemption based on lower-hazard industry classification has been part of the OSHA recordkeeping regulations since 1982. OSHA exempted establishments in a number of service, finance, and retail industries from the duty to regularly maintain the OSHA Log and Incident Report (47 FR 57699). This industry exemption to recordkeeping requirements was intended to “reduce paperwork burden on employers without compromising worker safety and health.” See, 47 FR 57700.

The 1982 list of partially exempt industries was established by identifying major industry groups with relatively low rates of occupational injuries and illnesses in the SIC codes encompassing retail trade, finance, insurance and real estate, and the service industries (SICs 52-89). Major industry groups were defined at the 2-digit classification level from the SIC manual published by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB). Industries in these major industry groups were partially exempted from coverage by Part 1904 if their average lost workday injury (LWDI) rate for 1978-80 was at or below 75 percent of the overall private sector annual LWDI rate. Industries that involved more serious occupational hazards, comprising the industry divisions of agriculture, construction, manufacturing, utilities, mining, and wholesale trade, remained subject to the full recordkeeping requirements. Although the 1982 Federal Register notice discussed the possibility of revising the exempt industry list on a routine basis, the list remained unchanged until 2001.

On January 19, 2001, OSHA published a final rule (66 FR 5916) which comprehensively revised the Part 1904 recordkeeping regulations. As part of this revision, OSHA updated the list of lower-hazard industries that are partially exempted from the recordkeeping requirements. The list of lower-hazard industries established in the 2001 final rule is the current list set forth in Appendix A to Subpart B.

The 2001 final rule updated the 1982 list of industries by applying the same approach for identifying affected industries. Industries were selected for the list based on two criteria. First, only industries classified in SIC codes 52 through 89 were considered eligible for inclusion on the list. Second, industries were included if they had an average DART rate, based on the most recent three years of available data, at or below 75 percent of the most recent national rate. The 2001 list differed from the 1982 list in two respects: (1) The injury/illness rate data supporting the final rule's industry exemption were based on BLS statistics for 1996, 1997, and 1998, and (2) the industries were defined at the 3-digit rather than 2-digit SIC code level.

The issue of converting from SIC to NAICS codes was addressed in the 2001 rulemaking (66 FR 5916). Although the NAICS had been formally adopted by 2001, several statistical agencies had not converted their systems to the new codes. In fact, BLS did not publish its first occupational injury and illness rates using the NAICS codes until 2004, when it published the rates for calendar year 2003. As a result, OSHA stated in the preamble to the 2001 final rule that it used the SIC system to determine the list of partially exempted industries. The agency also stated its intention to conduct a future rulemaking to update the list using NAICS codes. (66 FR 5944).

Presently, NAICS is the standard system used by Federal statistical agencies in classifying business establishments for the purpose of collecting, analyzing, and publishing statistical data related to the U.S. economy. NAICS was developed under the auspices of OMB, and adopted in 1997 to replace the SIC system. It was developed jointly by the United States, Canada, and Mexico to allow for a high level of compatibility in business statistics among the North American countries.

The official 2007 U.S. NAICS Manual includes definitions for each industry, background information, tables showing changes between 2002 and 2007, and a comprehensive index. The official 2007 NAICS Manual is available in print and CD Rom from the National Technical Information Service (NTIS) at (800) 553-6847, or through the NTIS Web site at http://www.ntis.gov.

Description of Proposed Revisions

OSHA proposes to update Appendix A to Subpart B in two ways. First, the list of partially exempted industries would be converted from one based on SIC codes to one based on NAICS codes. Second, the DART rates used to determine which NAICS code industries qualify for the lower-hazard partial exemption would be based on more recent BLS data.

Consistent with OSHA's longstanding policy, individual industry classifications in major industry sectors generally considered to involve greater occupational hazards, are not included on the proposed partially exempt list. As with the current regulation, industries ineligible for the partial exemption under the proposed rule include those in the agriculture, utilities, construction, manufacturing, and wholesale trade sectors.

For industries in the remaining sectors, the most recent three years (2007, 2008 and 2009) of available BLS data were used to calculate the average rate of serious injuries and illnesses for each industry, as represented by the DART rate. Industries with an average DART rate equal to or less than 75 percent of the average national DART rate from 2007 through 2009 are included on the list of partially exempt lower-hazard industries in proposed Appendix A, with one exception.

Under the existing regulation, establishments in Personnel Supply Services (SIC 736) are currently required to maintain injury and illness logs; this industry is not included in the existing Appendix A. For many employees working for establishments in this industry, their actual place of work may be in an establishment that is part of another industry. OSHA is proposing that establishments in the corresponding NAICS industry, NAICS 5613 Employment Services, continue to Start Printed Page 36417be required to maintain logs for the employees under their supervision as they are currently required to do. Thus, NAICS 5613 Employment Services is not included in the proposed Appendix A.

According to the data published by BLS, the average national private sector DART rate for 2007-2009 was 2.0. Thus, specific industries, as defined by 4-digit NAICS codes, which had an average DART rate for 2007-2009 of 1.5 or less, and which are in the eligible broad industry sectors, were included in the list in proposed Appendix A (except NAICS 5613 Employment Services).

The industries included in proposed Appendix A were identified as follows.

NAICS CodeIndustry
4412Other Motor Vehicle Dealers.
4431Electronics and Appliance Stores.
4461Health and Personal Care Stores.
4471Gasoline Stations.
4481Clothing Stores.
4482Shoe Stores.
4483Jewelry, Luggage, and Leather Goods Stores.
4511Sporting Goods, Hobby, and Musical Instrument Stores.
4512Book, Periodical, and Music Stores.
4531Florists.
4532Office Supplies, Stationery, and Gift Stores.
4812Nonscheduled Air Transportation.
4861Pipeline Transportation of Crude Oil.
4862Pipeline Transportation of Natural Gas.
4869Other Pipeline Transportation.
4879Scenic and Sightseeing Transportation, Other.
4885Freight Transportation Arrangement.
5111Newspaper, Periodical, Book, and Directory Publishers.
5112Software Publishers.
5121Motion Picture and Video Industries.
5122Sound Recording Industries.
5151Radio and Television Broadcasting.
5172Wireless Telecommunications Carriers (except Satellite).
5173Telecommunications Resellers.
5179Other Telecommunications.
5181Internet Service Providers and Web Search Portals.
5182Data Processing, Hosting, and Related Services.
5191Other Information Services.
5211Monetary Authorities—Central Bank.
5221Depository Credit Intermediation.
5222Nondepository Credit Intermediation.
5223Activities Related to Credit Intermediation.
5231Securities and Commodity Contracts Intermediation and Brokerage.
5232Securities and Commodity Exchanges.
5239Other Financial Investment Activities.
5241Insurance Carriers.
5242Agencies, Brokerages, and Other Insurance Related Activities.
5251Insurance and Employee Benefit Funds.
5259Other Investment Pools and Funds.
5312Offices of Real Estate Agents and Brokers.
5331Lessors of Nonfinancial Intangible Assets (except Copyrighted Works).
5411Legal Services.
5412Accounting, Tax Preparation, Bookkeeping, and Payroll Services.
5413Architectural, Engineering, and Related Services.
5414Specialized Design Services.
5415Computer Systems Design and Related Services.
5416Management, Scientific, and Technical Consulting Services.
5417Scientific Research and Development Services.
5418Advertising and Related Services.
5511Management of Companies and Enterprises.
5611Office Administrative Services.
5614Business Support Services.
5615Travel Arrangement and Reservation Services.
5616Investigation and Security Services.
6111Elementary and Secondary Schools.
6112Junior Colleges.
6113Colleges, Universities, and Professional Schools.
6114Business Schools and Computer and Management Training.
6115Technical and Trade Schools.
6116Other Schools and Instruction.
Start Printed Page 36418
6117Educational Support Services.
6211Offices of Physicians.
6212Offices of Dentists.
6213Offices of Other Health Practitioners.
6214Outpatient Care Centers.
6215Medical and Diagnostic Laboratories.
6244Child Day Care Services.
7114Agents and Managers for Artists, Athletes, Entertainers, and Other Public Figures.
7115Independent Artists, Writers, and Performers.
7213Rooming and Boarding Houses.
7221Full-Service Restaurants.
7222Limited-Service Eating Places.
7224Drinking Places (Alcoholic Beverages).
8112Electronic and Precision Equipment Repair and Maintenance.
8114Personal and Household Goods Repair and Maintenance.
8121Personal Care Services.
8122Death Care Services.
8131Religious Organizations.
8132Grantmaking and Giving Services.
8133Social Advocacy Organizations.
8134Civic and Social Organizations.
8139Business, Professional, Labor, Political, and Similar Organizations.

For a more thorough discussion regarding the specific industries which would be newly exempted or newly covered by the proposed rule, please refer to Section III of this preamble.

This rulemaking also fulfills a commitment made by OSHA to the Government Accountability Office (GAO). In October 2009, GAO published a report entitled: “Enhancing OSHA's Records Audit Process Could Improve the Accuracy of Worker Injury and Illness Data” (GAO-10-10). One of the recommendations made by GAO was to update the list of industries used by OSHA to select worksites for records audits. In its response to GAO, OSHA agreed to conduct a rulemaking that would update the coverage of the relevant recordkeeping requirements from the old SIC-based system to one based on the NAICS codes.

In conjunction with any final rule resulting from this rulemaking that may result in some establishments being newly required to comply with OSHA recordkeeping requirements, OSHA will conduct outreach and training, and offer other types of compliance assistance, to facilitate compliance and help ensure more complete and accurate recording and reporting. OSHA welcomes suggestions from the public regarding the types of outreach, training, and assistance that would be particularly helpful.

Issues and Potential Alternatives

OSHA welcomes comments and data from the public regarding any aspect of the proposed lower-hazard industry partial exemption. More specifically, the following questions and issues are relevant to this rulemaking:

1. Should any additional industries be exempt from any of the recordkeeping requirements in Part 1904?

2. Should OSHA base partial exemptions on more detailed or more aggregated industry classifications, such as two-digit, three-digit, or six-digit NAICS codes?

3. Which industry sectors, if any, should be ineligible for partial exemption?

4. Instead of using an average DART rate of 75 percent of the most recent national DART rate, is there a better way to determine which industries should be included in Appendix A?

5. Should OSHA consider numbers of workers injured or made ill in each industry in addition to industry injury/illness rates in determining eligibility for partial exemption?

6. Are there any other data that should be applied as additional or alternative criteria for purposes of determining eligibility for partial exemption?

7. Should OSHA regularly update the list of lower-hazard exempted industries? If so, how frequently should the list be updated?

8. Are there any specific types of training, education, and compliance assistance OSHA could provide that would be particularly helpful in facilitating compliance with the recordkeeping requirements?

B. Section 1904.39—Reporting Fatality, In-Patient Hospitalization, and Amputation Incidents to OSHA

Background

Virtually since its inception, OSHA has required employers to report certain incidents involving employee fatality or hospitalization. The regulatory requirements adopted in 1971 in 29 CFR 1904.8 required employers to report, within 48 hours after the occurrence, work-related incidents resulting in at least one fatality or the hospitalization of at least five employees.

In 1994, the Agency revised its reporting requirements to require employers to report to OSHA, within eight hours, work-related events or exposures involving fatalities or the in-patient hospitalization of three or more employees (59 FR 15594). OSHA stated in the preamble to the final rule that more prompt reporting enables OSHA to inspect the site of the incident and interview personnel while their recollections are immediate, fresh and untainted by other events, thus providing more timely and accurate information about possible causes of the incident. See, 59 FR 15595. The requirements from the 1994 rulemaking have remained substantially unchanged since then, and are currently codified at 29 CFR 1904.39.

Description of Proposed Revisions

The proposed rule would require employers to report to OSHA, within eight hours, work-related incidents that result in the death of an employee or in Start Printed Page 36419the in-patient hospitalization of one or more employees, and within 24 hours, a work-related amputation suffered by an employee. The proposed revision is intended to provide information necessary to help ensure America's workers have safe and healthful workplaces.

Prompt investigation of incidents causing serious injury is a key element in OSHA's ability to enforce existing standards, evaluate the effectiveness of current standards, and identify a need for new standards. OSHA believes that the eight-hour requirement for work-related fatalities, the eight-hour requirement for work-related in-patient hospitalizations, and the 24-hour requirement for amputations will enable the additional potential benefits of reporting to be realized without creating unreasonable burdens on employers.

Making all in-patient hospitalizations and amputations reportable will provide OSHA with additional information on the causes of workplace incidents and lead to greater prevention of injuries. The additional information would be obtained cost-effectively, involve relatively minimal burdens on employers, and would provide OSHA with critical information to facilitate the timely investigation of harmful incidents and quick mitigation of hazards. The information will also help OSHA target scarce resources to the most dangerous workplaces and to prevent future injuries at these workplaces.

OSHA believes that the value of this additional information easily justifies the relatively minor additional reporting burden estimated to be an average of 15 minutes per reported incident. See Section III of this preamble for a more detailed discussion of the estimated compliance costs.

The hospitalization of a worker due to a work-related incident is a serious and significant event. Requiring the reporting of every in-patient hospitalization would ensure that OSHA will be informed about many more of these serious occurrences. Greater awareness regarding the extent and nature of such cases helps in the development and prioritization of various OSHA enforcement programs and initiatives. It also serves the public interest by enabling OSHA to more effectively and efficiently target occupational safety and health hazards.

Another benefit associated with the expansion of the reporting requirements would be the increased value and utility of the resulting data. Incidents involving an in-patient hospitalization or an amputation often involve serious hazards. The proposed reporting requirements would help establish a comprehensive database that would more accurately reflect hazards that cause hospitalizations and amputations as well as identify the associated industries, processes, and other relevant factors. Such a database could prove especially useful for study and research into the causes and prevention of occupational hazards.

For purposes of OSHA recordkeeping, in-patient hospitalization occurs when a person is “formally admitted” to a hospital or clinic for at least one overnight stay. Out-patient treatment generally refers to patients that are seen by a physician or other licensed health care professional and leave the hospital the same day. Of course, in order for in-patient hospitalization to be reportable, the injury or illness must be work-related as defined by Section 1904.5.

The proposed reporting requirements would apply only to work-related deaths, in-patient hospitalizations, and amputations occurring within 30 days of a work-related incident. As provided in proposed paragraph (b)(7) of section 1904.39, employers would generally not be required to report fatalities, hospitalizations, or amputations of which they were not aware.

The proposed addition of amputations to the reporting requirements would ensure that these incidents involving serious injury are promptly reported. Amputations include some of the most serious types of injuries and tend to result in a greater number of lost workdays than most other injuries. According to data available from BLS for 2008, the median number of days away from work for all injuries involving days away from work was 8, while the median number of days away from work for amputations was 26. Furthermore, amputations differ from other types of serious injuries because they tend to have long-term or permanent consequences. Although information reported regarding amputations will not necessarily result in an inspection, OSHA can use this information to better target inspections to workplaces with serious hazards in order to prevent any further workplace injuries. Thus, the benefits associated with the reporting of amputations would be comparable to those associated with the reporting of hospitalizations.

For purposes of classifying occupational injuries and illnesses, amputations are defined by the Bureau of Labor Statistics in their Occupational Injury and Illness Classification Manual. An amputation is the traumatic loss of a limb or other external body part, including a fingertip. In order for an injury to be classified as an amputation, bone must be lost. Amputations include loss of a body part due to a traumatic incident, a gunshot wound, and medical amputations due to irreparable traumatic injuries. Amputations exclude traumatic injuries without bone loss and exclude enucleation (eye removal). A reportable amputation under the proposed rule would include those that occur at the workplace as well as those that occur in a hospital as a result of a work-related event.

The proposed reporting requirements would generally bring OSHA requirements more in line with those of other types of safety and health investigations. Federal regulations require aircraft pilots or operators to notify the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) of aviation accidents, certain incidents, and the occurrence of a variety of other conditions or events. The Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) requires railroads to report whenever they learn of the occurrence of anything on a list of types of accidents, incidents, events, or exposures.

In some states that administer their own occupational safety and health regulations, elements similar to this proposed regulation are already being enforced. For example, California requires employers to report any employee death or serious injury or illness. The phrase “serious injury or illness” includes the in-patient hospitalization of an employee, as well as when an employee suffers the loss of any part of the body. Alaska and Washington require notification when at least one employee is fatally injured or requires in-patient hospitalization. Utah requires notification of any disabling, serious, or significant injury, and of any occupational disease incident. In Kentucky, employers are required to report work-related incidents that result in the hospitalization of at least one employee, or in an amputation. In Oregon, incidents resulting in at least one employee needing overnight hospitalization for medical treatment are required to be reported.

Issues and Potential Alternatives

OSHA requests comments on the potential benefits and burdens associated with the proposed revisions to the reporting requirements in Section 1904.39. As noted above, under current state regulations, many businesses are already required to make reports of work-related incidents resulting in death or serious injury, and many more are already required to report all work-related in-patient hospitalizations and amputations within eight hours.Start Printed Page 36420

OSHA welcomes comments and data from the public regarding any aspect of the proposed reporting requirements. More specifically, the following questions and issues are relevant to this rulemaking:

1. What types of incidents and/or injuries and illnesses should be reported to OSHA and why?

2. Are there any injuries, illnesses, or conditions that should be reported to OSHA and are not included among in-patient hospitalizations?

3. Should amputations that do not result in in-patient hospitalizations be reported to OSHA?

4. Should OSHA require the reporting of all amputations?

5. Should OSHA require the reporting of enucleations?

6. Are there additional data or estimates available regarding the number of work-related incidents involving in-patient hospitalizations? Is there information available on how many work-related hospitalizations occur more than 30 days after the report of an injury or illness?

7. Should OSHA allow reports to be made by means other than a telephone, such as by e-mail, fax, or a Web-based system?

8. Are the reporting times of eight hours for fatalities, eight hours for in-patient hospitalizations, and 24 hours for amputations generally appropriate time periods for requiring reporting? What advantages or disadvantages would be associated with these or any alternative time periods?

III. Preliminary Economic Analysis and Regulatory Flexibility Certification

This proposed rule is not a “significant regulatory action” within the context of Executive Order 12866 or the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act (UMRA) (2 U.S.C. 1532(a)), or a “major rule” under the Congressional Review Act (5 U.S.C. 801 et seq.). This rulemaking has net costs of $8.5 million and costs between $50 and $100 per affected establishment. Thus, this rulemaking imposes far less than $100 million in annual costs on the economy, and does not meet any of the other criteria specified for a significant regulatory action or major rule in Executive Order 12866, the UMRA or the Congressional Review Act.

This Preliminary Economic Analysis (PEA) addresses the costs, benefits, and economic impacts of the proposed rule. The proposed rule and the PEA were developed in accordance with the principles of Executive Order 12866 and Executive Order 13563. The proposed rule would make two changes to the existing recording and reporting requirements in Part 1904. It would change which industries are partially exempted from keeping records and would change the requirements for reporting certain work-related injuries. The affected establishments are only partially exempt because BLS may require any establishment to respond to its survey. The costs to those firms required to respond to the BLS survey are covered in the BLS survey paperwork package.

The existing regulation partially exempts all employers with 10 or fewer employees and all establishments in specific lower-hazard industry sectors from routinely keeping OSHA records. The existing industry partial exemptions were determined by identifying industries with relatively low DART rates at the 3-digit SIC code level. This proposed rule would retain the partial exemption for employers with 10 or fewer employees. It also would update the list of partially exempted industries to reflect the latest data on DART rates and to convert the industry classifications to the NAICS classification system. These changes would lead to new costs for employers who are currently partially exempt from recordkeeping requirements but would be newly required to keep records; there would also be cost savings for employers who would no longer be required to keep records.

The existing rule requires that all work-related fatalities and work-related incidents involving three or more hospitalizations be reported to OSHA within eight hours. The proposed rule would retain the requirement that all fatalities be reported to OSHA within eight hours and would require that all work-related in-patient hospitalizations be reported to OSHA within eight hours and that all work-related amputations be reported to OSHA within 24 hours. The proposed rule would thus increase the number of incidents that are to be reported to OSHA.

The remaining sections of this PEA provide estimates of the establishments that would be newly required to keep records or would be newly partially exempt from keeping records, and estimates of the numbers of reports of in-patient hospitalizations or amputations that would be required (the industrial profile section); the costs and costs savings associated with the proposed requirements; the benefits of the proposed rule; and the economic and small business impacts of the proposed changes.

Industrial Profile

The purpose of this industrial profile section is to provide information about which industries would be affected by the proposed rule, the number of affected establishments in each affected industry, employment in establishments affected by the proposed rule, and estimates of the numbers of in-patient hospitalizations and amputations that would be required to be reported by the proposed rule. (There is no need to estimate the number of fatalities to be reported as current regulations already require the reporting of fatalities.)

Partial Exemption

In regards to the partial exemption for certain lower hazard industries, OSHA identified which establishments would be newly required to keep records, and which establishments would be newly partially exempt from keeping records. This identification was complicated by the fact that the current rule classifies employers by SIC codes, a classification system dating to the 1930s which is no longer used in government statistics. OSHA had to convert employers classified by SIC code to the newer NAICS codes. In many cases, a single SIC code was divided into several NAICS codes, and conversely, a single NAICS code might contain establishments from multiple SIC codes. This analysis was conducted at the six-digit NAICS level. The data resulting from this analysis at the six-digit NAICS level are presented in the Appendix to this Preliminary Economic Analysis.

To identify those employers that would no longer be partially exempt from OSHA recordkeeping requirements under the proposed rule, OSHA examined the 1997 Economic Census: Bridge between SIC and NAICS Tables (http://www.census.gov/​epcd/​naics02/​S87TON02.HTM). These tables show, for 1997, the best available data on what percentage of the establishments in each SIC code transferred into each NAICS code. Affected establishments in an SIC code exempted under the existing rule but classified in a non-exempted NAICS code under the proposed rule would be newly subject to the recordkeeping requirements. These establishments, not exempted under the proposed rule, would incur new recordkeeping costs.

Having used the bridge table to identify the portions of the industries by 6-digit NAICS code that would be newly required to keep records, OSHA used 2006 County Business Patterns to determine the corresponding numbers of establishments and employees (http://www2.census.gov/​econ/​susb/​data/​2006/​us_​6digitnaics_​2006.xls). This data source provides not only the total number of establishments and employees in an industry, but also a breakdown of employees and Start Printed Page 36421establishments by the size of the firm that owns the establishment. These data permit a straightforward calculation of the number of establishments with 10 or more employees. However, both the current and proposed rules cover employers with 11 or more employees. To deduct those employers with exactly 10 employees, OSHA estimated that employers with exactly ten employees represent one tenth of all employers with between 10 and 19 employees. This approach will overestimate the number of covered firms because there tend to be a more than proportional number of firms at smaller size classes.

OSHA then estimated the number of affected establishments and employees in each industry by multiplying the total number of establishments and employees in the industry by the percentage of affected establishments that were identified using the SIC—NAICS bridge tables as described above.

OSHA then estimated the number of newly recordable injuries and illnesses by dividing the number of injuries and illness recorded per industry by BLS in 2006 (BLS http://www.bls.gov/​iif/​oshbulletin2006.htm) by the total employment in the industry, and multiplied the resulting rate by the number of affected employees in the industry as derived using the 1997 SIC-NAICS bridge tables. OSHA used BLS data at the four-digit NAICS level since more detailed injury and illness data were not available for all NAICS codes.

Table III-1 presents data for the industries with establishments that would be newly required to keep records. The table shows the four-digit NAICS code, industry name, the number of affected establishments, the number of affected employees, and an estimate of the number of recordable injuries and illnesses, based on historical data, for newly affected employers. OSHA estimates that as a result of the proposed rule's revision to partial exemptions, 199,000 establishments with 5.3 million employees not previously required to record injuries would need to do so and that those establishments are would record an estimated 173,000 injuries and illnesses per year.

Having used the bridge table to identify the portions of the NAICS code industries that would be newly required to keep records, OSHA used the same methodology and data sources described above to determine the number of establishments, employees, and injuries and illnesses for establishments who would no longer be required to regularly keep records. Table III-2 shows the four-digit NAICS code, industry name, number of affected establishments, number of affected employees, and the estimated number of injuries and illnesses that would no longer be recorded in each affected industry. OSHA estimates that as a result of the revision to the list of partially exempt industries, 119,000 establishments with 4.0 million employees and an estimated 76,000 injuries and illnesses per year would no longer need to keep records regularly.

Table III-1— Industries That Include Establishments That Would Be Newly Required to Keep Records

NAICS CodeTitle of NAICS CodeAffected employmentAffected establishmentsAffected firmsEstimated injuries and illnesses
3118Bakeries and Tortilla Manufacturing42,2941,9321,766571
4411Automobile Dealers1,204,56623,35119,15648,989
4413Automotive Parts, Accessories, and Tire Stores5,20742684204
4441Building Material and Supplies Dealers260,36321,3104,21518,577
4452Specialty Food Stores88,1337,3393,0442,759
4453Beer, Wine, and Liquor Stores69,0116,1092,8782,356
4539Other Miscellaneous Store Retailers160,15211,5054,3014,611
4543Direct Selling Establishments1,569694367
5313Activities Related to Real Estate490,94119,3419,88113,864
5322Consumer Goods Rental130,83914,1861,1581,114
5324Commercial and Industrial Machinery and Equipment Rental and Leasing13,963807295676
5419Other Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services249,16010,8893,7701,853
5612Facilities Support Services162,3843,2938658,955
5617Services to Buildings and Dwellings2,14010450134
5619Other Support Services308,9846,2384,1528,150
6219Other Ambulatory Health Care Services105,6562,6888595,734
6241Individual and Family Services995,85630,23015,91520,988
6242Community Food and Housing, and Emergency and Other Relief Services138,2727,3694,2583,536
7111Performing Arts Companies116,0431,9941,8644,483
7113Promoters of Performing Arts, Sports, and Similar Events93,7381,1839732,421
7121Museums, Historical Sites, and Similar Institutions77,9331,6101,3522,860
7139Other Amusement and Recreation Industries73,4472,9122,2441,254
7223Special Food Services510,29422,3793,80218,164
8129Other Personal Services42,2541,4981,117914
Total5,343,199198,76388,040173,233
Source: OSHA, Office of Regulatory Analysis.
Source: 2006 County Business Patterns: http://www2.census.gov/​econ/​susb/​data/​2006/​us_​6digitnaics_​2006.xls.
Source: 2006 Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses, in cooperation with participating State agencies. http://www.bls.gov/​iif/​oshwc/​osh/​os/​osnr0028.pdf.
Start Printed Page 36422

Table III-2: Industries That Include Establishments That Would Be Newly Partially Exempt From Keeping Records

NAICS CodeTitle of NAICS CodeAffected employmentAffected establishmentsAffected firmsEstimated injuries and illnesses
4412Other Motor Vehicle Dealers80,4413,7942,5943,757
4431Electronics and Appliance Stores66,9023,6991,7021,538
4461Health and Personal Care Stores15,6201,440425244
4471Gasoline Stations128,97212,2202,5753,634
4511Sporting Goods, Hobby, and Musical Instrument Stores1,271651637
4532Office Supplies, Stationery, and Gift Stores98,8554,6268732,160
4812Nonscheduled Air Transportation37,807763580855
4861Pipeline Transportation of Crude Oil7,47235235175
4862Pipeline Transportation of Natural Gas22,0801,30368510
4869Other Pipeline Transportation9,34888151219
4879Scenic and Sightseeing Transportation, Other2,155453980
4885Freight Transportation Arrangement166,5497,1262,7093,045
5111Newspaper, Periodical, Book, and Directory Publishers654,21110,9124,89616,037
5122Sound Recording Industries14,059426197206
5151Radio and Television Broadcasting251,5237,1862,0844,931
5172Wireless Telecommunications Carriers (except Satellite)236,24310,0875302,274
5173Telecommunications Resellers27,652800533499
5179Other Telecommunications9,365204104191
5181Internet Service Providers and Web Search Portals20,957210157174
5191Other Information Services10,40621196164
5221Depository Credit Intermediation81,1305,063356640
5239Other Financial Investment Activities8,1581157719
5241Insurance Carriers8,9462515563
5259Other Investment Pools and Funds20,268924226129
5413Architectural, Engineering, and Related Services31,9531,1441,008508
5416Management, Scientific, and Technical Consulting Services80,5661,651927440
5418Advertising and Related Services48,0611,096764691
5511Management of Companies and Enterprises1,015,53214,2296,98320,526
5614Business Support Services166,4542,9372,1721,868
5615Travel Arrangement and Reservation Services167,3987,1062,0541,385
5616Investigation and Security Services6,361386332148
6116Other Schools and Instruction49,5002,1421,961372
7213Rooming and Boarding Houses6,31335028060
8112Electronic and Precision Equipment Repair and Maintenance61,7892,0471,1821,179
8114Personal and Household Goods Repair and Maintenance42,5822,1311,1461,163
8122Death Care Services24,5151,730551606
8134Civic and Social Organizations131,3014,2333,1412,473
8139Business, Professional, Labor, Political, and Similar Organizations148,0565,4904,6482,788
Total3,960,772119,37448,12375,787
Source: OSHA, Office of Regulatory Analysis.
Source: 2006 County Business Patterns: http://www2.census.gov/​econ/​susb/​data/​2006/​us_​6digitnaics_​2006.xls.
Source: 2006 Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses, in cooperation with participating State agencies. http://www.bls.gov/​iif/​oshwc/​osh/​os/​osnr0028.pdf.

Reporting of Fatalities, In-Patient Hospitalizations and Amputations

The proposed rule would require employers to report all work-related in-patient hospitalizations and amputations to OSHA. This requirement would affect all industries, all employers, and all 7.5 million establishments in OSHA's jurisdiction. Because OSHA already requires the reporting of work-related fatalities, this economic analysis focuses on the proposed new requirement for reporting all work-related in-patient hospitalization and amputations. The current regulation also requires the reporting of hospitalizations of three or more workers. The number of such multiple hospitalizations represents a trivial portion of all in-patient hospitalizations (For example, in Fiscal Year 2010, there were a total of 14 such reports. http://www.osha.gov/​dep/​fatcat/​fatcat_​regional_​rpt_​Start Printed Page 3642309252010.html ). OSHA therefore proceeded to estimate the total number of work-related in-patient hospitalizations without deducting the number of multiple hospitalizations that already must be reported.

It is difficult to estimate the number of in-patient hospitalizations that would need to be reported under the proposed rule. NIOSH has estimated that in 2004, a total of 68,000 work-related Emergency Department visits resulted in hospitalization (MMWR Weekly, April 27 2007 (56(16):393-397—“Nonfatal Occupational Injuries and Illnesses—United States, 2004” http://www.cdc.gov/​mmwr/​preview/​mmwrhtml/​mm5616a3.htm (Note: no author given). By contrast, Dembe et al (Dembe AE, Mastroberti MA, Fox SE, Bigelow C, Banks SM. Inpatient hospital care for work-related injuries and illnesses. Am J Ind Med. 2003 Oct; 44(4):331-42.) estimate that from 1997 to 1999 there were 210,000 in-patient hospital admissions per year paid for by workers' compensation insurance. More recent studies in Massachusetts (1996-2001) and Louisiana (1998-2007) come up with figures ranging from 150,000 to 275,000 per year when extrapolated to the nation as a whole.

One possible reconciliation for these different estimates of work-related hospitalizations is that many workers' compensation-related hospitalizations are not emergencies but are scheduled or planned hospitalizations. This possibility is supported by the fact that musculoskeletal disorders represent only 10 percent of work-related emergency room hospitalizations in the NIOSH emergency department data, but 34 to 45 percent of hospitalizations that are paid for by workers' compensation insurance according to the workers' compensation related studies. If many of these hospitalizations are scheduled hospitalizations, they may not need to be reported as Section 1904.39 does not require reporting of fatalities, hospitalizations or amputations that occur more than 30 days after an incident has occurred. However, the rule would require the reporting of in-patient hospitalizations occurring within 30 days of the original event. Nevertheless, OSHA will use 210,000 hospitalizations per year as a preliminary estimate for purposes of examining the costs of this rule. OSHA solicits comment on the best ways to determine how many in-patient hospitalizations will fall within the scope of the proposed rule.

According to BLS, in 2008 there were 6,230 amputations that involved days away from work (http://www.bls.gov/​iif/​oshwc/​osh/​case/​osnr0033.pdf). The more serious amputation cases will clearly require in-patient hospitalization. Because amputations frequently require hospitalization and because OSHA believes that the estimated 210,000 in-patient hospitalization reports are an overestimate of the reports that would be required by the proposed rule, OSHA believes its estimate of 210,000 reports is adequate to account for reports of both in-patient hospitalizations and amputations. OSHA solicits comment on this estimate and on potential ways to improve its accuracy.

Costs

This section presents estimates of the costs and cost savings of the proposed rule. The time requirements for the activities associated with the proposed rule have been developed through previous rulemakings and information collection requests that have been subject to extensive notice and comment. For the purposes of the analysis of the costs of this proposed rule, OSHA relied on past estimates of the time requirements for record keeping activities. (The specific past estimate relied on is cited for each time requirement estimate.)

The time requirements for various activities are estimated as follows:

Initial training of recordkeepers: one hour per establishment, applies only to currently exempt establishments that would be newly required to keep records (based on the Final Economic Analysis for the Occupational Injury and Illness Recording and Reporting Requirements, published January 19, 2001, FR 66:5916-6135).

Training of recordkeepers to account for turnover: one hour per establishment and a turnover rate of 20 percent a year resulting in an average of 0.2 hours per establishment per year. This applies to costs for currently exempt establishments that would be newly required to keep records and to cost savings for establishments that would no longer be required to keep records (based on the Final Economic Analysis for the Occupational Injury and Illness Recording and Reporting Requirements, published January 19, 2001, FR 66:5916-6135).

Completing, posting, and certifying OSHA Form 300A: 0.97 hours per establishment. This applies to costs for currently exempt establishments that would be newly required to keep records and to cost savings for establishments that would no longer be required to keep records (2008 ICR, SS 1218-0176 (1-17-08)).

Completing entries on all forms for each recordable injury and illness, accounting for privacy concerns, and providing access to records: 0.38 hours per recordable injury or illness. This applies to costs for currently exempt establishments that would be newly required to keep records and to cost savings for establishments that would no longer be required to keep records (2008 ICR, SS 1218-0176 (1-17-08).

Reporting in-patient hospitalizations or amputations: 0.25 hours per fatality or hospitalization. (2008 ICR, SS 1218-0176 (1-17-08)).

As in OSHA's PEA for the MSD column proposed rule (Federal Register: March 9, 2010 Volume 75, Number 45, pages 10738-10739), OSHA estimated that recordkeeping tasks will most commonly be performed by a Human Resource, Training, and Labor Relations Specialist, not elsewhere classified (Human Resources Specialist). The BLS Occupational Employment Survey (OES) indicated that in May 2008, Human Resources Specialists earned a mean hourly wage of $28 (BLS OES, 2009), with an annual salary of approximately $56,000 per year. In June 2009, the BLS National Compensation Survey indicated a mean fringe benefit factor of 1.43 for civilian workers in general. This brings the total hourly compensation (including wages and benefits) to $40.04 for Human Resources Specialists. OSHA recognizes that there is significant diversity among firms in who is charged with OSHA recordkeeping responsibilities. Smaller firms may have a bookkeeper perform this function while larger firms may use an occupational safety and health specialist. However, OSHA believes that the hourly cost of $40.04 is a reasonable estimate of the costs for the typical recordkeeper. OSHA welcomes comments on the issue of hourly compensation costs for typical recordkeepers.

Given the unit time requirements, hourly wages, the numbers of establishments and the injury and illness totals presented in Table III-1, Table III-3 shows OSHA's estimates of the costs of the proposed rule for those currently partially exempt employers who would need to keep records as a result of the proposed rule. The expected annualized cost of the rule to those employers is $13.1 million per year with the most expensive element being the completion, certification, and posting of the Form 300A with costs of $7.7 million per year. The highest cost single industry is new automobile dealers.

Given the unit time requirements, hourly wages, the number of establishments and the injury and illness totals presented in Table III-2, Start Printed Page 36424Table III-4 shows OSHA's estimates of the cost savings of the proposed rule for those employers who would no longer need to keep records as a result of the proposed rule. OSHA estimates that the total cost savings for these employers would be $6.7 million per year.

Table III-3—Annualized Costs to Industries That Include Establishments That Would Be Newly Required To Keep Records

NAICS CodeNAICS Industry descriptionLearning new recordkeeping systemRelearning recordkeeping system due to turnoverComplete, certify and post OSHA Form 300AComplete log entries, mark privacy issues and provide employees accessTotal costs to industries newly required to keep records
3118Bakeries and Tortilla Manufacturing$11,014$15,471$75,037$8,683$110,205
4411Automobile Dealers133,116186,991906,905745,3721,972,385
4413Automotive Parts, Accessories, and Tire Stores2,4303,41316,5533,10825,503
4441Building Material and Supplies Dealers121,482170,648827,643282,6481,402,421
4452Specialty Food Stores41,83758,769285,03141,981427,618
4453Beer, Wine, and Liquor Stores34,82448,918237,25135,842356,834
4539Other Miscellaneous Store Retailers65,58892,133446,84470,153674,719
4543Direct Selling Establishments3945542,6861,0164,650
5313Activities Related to Real Estate110,259154,883751,181210,9481,227,271
5322Consumer Goods Rental80,874113,604550,98216,955762,414
5324Commercial and Industrial Machinery and Equipment Rental and Leasing4,6016,46331,34410,28352,690
5419Other Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services62,07687,200422,91928,193600,388
5612Facilities Support Services18,77326,371127,900136,245309,289
5617Services to Buildings and Dwellings5958364,0532,0327,516
5619Other Support Services35,56149,953242,274124,010451,798
6219Other Ambulatory Health Care Services15,32121,522104,38387,247228,474
6241Individual and Family Services172,337242,0841,174,109319,3401,907,869
6242Community Food and Housing, and Emergency and Other Relief Services42,01059,013286,21153,803441,037
7111Performing Arts Companies11,36715,96777,44168,206172,981
7113Promoters of Performing Arts, Sports, and Similar Events6,7449,47445,94736,84099,005
7121Museums, Historical Sites, and Similar Institutions9,18112,89662,54643,514128,137
7139Other Amusement and Recreation Industries16,60223,322113,11019,087172,121
7223Special Food Services127,578179,211869,174276,3681,452,331
8129Other Personal Services8,54011,99658,18213,90592,623
Totals1,133,1051,591,6927,719,7042,635,77913,080,280
Source: OSHA, Office of Regulatory Analysis.
Start Printed Page 36425

Table III-4—Cost Savings to Industries That Include Establishments That Would Be Newly Partially Exempt from Recordkeeping Requirements

NAICS codeNAICS Industry descriptionRelearning recordkeeping system due to turnoverComplete, certify and post OSHA Form 300AComplete log entries, mark privacy issues and provide employees accessCost savings to industries newly exempted from keeping records
4412Other Motor Vehicle Dealers$30,380$147,342$57,160$234,882
4431Electronics and Appliance Stores29,625143,67923,399196,703
4461Health and Personal Care Stores11,53355,9363,71971,188
4471Gasoline Stations97,861474,62755,292627,780
4511Sporting Goods, Hobby, and Musical Instrument Stores5242,5435653,632
4532Office Supplies, Stationery, and Gift Stores37,046179,67232,867249,585
4812Nonscheduled Air Transportation6,11129,63813,01548,763
4861Pipeline Transportation of Crude Oil2,81713,6632,65819,138
4862Pipeline Transportation of Natural Gas10,43750,6197,75368,808
4869Other Pipeline Transportation7,05334,2093,32544,588
4879Scenic and Sightseeing Transportation, Other3561,7281,2143,299
4885Freight Transportation Arrangement57,062276,75046,329380,141
5111Newspaper, Periodical, Book, and Directory Publishers87,381423,797244,001755,178
5122Sound Recording Industries3,41516,5613,12723,102
5151Radio and Television Broadcasting57,541279,07675,027411,645
5172Wireless Telecommunications Carriers (except Satellite)80,775391,75934,597507,132
5173Telecommunications Resellers6,40631,0677,59045,062
5179Other Telecommunications1,6317,9112,91212,455
5181Internet Service Providers and Web Search Portals1,6798,1442,65312,477
5191Other Information Services1,6908,1952,49312,378
5221Depository Credit Intermediation40,543196,6359,740246,919
5239Other Financial Investment Activities9234,4782835,684
5241Insurance Carriers2,0129,75995912,729
5259Other Investment Pools and Funds7,40335,9034,00447,309
5413Architectural, Engineering, and Related Services9,16244,43719,84973,448
5416Management, Scientific, and Technical Consulting Services13,22164,1214,19081,532
5418Advertising and Related Services8,77742,569222,299273,646
5511Management of Companies and Enterprises113,948552,64810,059676,655
5614Business Support Services23,517114,05838,913176,488
5615Travel Arrangement and Reservation Services56,903275,9817,722340,606
5616Investigation and Security Services3,08714,97217,51535,575
6116Other Schools and Instruction17,15283,185722101,059
7213Rooming and Boarding Houses2,80213,5901,70718,099
8112Electronic and Precision Equipment Repair and Maintenance16,39179,49515,150111,035
8114Personal and Household Goods Repair and Maintenance17,06282,75126,979126,792
8122Death Care Services13,85667,19949,346130,401
8134Civic and Social Organizations33,901164,42139,480237,802
8139Business, Professional, Labor, Political, and Similar Organizations43,966213,2332,943260,141
Totals955,9494,636,3511,091,5566,683,856
Source: OSHA, Office of Regulatory Analysis.

To estimate the costs of reporting in-patient hospitalizations and amputations, OSHA multiplied the estimated 210,000 cases per year by 0.25 hours per report and by the $40.04 per hour compensation costs of a recordkeeper. OSHA estimates that a recordkeeper or someone with equivalent salary would make this report. OSHA welcomes comment on whether such a report would typically be made by someone other than the person who normally keeps records and what the salary or job title of such a person might be. The resulting estimate of the annual cost of this provision is $2.1 million per year.

Table III-5 shows the total net costs of the proposed rule considering all three elements: Costs to currently exempt employers who would be newly required to keep records, cost savings to employers who would no longer be required to keep records, and reporting of all work-related in-patient hospitalizations and amputations. OSHA estimates that the total net costs of this proposed rule would be $8.5 million per year.

Table III-5—Summary of Annualized Costs and Cost Savings

Cost or cost savings elementValue
Costs to Employers Newly Required to Keep Records$13,080,280
Start Printed Page 36426
Cost Savings to Employers Newly Exempt From Keeping Records6,683,856
Costs of Additional Reporting of Hospitalizations and Amputations2,102,200
Net Costs8,498,624

Benefits

OSHA anticipates that this proposed rule will have several benefits. First, the proposed rule will redirect recordkeeping efforts toward industries with higher DART rates, making the system more effective and efficient. While 119,000 establishments would no longer need to keep records, these establishments have an average injury and illness rate of 1.9 percent. On the other hand, the revision to the regulation adds 199,000 establishments with an average injury and illness rate of 3.2 percent. Thus, on average, establishments with higher injury and illness rates will keep and post records. As a result, the employer, the employees, and OSHA will have a better idea of the nature of the serious injuries and illnesses occurring in establishments with relatively high injury and illness rates.

The proposed requirements to report all work-related in-patient hospitalizations within eight hours and all work-related amputations within 24 hours ensure that OSHA will be able to better utilize enforcement resources by targeting resources to establishments with the most serious hazards.

The hospitalization of a worker or an amputation due to a work-related incident is a serious and significant event. Requiring the reporting of these events would ensure that OSHA will be informed about many more of these serious occurrences than it is now. Greater awareness regarding the extent and nature of such cases helps in the development and prioritization of various OSHA enforcement programs and initiatives. It also serves the public interest by enabling OSHA to more effectively and efficiently target occupational safety and health hazards.

If such improvements in information and enforcement save even one life every three to four years as a result of this proposed rule, they will more than pay for the costs associated with such notifications.

Economic Impacts

In this section, OSHA will first consider the economic impact on those firms newly required to keep records, and then turn to the economic impacts of requirements to report in-patient hospitalizations and amputations. No economic impacts are examined for those firms that are no longer required to keep records.

Partial Exemption

OSHA compared the baseline financial data with the total annualized incremental costs of compliance by computing compliance costs per establishment. Table III-6 shows that the costs per establishment range from just above $50 per establishment to a maximum of less than $100 per establishment. OSHA believes that costs of this magnitude cannot possibly affect the viability of a firm, and are thus economically feasible.

Table III-6—Economic Impacts of Industries That Include Establishments That Would Be Newly Required To Keep Records

NAICS CodeNAICS Industry descriptionAffected establishmentsCost per affected establishment
3118Bakeries and Tortilla Manufacturing1,932$57
4411Automobile Dealers23,35184
4413Automotive Parts, Accessories, and Tire Stores42660
4441Building Material and Supplies Dealers21,31066
4452Specialty Food Stores7,33958
4453Beer, Wine, and Liquor Stores6,10958
4539Other Miscellaneous Store Retailers11,50559
4543Direct Selling Establishments6967
5313Activities Related to Real Estate19,34163
5322Consumer Goods Rental14,18654
5324Commercial and Industrial Machinery and Equipment Rental and Leasing80765
5419Other Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services10,88955
5612Facilities Support Services3,29394
5617Services to Buildings and Dwellings10472
5619Other Support Services6,23872
6219Other Ambulatory Health Care Services2,68885
6241Individual and Family Services30,23063
6242Community Food and Housing, and Emergency and Other Relief Services7,36960
7111Performing Arts Companies1,99487
7113Promoters of Performing Arts, Sports, and Similar Events1,18384
7121Museums, Historical Sites, and Similar Institutions1,61080
7139Other Amusement and Recreation Industries2,91259
7223Special Food Services22,37965
8129Other Personal Services1,49862
Totals198,76382
Source: OSHA, Office of Regulatory Analysis.
Start Printed Page 36427

Reporting of Fatalities, Hospitalizations, and Amputations

Given OSHA's estimates of total costs of approximately $2 million per year across all 7.5 million business establishments in OSHA's jurisdiction, the average cost per establishment of this provision is $0.27 per establishment per year. In a typical year, most establishments will not report a single work-related hospitalization. Even for those that do, the cost will be approximately $10 per hospitalization or amputation that has to be reported. Costs of this magnitude will not affect the viability of any firm.

Regulatory Flexibility Certification

OSHA would continue to partially exempt employers with fewer than 11 employees from its recordkeeping regulations under this proposed rule. Such very small firms are affected by the revisions to this rule only insofar as they may have to report a fatality, in-patient hospitalization or amputation. This will be extremely rare for most small firms. Even when this occurs, OSHA has estimated the costs as approximately $10 per report, a sum that will not cause problems for even the smallest firms.

Most of the employers affected by the change in the partial exemption to the recordkeeping rule are small firms. Even when one considers the mix of small and large firms covered by the rule, the average costs per establishment are well under $100 per year per establishment. OSHA believes that costs of less than $100 per establishment do not represent a significant economic impact on small firms with 11 employees or more.

As a result of these considerations, in accordance with the RFA, OSHA certifies that the proposed rule would not have a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities.

Section III Appendix: PEA Data at the Six Digit NAICS Level

This appendix provides supporting material developed in support of this rule at the six-digit NAICS level.

Table III-1A presents data on industries with establishments that would be newly required to keep records. The table shows the six-digit NAICS code, industry name, the number of affected employees, and an estimate of the number of recordable injuries and illnesses, based on historical data, for newly affected employers.

Table III-2A presents data on industries with establishments that would be newly partially exempt from recordkeeping. The table shows the six-digit NAICS code, industry name, number of affected establishments per industry, number of employees, and the estimated number of injuries and illnesses that would no longer be recorded in each affected industry.

Table III-3A shows OSHA's estimates of the costs of the proposed rule, at the six-digit NAICS level, for currently partially exempt employers who would need to keep records as a result of the proposed rule.

Table III-4A shows OSHA's estimates of the cost savings of the proposed rule, at the six-digit NAICS level, for those employers who would no longer need to keep records as a result of the proposed rule.

Table III-6A shows the costs per establishment at the six-digit NAICS level.

Table III-1A—Industries That Include Establishments That Would Be Newly Required To Keep Records

NAICS codeTitle of NAICS codeAffected employmentAffected establishmentsAffected firmsEstimated injuries and illnesses
311811Retail Bakeries42,2941,9321,766571
441110New Car Dealers1,136,90519,97116,52547,972
441120Used Car Dealers67,6613,3792,6311,016
441310Automotive Parts and Accessories Stores5,20742684204
444130Hardware Stores260,36321,3104,21518,577
445210Meat Markets20,1941,250833451
445220Fish and Seafood Markets908444020
445291Baked Goods Stores22,1492,133678756
445292Confectionery and Nut Stores14,5871,576332498
445299All Other Specialty Food Stores30,2942,3361,1611,034
445310Beer, Wine, and Liquor Stores69,0116,1092,8782,356
453910Pet and Pet Supplies Stores76,6083,6911,1502,309
453920Art Dealers8,37062239736
453991Tobacco Stores15,9751,841610481
453998All Other Miscellaneous Store Retailers (except Tobacco Stores)59,2005,3512,1441,784
454390Other Direct Selling Establishments1,569694367
531311Residential Property Managers312,26111,7375,3788,942
531312Nonresidential Property Managers114,9724,7242,5173,292
531320Offices of Real Estate Appraisers14,273835639365
531390Other Activities Related to Real Estate49,4352,0451,3461,264
532220Formal Wear and Costume Rental9,3391,243184267
532230Video Tape and Disc Rental121,17412,922967837
532299All Other Consumer Goods Rental32621811
532420Office Machinery and Equipment Rental and Leasing5,642343156273
532490Other Commercial and Industrial Machinery and Equipment Rental and Leasing8,321464139403
541910Marketing Research and Public Opinion Polling117,1812,0611,197215
541921Photography Studios, Portrait51,4506,020642664
541922Commercial Photography6,22529823980
541930Translation and Interpretation Services8,935240193317
541990All Other Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services65,3702,2711,499576
561210Facilities Support Services162,3843,2938658,955
561790Other Services to Buildings and Dwellings2,14010450134
Start Printed Page 36428
561910Packaging and Labeling Services54,2498056941,431
561920Convention and Trade Show Organizers77,9441,0908342,056
561990All Other Support Services176,7914,3432,6244,663
621991Blood and Organ Banks61,1131,0822223,317
621999All Other Miscellaneous Ambulatory Health Care Services44,5431,6066382,417
624110Child and Youth Services146,4675,4432,9513,024
624120Services for the Elderly and Persons with Disabilities479,60110,9446,65316,239
624190Other Individual and Family Services369,78813,8446,3121,725
624210Community Food Services26,6742,208848713
624221Temporary Shelters60,4222,6361,8801,565
624229Other Community Housing Services31,4781,6491,090815
624230Emergency and Other Relief Services19,698876439443
711110Theater Companies and Dinner Theaters67,6141,1141,0132,612
711120Dance Companies8,038167165311
711130Musical Groups and Artists34,3726156041,328
711190Other Performing Arts Companies6,0199983232
711310Promoters of Performing Arts, Sports, and Similar Events with Facilities76,4357275791,974
711320Promoters of Performing Arts, Sports, and Similar Events without Facilities17,303456394447
712110Museums70,5391,3771,1842,589
712120Historical Sites7,394234167271
713950Bowling Centers73,2062,7212,0521,251
713990All Other Amusement and Recreation Industries2411921914
722310Food Service Contractors403,07319,24785314,347
722320Caterers107,2213,1322,9493,817
812921Photofinishing Laboratories (except One-Hour)16,977429324560
812922One-Hour Photofinishing1,4571728248
812990All Other Personal Services23,820897712306
Total5,343,199198,76388,040173,233
Source: OSHA, Office of Regulatory Analysis.
Source: 2006 County Business Patterns: http://www2.census.gov/​econ/​susb/​data/​2006/​us_​6digitnaics_​2006.xls.
Source: 2006 Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses, in cooperation with participating State agencies. http://www.bls.gov/​iif/​oshwc/​osh/​os/​osnr0028.pdf.

III-2A—Industries That Include Establishments That Would Be Newly Partially Exempt From Keeping Records

NAICS CodeTitle of NAICS CodeAffected employmentAffected establishmentsAffected firmsEstimated injuries and illnesses
441210Recreational Vehicle Dealers36,7131,2879961,722
441221Motorcycle Dealers4,344174151202
441222Boat Dealers29,6491,8971,0481,379
441229All Other Motor Vehicle Dealers9,735436398453
443111Household Appliance Stores48,6062,7701,4901,376
443120Computer and Software Stores18,296930212162
446120Cosmetics, Beauty Supplies, and Perfume Stores2,8302942142
446199All Other Health and Personal Care Stores12,7901,146404202
447110Gasoline Stations with Convenience Stores128,97212,2202,5753,634
451130Sewing, Needlework, and Piece Goods Stores1,271651637
453210Office Supplies and Stationery Stores98,8554,6268732,160
481211Nonscheduled Chartered Passenger Air Transportation28,094524422636
481212Nonscheduled Chartered Freight Air Transportation5,4429670123
481219Other Nonscheduled Air Transportation4,2711448897
486110Pipeline Transportation of Crude Oil7,47235235175
486210Pipeline Transportation of Natural Gas22,0801,30368510
486910Pipeline Transportation of Refined Petroleum Products8,66182738202
486990All Other Pipeline Transportation687541316
487990Scenic and Sightseeing Transportation, Other2,155453980
488510Freight Transportation Arrangement166,5497,1262,7093,045
Start Printed Page 36429
511110Newspaper Publishers358,8414,9691,94511,451
511120Periodical Publishers148,1263,5151,6512,186
511130Book Publishers77,6451,044755957
511140Directory and Mailing List Publishers47,569948306958
511191Greeting Card Publishers10,7564933236
511199All Other Publishers11,275387206248
512210Record Production94733295
512220Integrated Record Production/Distribution7,49214256174
512230Music Publishers3,181785615
512290Other Sound Recording Industries2,4391735612
515111Radio Networks10,868426199729
515112Radio Stations106,8495,0031,4081,968
515120Television Broadcasting133,8071,7564772,234
517211Paging4,0202586839
517212Cellular and Other Wireless Telecommunications232,2239,8294622,235
517310Telecommunications Resellers27,652800533499
517910Other Telecommunications9,365204104191
518112Web Search Portals20,957210157174
519190All Other Information Services10,40621196164
522120Savings Institutions81,1305,063356640
522293International Trade Financing4,72732815
523999Miscellaneous Financial Investment Activities8,1581157719
524130Reinsurance Carriers8,9462515563
525910Open-End Investment Funds3,356894414
525930Real Estate Investment Trusts16,912835181115
541320Landscape Architectural Services28,0611,058940446
541360Geophysical Surveying and Mapping Services3,891866862
541612Human Resources and Executive Search Consulting Services78,2231,566878427
541614Process, Physical Distribution, and Logistics Consulting Services1,14147166
541618Other Management Consulting Services1,20138337
541890Other Services Related to Advertising48,0611,096764691
551114Insurance and Employee Benefit Funds1,015,53214,2296,98320,526
561421Pension Funds32,711645501347
561440Health and Welfare Funds133,7442,2911,6711,522
561510Travel Agencies100,2495,6211,328373
561520Tour Operators22,872662500155
561599All Other Travel Arrangement and Reservation Services44,278823227857
561622Locksmiths6,361386332148
611620Sports and Recreation Instruction49,5002,1421,961372
721310Rooming and Boarding Houses6,31335028060
811211Consumer Electronics Repair and Maintenance11,779380267225
811212Computer and Office Machine Repair and Maintenance4,8141367492
811213Communication Equipment Repair and Maintenance13,015479313248
811219Other Electronic and Precision Equipment Repair and Maintenance32,1811,052528614
811411Home and Garden Equipment Repair and Maintenance2,16514611159
811412Appliance Repair and Maintenance22,039883375602
811430Footwear and Leather Goods Repair43521
811490Other Personal and Household Goods Repair and Maintenance18,3341,096658501
812220Cemeteries and Crematories24,5151,730551606
813410Civic and Social Organizations131,3014,2333,1412,473
813930Labor Unions and Similar Labor Organizations137,7865,1454,3072,595
813940Political Organizations10,270345341193
Totals3,960,772119,37448,12375,787
Source: OSHA, Office of Regulatory Analysis.
1Source: 2006 County Business Patterns: http://www2.census.gov/​econ/​susb/​data/​2006/​us_​6digitnaics_​2006.xls.
2Source: 2006 Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses, in cooperation with participating State agencies. http://www.bls.gov/​iif/​oshwc/​osh/​os/​osnr0028.pdf.
Start Printed Page 36430

Table III-3A—Annualized Costs to Industries That Include Establishments That Would Be Newly Required To Keep Records

NAICS CodeNAICS Industry descriptionLearning new recordkeeping systemRelearning recordkeeping system due to turnoverComplete, certify and post OSHA Form 300AComplete log entries, mark privacy issues and provide employees accessTotal costs to industries newly required to keep records
311811Retail Bakeries$11,014$15,471$75,037$8,683$110,205
441110New Car Dealers113,852159,930775,661729,9101,779,353
441120Used Car Dealers19,26427,061131,24415,462193,031
441310Automotive Parts and Accessories Stores2,4303,41316,5533,10825,503
444130Hardware Stores121,482170,648827,643282,6481,402,421
445210Meat Markets7,12610,01048,5496,85672,540
445220Fish and Seafood Markets2523541,7153122,632
445291Baked Goods Stores12,15917,08082,83911,504123,583
445292Confectionery and Nut Stores8,98512,62261,2167,57690,399
445299All Other Specialty Food Stores13,31518,70390,71215,734138,464
445310Beer, Wine, and Liquor Stores34,82448,918237,25135,842356,834
453910Pet and Pet Supplies Stores21,04329,560143,36635,132229,101
453920Art Dealers3,5484,98424,17354733,252
453991Tobacco Stores10,49314,74071,4877,326104,045
453998All Other Miscellaneous Store Retailers (except Tobacco Stores)30,50442,849207,81927,149308,320
454390Other Direct Selling Establishments3945542,6861,0164,650
531311Residential Property Managers66,91193,991455,859136,060752,821
531312Nonresidential Property Managers26,92937,827183,46350,096298,315
531320Offices of Real Estate Appraisers4,7616,68832,4385,55449,442
531390Other Activities Related to Real Estate11,65816,37679,42119,238126,692
532220Formal Wear and Costume Rental7,0889,95748,2924,06069,397
532230Video Tape and Disc Rental73,665103,478501,86712,735691,744
532299All Other Consumer Goods Rental1211708221601,273
532420Office Machinery and Equipment Rental and Leasing1,9532,74413,3074,15522,158
532490Other Commercial and Industrial Machinery and Equipment Rental and Leasing2,6483,71918,0376,12830,532
541910Marketing Research and Public Opinion Polling11,74816,50280,0353,268111,553
541921Photography Studios, Portrait34,31748,206233,79810,107326,428
541922Commercial Photography1,6992,38611,5741,22316,881
541930Translation and Interpretation Services1,3681,9219,3174,82417,430
541990All Other Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services12,94518,18588,1958,771128,096
561210Facilities Support Services18,77326,371127,900136,245309,289
561790Other Services to Buildings and Dwellings5958364,0532,0327,516
561910Packaging and Labeling Services4,5876,44331,25021,77364,053
561920Convention and Trade Show Organizers6,2168,73142,34631,28388,575
561990All Other Support Services24,75934,779168,67870,955299,171

Table III-3A—Annualized Costs to Industries That Include Establishments That Would Be Newly Required to Keep Records

NAICS CodeNAICS Industry descriptionLearning new record keeping systemRelearning recordkeeping system due to turnoverComplete, certify and post OSHA Form 300AComplete log entries, mark privacy issues and provide employees accessTotal costs to industries newly required to keep records
621991Blood and Organ Banks6,1658,66142,00450,465107,295
621999All Other Miscellaneous Ambulatory Health Care Services9,15612,86262,37936,782121,179
624110Child and Youth Services31,02743,584211,38446,008332,004
Start Printed Page 36431
624120Services for the Elderly and Persons with Disabilities62,39187,641425,060247,081822,172
624190Other Individual and Family Services78,919110,859537,66526,251753,693
624210Community Food Services12,58717,68285,75610,843126,869
624221Temporary Shelters15,02721,108102,37523,817162,327
624229Other Community Housing Services9,40013,20464,04112,40899,053
624230Emergency and Other Relief Services4,9967,01834,0386,73552,788
711110Theater Companies and Dinner Theaters6,3508,92043,26339,74298,274
711120Dance Companies9501,3356,4744,72413,484
711130Musical Groups and Artists3,5044,92323,87420,20352,504
711190Other Performing Arts Companies5627903,8303,5378,719
711310Promoters of Performing Arts, Sports, and Similar Events with Facilities4,1435,81928,22430,04068,226
711320Promoters of Performing Arts, Sports, and Similar Events without Facilities2,6013,65417,7236,80030,779
712110Museums7,84711,02353,46239,386111,718
712120Historical Sites1,3331,8739,0844,12816,419
713950Bowling Centers15,51121,788105,67319,028161,999
713990All Other Amusement and Recreation Industries1,0921,5347,4385910,122
722310Food Service Contractors109,725154,132747,542218,2991,229,698
722320Caterers17,85325,079121,63158,070222,633
812921Photofinishing Laboratories (except One-Hour)2,4453,43516,6588,51631,053
812922One-Hour Photofinishing9791,3766,6737319,758
812990All Other Personal Services5,1167,18634,8514,65851,811
Totals1,133,1051,591,6927,719,7042,635,77913,080,280
Sources: OSHA, Office of Regulatory Analysis.

Table III-4A—Cost Savings to Industries That Include Establishments That Would Be Newly Partially Exempt From Recordkeeping Requirements

NAICS CodeNAICS Industry descriptionRelearning recordkeeping system due to turnoverComplete, certify and post OSHA Form 300AComplete log entries, mark privacy issues and provide employees accessCosts savings to industries newly exempted from keeping records
441210Recreational Vehicle Dealers$10,304$49,974$26,206$86,483
441221Motorcycle Dealers1,3966,7733,07511,244
441222Boat Dealers15,19273,68120,988109,861
441229All Other Motor Vehicle Dealers3,48716,9146,89127,293
443111Household Appliance Stores22,180107,57220,933150,684
443120Computer and Software Stores7,44536,1072,46746,019
446120Cosmetics, Beauty Supplies, and Perfume Stores2,35311,41264314,408
446199All Other Health and Personal Care Stores9,18044,5243,07656,780
447110Gasoline Stations with Convenience Stores97,861474,62755,292627,780
451130Sewing, Needlework, and Piece Goods Stores5242,5435653,632
453210Office Supplies and Stationery Stores37,046179,67232,867249,585
481211Nonscheduled Chartered Passenger Air Transportation4,19220,3329,67134,195
481212Nonscheduled Chartered Freight Air Transportation7693,7291,8736,370
481219Other Nonscheduled Air Transportation1,1505,5771,4708,197
486110Pipeline Transportation of Crude Oil2,81713,6632,65819,138
486210Pipeline Transportation of Natural Gas10,43750,6197,75368,808
Start Printed Page 36432
486910Pipeline Transportation of Refined Petroleum Products6,62232,1163,08141,818
486990All Other Pipeline Transportation4322,0932442,769
487990Scenic and Sightseeing Transportation, Other3561,7281,2143,299
488510Freight Transportation Arrangement57,062276,75046,329380,141
511110Newspaper Publishers39,793192,994174,234407,021
511120Periodical Publishers28,148136,51833,260197,927
511130Book Publishers8,35940,54014,56763,466
511140Directory and Mailing List Publishers7,58836,80314,57258,964
511191Greeting Card Publishers3931,9073,5975,897
511199All Other Publishers3,10015,0343,77021,905
512210Record Production2671,293691,629
512220Integrated Record Production/Distribution1,1405,5312,6519,322
512230Music Publishers6253,0292303,884
512290Other Sound Recording Industries1,3836,7071778,267
515111Radio Networks3,41316,55311,09431,060
515112Radio Stations40,066194,32229,948264,336
515120Television Broadcasting14,06268,20133,985116,248
517211Paging2,06710,02458912,680
517212Cellular and Other Wireless Telecommunications78,708381,73534,009494,452
517310Telecommunications Resellers6,40631,0677,59045,062
517910Other Telecommunications1,6317,9112,91212,455
518112Web Search Portals1,6798,1442,65312,477
519190All Other Information Services1,6908,1952,49312,378
522120Savings Institutions40,543196,6359,740246,919
523999Miscellaneous Financial Investment Activities9234,4782835,684
524130Reinsurance Carriers2,0129,75995912,729
525910Open-End Investment Funds7143,4641,1005,278
525930Real Estate Investment Trusts6,68832,4382,90442,031
541320Landscape Architectural Services8,47241,08894150,500
541360Geophysical Surveying and Mapping Services6913,34918,90822,948
541612Human Resources and Executive Search Consulting Services12,54260,8319573,468
541614Process, Physical Distribution, and Logistics Consulting Services3771,8291002,306
541618Other Management Consulting Services3011,4613,9955,757
541890Other Services Related to Advertising8,77742,569222,299273,646
551114Corporate, Subsidiary, and Regional Managing Offices113,948552,64810,059676,655
561421Telephone Answering Services5,16825,06321,55751,787
561440Collection Agencies18,35088,99517,356124,701
561510Travel Agencies45,012218,3091,296264,617
561520Tour Operators5,30225,7154,55235,569
561599All Other Travel Arrangement and Reservation Services6,58931,9561,87440,419
561622Locksmiths3,08714,97217,51535,575
611620Sports and Recreation Instruction17,15283,185722101,059
721310Rooming and Boarding Houses2,80213,5901,70718,099
811211Consumer Electronics Repair and Maintenance3,04614,7741,39819,218
811212Computer and Office Machine Repair and Maintenance1,0905,2863,77910,155
811213Communication Equipment Repair and Maintenance3,83218,5849,34431,760
811219Other Electronic and Precision Equipment Repair and Maintenance8,42340,85162949,902
811411Home and Garden Equipment Repair and Maintenance1,1725,6829,15716,011
811412Appliance Repair and Maintenance7,07334,3061841,398
811430Footwear and Leather Goods Repair391917,6187,849
811490Other Personal and Household Goods Repair and Maintenance8,77842,57110,18661,535
812220Cemeteries and Crematories13,85667,19949,346130,401
813410Civic and Social Organizations33,901164,42139,480237,802
813930Labor Unions and Similar Labor Organizations41,204199,8412,943243,988
813940Political Organizations2,76113,392016,153
Start Printed Page 36433
Totals955,9494,636,3511,091,5566,683,856
Source: OSHA, Office of Regulatory Analysis.

Table III-6A—Economic Impacts of Industries That Include Establishments That Would Be Newly Required To Keep Records

NAICS CodeNAICS Industry descriptionAffected establishmentsCost per affected establishment
311811Retail Bakeries1,932$57.04
441110New Car Dealers19,97189.10
441120Used Car Dealers3,37957.12
441310Automotive Parts and Accessories Stores42659.84
444130Hardware Stores21,31065.81
445210Meat Markets1,25058.03
445220Fish and Seafood Markets4459.61
445291Baked Goods Stores2,13357.94
445292Confectionery and Nut Stores1,57657.35
445299All Other Specialty Food Stores2,33659.28
445310Beer, Wine, and Liquor Stores6,10958.42
453910Pet and Pet Supplies Stores3,69162.07
453920Art Dealers62253.43
453991Tobacco Stores1,84156.53
453998All Other Miscellaneous Store Retailers (except Tobacco Stores)5,35157.62
454390Other Direct Selling Establishments6967.23
531311Residential Property Managers11,73764.14
531312Nonresidential Property Managers4,72463.15
531320Offices of Real Estate Appraisers83559.20
531390Other Activities Related to Real Estate2,04561.96
532220Formal Wear and Costume Rental1,24355.81
532230Video Tape and Disc Rental12,92253.53
532299All Other Consumer Goods Rental2160.12
532420Office Machinery and Equipment Rental and Leasing34364.67
532490Other Commercial and Industrial Machinery and Equipment Rental and Leasing46465.74
541910Marketing Research and Public Opinion Polling2,06154.13
541921Photography Studios, Portrait6,02054.23
541922Commercial Photography29856.65
541930Translation and Interpretation Services24072.65
541990All Other Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services2,27156.41
561210Facilities Support Services3,29393.92
561790Other Services to Buildings and Dwellings10472.02
561910Packaging and Labeling Services80579.61
561920Convention and Trade Show Organizers1,09081.24
561990All Other Support Services4,34368.89
621991Blood and Organ Banks1,08299.21
621999All Other Miscellaneous Ambulatory Health Care Services1,60675.45
624110Child and Youth Services5,44361.00
624120Services for the Elderly and Persons with Disabilities10,94475.12
624190Other Individual and Family Services13,84454.44
624210Community Food Services2,20857.46
624221Temporary Shelters2,63661.58
624229Other Community Housing Services1,64960.07
624230Emergency and Other Relief Services87660.23
711110Theater Companies and Dinner Theaters1,11488.23
711120Dance Companies16780.89
711130Musical Groups and Artists61585.41
711190Other Performing Arts Companies9988.42
711310Promoters of Performing Arts, Sports, and Similar Events with Facilities72793.89
711320Promoters of Performing Arts, Sports, and Similar Events without Facilities45667.45
712110Museums1,37781.16
712120Historical Sites23470.20
713950Bowling Centers2,72159.54
713990All Other Amusement and Recreation Industries19252.86
Start Printed Page 36434
722310Food Service Contractors19,24763.89
722320Caterers3,13271.09
812921Photofinishing Laboratories (except One-Hour)42972.40
812922One-Hour Photofinishing17256.80
812990All Other Personal Services89757.74
Totals198,76381.63
Source: OSHA, Office of Regulatory Analysis.

IV. OMB Review Under the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995

This proposal would revise an existing collection of information as defined and covered by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 and its implementing regulations. An ongoing information collection approved by OMB under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act currently includes the type of information collected in this proposed regulation, as well as the manner in which employers collect the information. Accordingly, OMB approved the information collections associated with the requirements to maintain information on fatalities, injuries, and illnesses, and to report and submit this information to OSHA, under the Control Number 1218-0176. The current regulation at 29 CFR 1904.39 requires an employer to report to OSHA, within eight hours, all work-related fatalities and in-patient hospitalizations of three or more employees. The proposed rule would require employers to report to OSHA, within eight hours, all work-related fatalities and work-related in-patient hospitalizations (regardless of the number of employees involved), and, within 24 hours, all work-related amputations. The proposal also would update Appendix A to 29 CFR part 1904, subpart B, of its injury and illness recording and reporting regulations. Appendix A contains a list of industries that are partially exempt from maintaining records of occupational injuries and illnesses, generally due to their relatively low rates of occupational injury and illness. OSHA based the current list of industries on the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system. In 1997, the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) was introduced to classify establishments by industry. The proposed rule would update Appendix A by replacing it with a list of industries based on NAICS and more recent injury and illness data.

OSHA prepared and submitted a revised Information Collection Request (ICR) for this proposed regulation to OMB for review in accordance with 44 U.S.C. 3507(d). The Agency solicits comments on the proposed revised collection of information requirements and the estimated burden hours associated with these requirements, including comments on the following items:

  • Whether the proposed collection of information requirements are necessary for the proper performance of the Agency's functions, including whether the information is useful;
  • The accuracy of OSHA's estimate of the burden (time and cost) of the information collection requirements, including the validity of the methodology and assumptions used;
  • The quality, utility, and clarity of the information collected; and
  • Ways to minimize the compliance burden on employers, for example, by using automated or other technological means for collecting and transmitting information.

As required by 5 CFR 1320.5(a)(1)(iv) and 1320.8(d)(2), the following paragraphs provide information about this ICR.

1. Title: 29 CFR Part 1904 Recordkeeping and Reporting Occupational Injuries and Illnesses

2. Number of respondents: OSHA is proposing to revise the list of partially exempt industries in Appendix A of 29 CFR 1904, subpart B, using the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). OSHA based the revised list in proposed Appendix A on DART rates compiled by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) for 2007, 2008, and 2009. The Agency still would require industries listed in proposed Appendix A to maintain records if requested to do so by BLS in connection with its Annual Survey (see 29 CFR 1904.42), or by OSHA in connection with its Data Initiative (see 29 CFR 1904.41). OSHA estimates that, as a result of the proposed revisions to the list of industries partially exempt from the regulation, 199,000 establishments with 5.3 million employees not previously required to record the information would need to do so, and that those establishments would record an estimated 173,000 injuries and illnesses per year. The total number of respondents is 1,665,374.

2. Frequency of responses: Annually; on occasion.

3. Number of responses: 7,449,273.

4. Average time per response: Time per response varies from three minutes for making an entry on a confidential list of privacy-concern cases (see § 1904.29(b)(6)), to one hour to learn the requirements of the recordkeeping standard.

5. Estimated total burden hours: 3,355,105 hours.

6. Estimated costs (capital-operation and maintenance): There are no capital costs for the proposed collection of information requirements.

Members of the public may comment on the paperwork requirements in this proposed regulation by sending their written comments to the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, Attn: OMB Desk Officer for the Department of Labor, OSHA (Regulation Identifier Number (RIN) 1218-AC50), Office of Management and Budget, Room 10235, Washington, DC 20503; telephone: 202-395-6929; fax: 202-395-6881 (these are not toll-free numbers); e-mail: OIRA_submission@omb.eop.gov. OSHA encourages commenters also to submit their comments on these paperwork requirements to the rulemaking docket along with their comments on other parts of the proposed regulation. For instructions on submitting these comments to the docket, see the sections of this Federal Register notice titled DATES and ADDRESSES” Comments submitted in response to this notice are public records; therefore, OSHA cautions commenters about submitting personal information such as Social Security numbers and dates of birth. To Start Printed Page 36435access the docket to read or download comments and other materials related to this paperwork determination, including the complete information collection request (ICR), use the procedures described under the section of this notice titled ADDRESSES. You may obtain an electronic copy of the complete ICR by visiting the Web site at http://www.reginfo.gov/​public/​do/​PRAMain, then scroll under “Currently Under Review” to “Department of Labor (DOL)” to view all of the DOL's ICRs, including those ICRs submitted for proposed rulemakings. To make inquiries, or to request other information, contact Mr. Todd Owen, Directorate of Standards and Guidance, OSHA, Room N-3609, U.S. Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20210; telephone (202) 693-2222. OSHA notes that a Federal agency cannot (1) conduct or sponsor a collection of information unless OMB approves it under the PRA and displays a currently valid OMB control number, and (2) require a party to respond to a collection of information unless the collection of information displays a currently valid OMB control number. Also, notwithstanding any other provision of law, no party shall be subject to penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if the collection of information does not display a currently valid OMB control number. OSHA will publish a notice of OMB's action when it publishes the final regulation.

V. Unfunded Mandates

For purposes of the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995 (2 U.S.C. 1501 et seq.), as well as Executive Order 12875, this proposed rule does not include any Federal mandate that may result in increased expenditures by state, local, and Tribal governments, or increased expenditures by the private sector of more than $100 million.

VI. Federalism

The proposed rule has been reviewed in accordance with Executive Oder 13132 (52 FR 41685), regarding federalism. Because this rulemaking involves a “regulation” issued under Sections 8 and 24 of the OSH Act, and is not an “occupational safety and health standard” issued under Section 6 of the OSH Act, the rule will not preempt state law (29 U.S.C. 667(a)). The effect of the proposed rule on states is discussed in section VIII. State Plan States.

VII. State Plan States

Consistent with Section 18 of the OSH Act (29 U.S.C. 667) and the requirements of 29 CFR 1904.37 and 1952.4, within 6 months after publication of the final OSHA rule, state-plan states must promulgate occupational injury and illness recording and reporting requirements that are the same as the Federal requirements for determining which injuries and illnesses will be entered into the records and how they are entered. All other injury and illness recording and reporting requirements that are promulgated by state-plan states may be more stringent than, or supplemental to, the Federal requirements, but, because of the unique nature of the national recordkeeping program, states must consult with OSHA and obtain approval of such additional or more stringent reporting and recording requirements to ensure that they will not interfere with uniform reporting objectives.

There are 27 state plan states and territories. The states and territories that cover private sector employers are: Alaska, Arizona, California, Hawaii, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Nevada, New Mexico, North Carolina, Oregon, Puerto Rico, South Carolina, Tennessee, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, and Wyoming. Connecticut, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, and the Virgin Islands have OSHA approved state plans that apply to state and local government employees only.

VIII. Public Participation

This rulemaking is governed by the notice and comments requirements in the Administrative Procedure Act (APA)(5 U.S.C. 553) rather than section 6 of the OSH Act (29 U.S.C. 655) and 29 CFR Part 1911, which only apply to “promulgating, modifying or revoking occupational safety and health standards” (29 CFR part 1911). For example, section 6(b)(3) of the OSH Act and 29 CFR 1911.11 state that the requirement to hold an informal public hearing on a proposed rule only applies to rulemakings on occupational safety and health standards, not to those dealing with regulations.

Section 553(b)(1) of the APA requires the agency to specify the type of rule involved, the time during which the agency will receive comments on the proposal, and the instructions regarding the procedures for submitting comments. The APA does not specify a minimum period for submitting comments.

Public Submissions

OSHA invites comment on all aspects of the proposed rule. OSHA specifically encourages comment on the questions raised in the issues and potential alternatives sections of this preamble. Interested persons must submit comments by September 20, 2011 The Agency will carefully review and evaluate all comments, information, and data, as well as all other information in the rulemaking record, to determine how to proceed.

You may submit comments in response to this document (1) electronically at http://www.regulations.gov, which is the Federal e-rulemaking portal; (2) by fax; or (3) by hard copy. All submissions must identify the Agency name and the OSHA docket number (Docket No. OSHA-2010-0019) or RIN (RIN No. 1218-AC50) for this rulemaking. You may supplement electronic submissions by uploading document files electronically. If, instead, you wish to mail additional materials in reference to an electronic or fax submission, you must submit three copies to the OSHA docket office (see ADDRESSES section). The additional materials must clearly identify your electronic comments by name, date, and docket number, so OSHA can attach them to your comments.

Because of security-related procedures, the use of regular mail may cause a significant delay in the receipt of submissions. For information about security procedures concerning the delivery of materials by hand, express delivery, messenger or courier service, please contact the OSHA docket office at (202) 693-2350 (TTY (877) 889-5627).

Access to Docket

Comments in response to this Federal Register notice are posted at http://www.regulations.gov, the Federal e-rulemaking portal. Therefore, OSHA cautions individuals about submitting personal information such as social security numbers and birthdates. Although submissions are listed in the http://www.regulations.gov index, some information (e.g., copyrighted material) is not publicly available to read or download through that Web site. All comments and exhibits, including copyrighted material, are available for inspection and copying at the OSHA docket office. Information on using http://www.regulations.gov to submit comments and access dockets is available on that Web site. Contact the OSHA docket office for information about materials not available through the Web site and for assistance in using the Internet to locate docket submissions.

Electronic copies of this Federal Register document are available at Start Printed Page 36436 http://www.regulations.gov. This document, as well as news releases and other relevant information, also are available at OSHA's Web page at http://www.osha.gov. For specific information about OSHA's Recordkeeping rule, go the Recordkeeping page on OSHA's Web page.

IX. Authority and Signature

This document was prepared under the direction of Dr. David Michaels, Assistant Secretary for Occupational Safety and Health. It is issued under Sections 8 and 24 of the Occupational Safety and Health Act (29 U.S.C. 657, 673), 5 U.S.C. 553, and Secretary of Labor's Order 4-2010 (75 FR 55355, 9/10/2010)

Start List of Subjects

List of Subjects in 29 CFR Part 1904

End List of Subjects Start Signature

Signed at Washington, DC on June 15, 2011.

David Michaels,

Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health.

End Signature

X. Proposed Rule

Part 1904 of Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations is hereby proposed to be amended as follows:

Start Part

PART 1904—[AMENDED]

1. The authority citation for part 1904 continues to read as follows:

Start Authority

Authority: 29 U.S.C. 657, 658, 660, 666, 669, 673, Secretary of Labor's Order No. 3-2000 (65 FR 50017), and 5 U.S.C. 533.

End Authority

2. Amend § 1904.2 as follows:

A. Revise paragraph (a)(1).

B. Remove paragraph (b)(1).

C. Redesignate paragraphs (b)(2) and (b)(3) as (b)(1) and (b)(2).

D. Revise newly designated paragraphs (b)(1) and (b)(2).

The revisions read as follows:

Partial exemption for establishments in certain industries.

(a) * * *

(1) If your business establishment is classified in a specific industry subsector listed in Appendix A to this Subpart B, you do not need to keep OSHA injury and illness records unless the government asks you to keep the records under § 1904.41 or § 1904.42. However, all employers must report to OSHA any workplace incident that results in a fatality, an amputation, or the in-patient hospitalization of an employee (see § 1904.39).

* * * * *

(b) * * *

(1) Is the partial industry classification exemption based on the industry classification of my entire company or on the classification of individual business establishments operated by my company? The partial industry classification exemption applies to individual business establishments. If a company has several business establishments engaged in different classes of business activities, some of the company's establishments may be required to keep records, while others may be exempt.

(2) How do I determine the correct NAICS code for my business? The NAICS was designed and documented in such a way to allow business establishments to self-code. There are a number of tools and references available to help you to determine the most appropriate NAICS code for your business from the U.S. Census Bureau at http://www.census.gov. You may contact your nearest OSHA office or state agency for help in determining your NAICS code.

* * * * *

3. Revise Appendix A to subpart B of part 1904 to read as follows:

Appendix A to Subpart B of Part 1904 (Non-Mandatory)—Partially Exempt Industries

Employers are not required to keep OSHA injury and illness records for any establishment classified in the following North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes, unless they are asked in writing to do so by OSHA, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), or a state agency operating under the authority of OSHA or the BLS. All employers, including those partially exempted by reason of company size or industry classification, must report to OSHA any workplace incident that results in a fatality, in-patient hospitalization, or amputation (see § 1904.39).

NAICS CodeIndustry
4412Other Motor Vehicle Dealers.
4431Electronics and Appliance Stores.
4461Health and Personal Care Stores.
4471Gasoline Stations.
4481Clothing Stores.
4482Shoe Stores.
4483Jewelry, Luggage, and Leather Goods Stores.
4511Sporting Goods, Hobby, and Musical Instrument Stores.
4512Book, Periodical, and Music Stores.
4531Florists.
4532Office Supplies, Stationery, and Gift Stores.
4812Nonscheduled Air Transportation.
4861Pipeline Transportation of Crude Oil.
4862Pipeline Transportation of Natural Gas.
4869Other Pipeline Transportation.
4879Scenic and Sightseeing Transportation, Other.
4885Freight Transportation Arrangement.
5111Newspaper, Periodical, Book, and Directory Publishers.
5112Software Publishers.
5121Motion Picture and Video Industries.
5122Sound Recording Industries.
5151Radio and Television Broadcasting.
5172Wireless Telecommunications Carriers (except Satellite).
5173Telecommunications Resellers.
5179Other Telecommunications.
5181Internet Service Providers and Web Search Portals.
5182Data Processing, Hosting, and Related Services.
Start Printed Page 36437
5191Other Information Services.
5211Monetary Authorities—Central Bank.
5221Depository Credit Intermediation.
5222Nondepository Credit Intermediation.
5223Activities Related to Credit Intermediation.
5231Securities and Commodity Contracts Intermediation and Brokerage.
5232Securities and Commodity Exchanges.
5239Other Financial Investment Activities.
5241Insurance Carriers.
5242Agencies, Brokerages, and Other Insurance Related Activities.
5251Insurance and Employee Benefit Funds.
5259Other Investment Pools and Funds.
5312Offices of Real Estate Agents and Brokers.
5331Lessors of Nonfinancial Intangible Assets (except Copyrighted Works).
5411Legal Services.
5412Accounting, Tax Preparation, Bookkeeping, and Payroll Services.
5413Architectural, Engineering, and Related Services.
5414Specialized Design Services.
5415Computer Systems Design and Related Services.
5416Management, Scientific, and Technical Consulting Services.
5417Scientific Research and Development Services.
5418Advertising and Related Services.
5511Management of Companies and Enterprises.
5611Office Administrative Services.
5614Business Support Services.
5615Travel Arrangement and Reservation Services.
5616Investigation and Security Services.
6111Elementary and Secondary Schools.
6112Junior Colleges.
6113Colleges, Universities, and Professional Schools.
6114Business Schools and Computer and Management Training.
6115Technical and Trade Schools.
6116Other Schools and Instruction.
6117Educational Support Services.
6211Offices of Physicians.
6212Offices of Dentists.
6213Offices of Other Health Practitioners.
6214Outpatient Care Centers.
6215Medical and Diagnostic Laboratories.
6244Child Day Care Services.
7114Agents and Managers for Artists, Athletes, Entertainers, and Other Public Figures.
7115Independent Artists, Writers, and Performers.
7213Rooming and Boarding Houses.
7221Full-Service Restaurants.
7222Limited-Service Eating Places.
7224Drinking Places (Alcoholic Beverages).
8112Electronic and Precision Equipment Repair and Maintenance.
8114Personal and Household Goods Repair and Maintenance.
8121Personal Care Services.
8122Death Care Services.
8131Religious Organizations.
8132Grantmaking and Giving Services.
8133Social Advocacy Organizations.
8134Civic and Social Organizations.
8139Business, Professional, Labor, Political, and Similar Organizations.
* * * * *

4. Amend § 1904.39 as follows:

A. Revise paragraphs (a), (b)(1), (b)(2), (b)(3), (b)(4), (b)(6), and (b)(7).

B. Add paragraph (b)(8).

The revisions and addition should read as follows:

Reporting fatalities and multiple hospitalization incidents to OSHA.

(a) Basic Requirement. Within eight (8) hours after the death of any employee from a work-related incident, within eight (8) hours after the in-patient hospitalization of any employee as a result of a work-related incident, and within twenty-four (24) hours after an amputation suffered by an employee as a result of a work-related incident, you must orally report the incident by telephone or in person to the nearest Area Office of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), U.S. Department of Labor. You may also use the OSHA toll-free central telephone number, 1-800-321-OSHA (1-800-321-6742).

(b) * * *

(1) If the Area Office is closed, may I report the incident by leaving a message on OSHA's answering machine, faxing the area office, or sending an e-mail? No, if you can't talk to a person at the Area Office, you must report the fatality, in-patient hospitalization, or Start Printed Page 36438amputation incident using the 800 number.

(2) What information do I need to give to OSHA about the incident? You must give OSHA the following information for each fatality, in-patient hospitalization, or amputation incident:

(i) The establishment name;

(ii) The location of the incident;

(iii) The time of the incident;

(iv) The number of fatalities or hospitalized employees or amputations;

(v) The names of any injured employees;

(vi) Your contact person and his or her phone number; and

(vii) A brief description of the incident.

(3) Do I have to report every fatality or in-patient hospitalization or amputation incident resulting from a motor vehicle accident? No, you do not have to report all of these incidents. If the motor vehicle accident occurs on a public street or highway, and does not occur in a construction work zone, you do not have to report the incident to OSHA. However, these injuries must be recorded on your OSHA injury and illness records, if you are required to keep such records.

(4) Do I have to report a fatality or in-patient hospitalization or amputation incident that occurs on a commercial or public transportation system? No, you do not have to call OSHA to report a fatality or hospitalization or amputation incident if it involves a commercial airplane, train, subway, or bus accident. However, these injuries must be recorded on your OSHA injury and illness records, if you are required to keep such records.

* * *

(6) Do I have to report a fatality or in-patient hospitalization or amputation that occurs long after the incident? No, you must only report each fatality or in-patient hospitalization or amputation that occurs within thirty (30) days of an incident.

(7) What if I don't learn about an incident right away? If you do not learn of a reportable incident at the time it occurs and the incident would otherwise be reportable under paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section, you must make the report within eight (8) hours (for a fatality or an in-patient hospitalization) or twenty four (24) hours (for an amputation) of the time the incident is reported to you or to any of your agent(s) or employee(s).

(8) What types of injuries are counted as amputations? For purposes of classifying occupational injuries and illnesses, amputations are defined by the Bureau of Labor Statistics in their Occupational Injury and Illness Classification Manual. An amputation is the traumatic loss of a limb or other external body part, including a fingertip. In order for an injury to be classified as an amputation, bone must be lost. Amputations include loss of a body part due to a traumatic incident, a gunshot wound, and medical amputations due to irreparable traumatic injuries. Amputations exclude traumatic injuries without bone loss and exclude enucleation (eye removal).

End Part End Supplemental Information

[FR Doc. 2011-15277 Filed 6-21-11; 8:45 am]

BILLING CODE 4510-26-P