Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
Proposed rule; supplemental.
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is issuing a supplement to its proposed approval of a State Implementation Plan (SIP) revision submitted by the State of Iowa (Iowa) through the Iowa Department of Natural Resources (IDNR). Iowa's SIP revision addresses requirements of the Clean Air Act (CAA) and EPA's rules that require states to submit periodic reports describing progress toward reasonable progress goals established for regional haze and a determination of the adequacy of the state's existing implementation plan addressing regional haze (region haze SIP). EPA's proposed approval of Iowa's periodic report on progress toward reasonable progress goals and determination of adequacy of the state's regional haze SIP published in the Federal Register on July 3, 2014. This supplemental proposal addresses the potential effects on our proposed approval from the April 29, 2014, decision of the United States Supreme Court (Supreme Court) remanding to the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit (D.C. Circuit) EPA's Cross-State Air Pollution Rule (CSAPR) for further proceedings and the D.C. Circuit's decision to lift the stay of CSAPR.
Comments must be received on or before August 31, 2015.
Submit your comments, identified by Docket ID Number EPA-R07-OAR-2014-0365, by one of the following methods:
1. www.regulations.gov: Follow the on-line instructions for submitting comments.
2. Email: email@example.com.
3. Mail or Hand Delivery: Jodi Harper, Environmental Protection Agency, Air Planning and Development Branch, 11201 Renner Boulevard, Lenexa, Kansas 66219. Hand deliveries are only accepted during normal hours of operation, and special arrangements should be made for deliveries of boxed information.
Instructions: Direct your comments to Docket ID No. EPA-R07-OAR-2015-0365. EPA's policy is that all comments received will be included in the public docket without change and may be made available online at www.regulations.gov, including any personal information provided, unless the comment includes information claimed to be Confidential Business Information (CBI) or other information whose disclosure is restricted by statute. Do not submit information that you consider to be CBI or otherwise protected through www.regulations.gov or email. The www.regulations.gov Web site is an “anonymous access” system, which means EPA will not know your identity or contact information unless you provide it in the body of your comment. If you send an email comment directly to EPA without going through www.regulations.gov, your email address will be automatically captured and included as part of the comment that is placed in the public docket and made available on the Internet. If you submit an electronic comment, EPA recommends that you include your name and other contact information in the body of your comment and with any disk or CD-ROM you submit. If EPA cannot read your comment due to technical difficulties and cannot contact you for clarification, EPA may not be able to consider your comment. Electronic files should avoid the use of special characters, any form of encryption, and be free of any defects or viruses.
Docket. All documents in the electronic docket are listed in the www.regulations.gov index. Although listed in the index, some information is not publicly available, e.g., CBI or other information whose disclosure is restricted by statute. Certain other material, such as copyrighted material, will be publicly available only in hard copy. Publicly available docket materials are available either electronically in www.regulations.gov or in hard copy at the Environmental Protection Agency, Air Planning and Development Branch, 11201 Renner Boulevard, Lenexa, Kansas 66219. EPA requests that you contact the person listed in the FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT section to schedule your inspection. The interested persons wanting to examine these documents should make an appointment with the office at least 24 hours in advance.
Start Further Info
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:
Jodi Harper, (913) 551-7483, or by email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
End Further Info
Start Supplemental Information
Throughout this document, “we,” “us,” or “our” refer to EPA.Start Printed Page 45632
EPA previously proposed to approve a SIP revision by Iowa reporting on progress made in the first implementation period toward meeting the reasonable progress goals for Class I areas outside Iowa that are affected by emissions from Iowa's sources.
79 FR 37976 (July 3, 2014). In its submittal, Iowa determined its existing regional haze SIP requires no substantive revision to achieve the established regional haze visibility improvement and emissions reduction goals for 2018.
States are required to submit a progress report in the form of a SIP revision every five years that evaluates progress toward the reasonable progress goals for each mandatory Class I area within the state and in each mandatory Class I area outside the state which may be affected by emissions from within the state. See 40 CFR 51.308(g). In addition, the provisions under 40 CFR 51.308(h) require states to submit, at the same time as the 40 CFR 51.308(g) progress report, a determination of the adequacy of the state's existing regional haze SIP. The first progress report SIP revision is due five years after submittal of the initial regional haze SIP. IDNR submitted its regional haze SIP on March 25, 2008, and submitted its progress report SIP revision on July 16, 2013. EPA proposed to find that the progress report SIP revision satisfied the requirements of 40 CFR 51.308(g) and (h) in a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPR) published in 2014. 79 FR 37976. This action supplements EPA's prior NPR by more fully explaining and soliciting comment on the basis for our proposed approval.
II. Summary of Iowa's Progress Report SIP Revision and the NPR
On July 16, 2013, Iowa submitted a SIP revision describing the progress made toward the RPGs of Class I areas outside Iowa that are affected by emissions from Iowa's sources in accordance with requirements in the Regional Haze Rule.
This progress report SIP also included an assessment of whether Iowa's existing regional haze SIP is sufficient to allow nearby states with Class I areas to achieve the reasonable progress goals by the end of the first planning period.
The provisions in 40 CFR 51.308(g) require a progress report SIP to address seven elements. In the NPR, EPA proposed to approve the SIP as adequately addressing each element under 40 CFR 51.308(g). The seven elements and EPA's proposed conclusions in the NPR are briefly summarized below.
The provisions in 40 CFR 51.308(g) require progress report SIPs to include a description of the status of measures in the regional haze implementation plan; a summary of the emissions reductions achieved; an assessment of the visibility conditions for each Class I area in the state; an analysis of the changes in emissions from sources and activities within the state; an assessment of any significant changes in anthropogenic emissions within or outside the state that have limited or impeded visibility improvement progress in Class I areas impacted by the state's sources; an assessment of the sufficiency of the regional haze implementation plan to enable States to meet reasonable progress goals; and a review of the state's visibility monitoring strategy. As explained in detail in the NPR, EPA proposed the Iowa's progress report SIP addressed each element and therefore satisfied the requirements under 40 CFR 51.308(g).
In addition, pursuant to 40 CFR 51.308(h), states are required to submit, at the same time as the progress report SIP revision, a determination of the adequacy of their existing regional haze SIP and to take one of four possible actions based on information in the progress report. In its progress report SIP, Iowa determined that its regional haze SIP is sufficient to meet its obligations related to the reasonable progress goals for Class I areas affected by Iowa's sources. The State accordingly provided EPA with a negative declaration that further revision of the existing regional haze implementation plan was not needed at this time. See 40 CFR 51.308(h)(1). As explained in detail in the NPR, EPA proposed to determine that Iowa had adequately addressed 40 CFR 51.308(h) because the visibility data trends at the Class I areas impacted by Iowa's sources and the emissions trends of the largest emitters in Iowa of visibility-impairing pollutants both indicate that the reasonable progress goals for 2018 for these areas will be met or exceeded. Therefore, in our NPR, EPA proposed to approve Iowa's progress report SIP as meeting the requirements of 40 CFR 51.308(g) and (h).
III. Impact of CAIR and CSAPR on Iowa's Progress Report
Decisions by the Courts regarding EPA rules addressing the interstate transport of pollutants have had a substantial impact on EPA's review of the regional haze SIPs of many states. In 2005, EPA issued regulations allowing states to rely on the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) to meet certain requirements of the Regional Haze Rule. See 70 FR 39104 (July 6, 2005).
A number of states, including Iowa, submitted regional haze SIPs consistent with these regulatory provisions. CAIR, however, was remanded to EPA in 2008, North Carolina v. EPA, 550 F.3d 1176, 1178 (D.C. Cir. 2008), and replaced by CSAPR.
76 FR 48208 (August 8, 2011). Implementation of CSAPR was scheduled to begin on January 1, 2012, when CSAPR would have superseded the CAIR program. However, numerous parties filed petitions for review of CSAPR, and at the end of 2011, the DC Circuit issued an order staying CSAPR pending resolution of the petitions and directing EPA to continue to administer CAIR. Order of December 30, 2011, in EME Homer City Generation, L.P. v. EPA, D.C. Cir. No. 11-1302.
EPA finalized a limited approval of Iowa's regional haze SIP on June 26, 2012. 77 FR 38006. In a separate action, published on June 7, 2012, EPA finalized a limited disapproval of the Iowa regional haze SIP because of the state's reliance on CAIR to meet certain regional haze requirements, and issued a Federal Implementation Plan (FIP) to address the deficiencies identified in the limited disapproval of Iowa and other states' regional haze plans. 77 FR 33642 (June 7, 2012). In our FIP, we relied on CSAPR to meet certain regional haze requirements notwithstanding that it was stayed at the time. As we explained, the determination that CSAPR will provide for greater reasonable progress than BART is based on a forward-looking projection of emissions and any year up until 2018 would have been an Start Printed Page 45633acceptable point of comparison. Id. at 33647. When we issued this FIP, we anticipated that the requirements of CSAPR would be implemented prior to 2018. Id. Following these EPA actions, however, the DC Circuit issued a decision in EME Homer City Generation, L.P. v. EPA, 696 F.3d 7 (D.C. Cir. 2012), vacating CSAPR and ordering EPA to continue administering CAIR pending the promulgation of a valid replacement. On April 29, 2014, the Supreme Court reversed the DC Circuit's decision on CSAPR and remanded the case to the DC Circuit for further proceedings. EPA v. EME Homer City Generation, L.P., 134 S. Ct. 1584 (2014). After the Supreme Court decision, EPA filed a motion to lift the stay on CSAPR and asked the DC Circuit to toll CSAPR's compliance deadlines by three years, so that the Phase 1 emissions budgets apply in 2015 and 2016 (instead of 2012 and 2013), and the Phase 2 emissions budgets apply in 2017 and beyond (instead of 2014 and beyond). On October 23, 2014, the DC Circuit granted EPA's motion. Order of October 23, 2014, in EME Homer City Generation, L.P. v. EPA, D.C. Cir. No. 11-1302. EPA issued an interim final rule to clarify how EPA will implement CSAPR consistent with the DC Circuit's order granting EPA's motion requesting lifting the stay and tolling the rule's deadlines. 79 FR 71663 (December 3, 2014) (interim final rulemaking).
Throughout the litigation described above, EPA has continued to implement CAIR. Thus, at the time that Iowa submitted its progress report SIP revision, CAIR was in effect, and the State included an assessment of the emission reductions from the implementation of CAIR in its report. The progress report discussed the status of the litigation concerning CAIR and CSAPR, but because CSAPR was not at that time in effect, Iowa did not take emissions reductions from CSAPR into account in assessing its regional haze implementation plan. For the same reason, in our NPR, EPA did not assess at that time the impact of CSAPR or our FIP on the ability of Iowa and its neighbors to meet their reasonable progress goals.
The purpose of this supplemental proposal is to seek comment on the effect of the D.C. Circuit's October 23, 2014, order and the effect of the status of CAIR and CSAPR on our assessment of Iowa's progress report SIP and our determination that its existing implementation plan need not be revised at this time.
Iowa appropriately took CAIR into account in its progress report SIP in describing the status of the implementation of measures included in its regional haze SIP and in summarizing the emissions reductions achieved. CAIR was in effect during the 2008-2013 period addressed by Iowa's progress report. EPA approved Iowa's regulations implementing CAIR as part of the Iowa SIP in 2008, 73 FR 20177 (April 15, 2008), and neither Iowa nor EPA has taken any action to remove CAIR from the Iowa SIP. See 40 CFR 52.2520(c). Therefore, Iowa appropriately evaluated and relied on CAIR reductions to demonstrate the State's progress toward meeting its emission reductions.
The State's progress report also demonstrated Class I areas in other states impacted by Iowa sources were on track to meet their reasonable progress goals as discussed in the NPR. EPA's intention in requiring the progress reports pursuant to 40 CFR 51.308(g) was to ensure that emission management measures in the regional haze SIPs are being implemented on schedule and that visibility improvement appears to be consistent with the reasonable progress goals. (64 FR 35713, July 1, 1999). As the D.C. Circuit only recently lifted the stay on CSAPR, CAIR was in effect in Iowa through 2014, providing the emission reductions relied upon in Iowa's regional haze SIP. Thus, Iowa appropriately took into account CAIR reductions in assessing the implementation of measures in the regional haze SIP for the 2008-2013 timeframe, and EPA believes that it is appropriate to rely on CAIR emission reductions for purposes of assessing the adequacy of Iowa's progress report demonstrating progress up to the end of 2014 as CAIR remained effective until that date, pursuant to 40 CFR 51.308(g) and (h).
In addition, EPA believes reliance upon CAIR reductions to show Iowa's progress toward meeting emissions reductions from 2008-2013 is consistent with our prior actions. During the continued implementation of CAIR per the direction of the D.C. Circuit through October 2014, EPA has approved redesignations of areas to attainment of the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS in which states relied on CAIR as an “enforceable measure.” See 77 FR 76415 (December 28, 2012) (redesignation of Huntington-Ashland, West Virginia) and 80 FR 9207 (February 20, 2015) (redesignation of St. Louis, Missouri). While EPA did previously state in a rulemaking action on the Florida regional haze SIP that a five year progress report may be the appropriate time to address changes, if necessary, for reasonable progress goal demonstrations and long term strategies, EPA does not believe such changes were necessary for Iowa's progress report SIP. See generally 77 FR 73369, 77 FR 73371 (December 10, 2012) (proposed action on Florida haze SIP). In this action, EPA is proposing that the remanded status of CAIR and the implementation of its replacement CSAPR at this time do not impact the adequacy of the Iowa regional haze SIP to address reasonable progress from 2008 through 2013 or even through 2014 to meet requirements in 40 CFR 51.308(g) and (h) because CAIR was implemented during the time period evaluated by Iowa for its progress report.
EPA's December 3, 2014, interim final rule sunsets CAIR compliance requirements on a schedule coordinated with the implementation of CSAPR compliance requirements. 79 FR at 71655. As noted above, EPA's June 7, 2012, FIP replaced Iowa's reliance upon CAIR for regional haze requirements with reliance on CSAPR to meet those requirements for the long-term. Because CSAPR should result in greater emissions reductions of SO2 and NOX than CAIR regionally, EPA anticipates Iowa to maintain and continue its progress toward their projected emissions for 2018. See generally 76 FR 48208 (promulgating CSAPR). Although the implementation of CSAPR was tolled for three years, the rule is now being implemented, and CSAPR budgets of SO2 and NOX from EGUs in Iowa are the same as assumed by EPA when it issued the CSAPR FIP for Iowa in June 2012. See 76 FR 48208 (CSAPR promulgation) and 77 FR 33642 (limited disapproval of Iowa regional haze SIP and FIP for Iowa for certain regional haze requirements).
At the present time, the requirements of CSAPR apply to sources in Iowa under the terms of a FIP, because Iowa to date has not incorporated the CSAPR requirements into its SIP. The Regional Haze Rule requires an assessment of whether the current “implementation plan” is sufficient to enable the states to meet all established reasonable progress goals. 40 CFR 51.308(g)(6). The term “implementation plan” is defined for purposes of the Regional Haze Rule to mean “any [SIP], [FIP], or Tribal Implementation Plan.” 40 CFR 51.301. Start Printed Page 45634EPA is, therefore, proposing to determine that we may consider measures in any issued FIP as well as those in a state's regional haze SIP in assessing the adequacy of the “existing implementation plan” under 40 CFR 51.308(g)(6) and (h). Because CSAPR will ensure the control of SO2 and NOX emissions reductions relied upon by Iowa and other states in setting their reasonable progress goals beginning in January 2015 at least through the remainder of the first implementation period in 2018, EPA is proposing to approve Iowa's finding that there is no need for revision of the existing implementation plan for Iowa to achieve the reasonable progress goals for the Class I areas in nearby states impacted by Iowa sources.
We note that the Regional Haze Rule provides for periodic evaluation and assessment of a state's reasonable progress toward achieving the national goal of natural visibility conditions by 2064 for CAA section 169A(b). The regional haze regulations at 40 CFR 51.308 required states to submit initial SIPs in 2007 providing for reasonable progress toward the national goal for the first implementation period from 2008 through 2018. 40 CFR 51.308(b). Pursuant to 40 CFR 51.308(f), SIP revisions reassessing each state's reasonable progress toward the national goal are due every the years after that time. For such subsequent regional haze SIPs, 40 CFR 51.308(f) requires each state to reassess its reasonable progress and all the elements of its regional haze SIP required by 40 CFR 51.308(d), taking into account improvements in monitors and control technology, assessing the state's actual progress and effectiveness of its long term strategy, and revising reasonable progress goals as necessary. 40 CFR 51.308(f)(1)-(3). Therefore, Iowa has the opportunity to reassess its emissions trends and the adequacy of its regional haze SIP, including its reliance upon CSAPR for emission reductions from EGUs, when it prepares and submits its second regional haze SIP to cover the implementation period from 2018 through 2028. As discussed in the NPR and in Iowa's progress report, emissions of SO2 and NOX from EGUs are far below original projections for 2018. In addition, the visibility data provided by Iowa show the Class I areas impacted by Iowa sources are all currently on track to achieve their projected emissions reductions. EPA is seeking comment only on the issues raised in this supplemental proposal and is not reopening for comment other issues addressed in its prior proposal.
IV. Summary of Reproposal
In summary, EPA is proposing to approve Iowa's progress report SIP revision. EPA solicits comments on this supplemental proposal, with respect to only the specific issues raised in this action. EPA is not reopening the comment period on any other aspect of the July 3, 2014, NPR, as an adequate opportunity to comment on those issues has already been provided. The purpose of this supplemental proposal is limited to review of the Iowa progress report in light of the Supreme Court's decision in EME Homer City and the D.C. Circuit's recent Order lifting the stay on CSAPR. This supplemental proposal reflects EPA's desire for public input into how it should proceed in light of those decisions when acting on the pending progress report, in particular the requirements that the State assess whether the current implementation plan is sufficient to ensure that reasonable progress goals are met. 40 CFR 51.308(g)(6) and (h).
V. Statutory and Executive Order Reviews
In this action, EPA is proposing to include in a final EPA rule regulatory text that includes incorporation by reference. In accordance with requirements of 1 CFR 51.5, EPA is proposing to incorporate by reference the Iowa Nonregulatory Provisions described in the proposed amendments to 40 CFR part 52 set forth below. EPA has made, and will continue to make, these documents generally available electronically through www.regulations.gov and/or in hard copy at the appropriate EPA office (see the ADDRESSES section of this preamble for more information).
Under the Clean Air Act (CAA), the Administrator is required to approve a SIP submission that complies with the provisions of the Act and applicable Federal regulations. 42 U.S.C. 7410(k); 40 CFR 52.02(a). Thus, in reviewing SIP submissions, EPA's role is to approve state choices, provided that they meet the criteria of the CAA. Accordingly, this action merely approves state law as meeting Federal requirements and does not impose additional requirements beyond those imposed by state law. For that reason, this action:
- Is not a significant regulatory action subject to review by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Orders 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993) and 13563 (76 FR 3821, January 21, 2011);
- Does not impose an information collection burden under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act (44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.);
- Is certified as not having a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities under the Regulatory Flexibility Act (5 U.S.C. 601 et seq.);
- Does not contain any unfunded mandate or significantly or uniquely affect small governments, as described in the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995 (Pub. L. 104-4);
- Does not have Federalism implications as specified in Executive Order 13132 (64 FR 43255, August 10, 1999);
- Is not an economically significant regulatory action based on health or safety risks subject to Executive Order 13045 (62 FR 19885, April 23, 1997);
- Is not a significant regulatory action subject to Executive Order 13211 (66 FR 28355, May 22, 2001);
- Is not subject to requirements of Section 12(d) of the National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995 (15 U.S.C. 272 note) because application of those requirements would be inconsistent with the Clean Air Act; and
- Does not provide EPA with the discretionary authority to address, as appropriate, disproportionate human health or environmental effects, using practicable and legally permissible methods, under Executive Order 12898 (59 FR 7629, February 16, 1994).
The SIP is not approved to apply on any Indian reservation land or in any other area where EPA or an Indian tribe has demonstrated that a tribe has jurisdiction. In those areas of Indian country, the rule does not have tribal implications and will not impose substantial direct costs on tribal governments or preempt tribal law as specified by Executive Order 13175 (65 FR 67249, November 9, 2000).
The Congressional Review Act, 5 U.S.C. 801 et seq., as added by the Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act of 1996, generally provides that before a rule may take effect, the agency promulgating the rule must submit a rule report, which includes a copy of the rule, to each House of the Congress and to the Comptroller General of the United States. EPA will submit a report containing this proposed action and other required information to the U.S. Senate, the U.S. House of Start Printed Page 45635Representatives, and the Comptroller General of the United States prior to publication of the rule in the Federal Register. A major rule cannot take effect until 60 days after it is published in the Federal Register. This proposed action is not a “major rule” as defined by 5 U.S.C. 804(2).
Under section 307(b)(1) of the CAA, petitions for judicial review of this action must be filed in the United States Court of Appeals for the appropriate circuit by September 29, 2015. Filing a petition for reconsideration by the Administrator of this proposed rule does not affect the finality of this rulemaking for the purposes of judicial review nor does it extend the time within which a petition for judicial review may be filed, and shall not postpone the effectiveness of such future rule or action. This proposed action may not be challenged later in proceedings to enforce its requirements. (See section 307(b)(2).)
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- Environmental protection
- Air pollution control
- Incorporation by reference
- Intergovernmental relations
- Nitrogen oxides
- Particulate matter
- Reporting and recordkeeping requirements
- Sulfur dioxide
- Volatile organic compounds
Dated: July 21, 2015.
Acting Regional Administrator, Region 7.
For the reasons stated in the preamble, EPA proposes to amend 40 CFR part 52 as set forth below:
Chapter I, title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations is amended as follows:
PART 52—APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS
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1. The authority citation for part 52 continues to read as follows: End Amendment Part
Start Amendment Part
2. In § 52.820(e) the table is amended by adding entry (42) at the end of the table in numerical order to read as follows: End Amendment Part
End Supplemental Information
Identification of plan.
* * * * *
(e) * * *
EPA-Approved Iowa Nonregulatory Provisions
|Name of nonregulatory SIP provision||Applicable geographic or nonattainment area||State submittal date||EPA approval date||Explanation|
|* * * * * * *|
|(42) State Implementation Plan (SIP) Revision for the Attainment and Maintenance of National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Regional Haze (2013 Five-Year Progress Report)||Statewide||7/19/13||7/3/2014, 79 FR 37976|
[FR Doc. 2015-18826 Filed 7-30-15; 8:45 am]
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