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Zoxamide; Pesticide Tolerances

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Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).


Final rule.


This regulation establishes tolerances for residues of zoxamide in or on banana. Gowan Company, LLC requested these tolerances under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA).


This regulation is effective February 9, 2018. Objections and requests for hearings must be received on or before April 10, 2018, and must be filed in accordance with the instructions provided in 40 CFR part 178 (see also Unit I.C. of the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION).


The docket for this action, identified by docket identification (ID) number EPA-HQ-OPP-2016-0681, is available at or at the Office of Pesticide Programs Regulatory Public Docket (OPP Docket) in the Environmental Protection Agency Docket Center (EPA/DC), West William Jefferson Clinton Bldg., Rm. 3334, 1301 Constitution Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20460-0001. The Public Reading Room is open from 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., Monday through Friday, excluding legal holidays. The telephone number for the Public Reading Room is (202) 566-1744, and the telephone number for the OPP Docket is (703) 305-5805. Please review the visitor instructions and additional information about the docket available at​dockets.

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Michael L. Goodis, P.E., Director, Registration Division (7505P), Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20460-0001; main telephone number: (703) 305-7090; email address:

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I. General Information

A. Does this action apply to me?

You may be potentially affected by this action if you are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer. The following list of North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS) codes is not intended to be exhaustive, but rather provides a guide to help readers determine whether this document applies to them. Potentially affected entities may include:

  • Crop production (NAICS code 111).
  • Animal production (NAICS code 112).
  • Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311).
  • Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS code 32532).

B. How can I get electronic access to other related information?

You may access a frequently updated electronic version of EPA's tolerance regulations at 40 CFR part 180 through the Government Printing Office's e-CFR site at​cgi-bin/​text-idx?​&​c=​ecfr&​tpl=​/​ecfrbrowse/​Title40/​40tab_​02.tpl.

C. How can I file an objection or hearing request?

Under FFDCA section 408(g), 21 U.S.C. 346a, any person may file an objection to any aspect of this regulation and may also request a hearing on those objections. You must file your objection or request a hearing on this regulation in accordance with the instructions provided in 40 CFR part 178. To ensure proper receipt by EPA, you must identify docket ID number EPA-HQ-OPP-2016-0681 in the subject line on the first page of your submission. All objections and requests for a hearing must be in writing, and must be received by the Hearing Clerk on or before April 10, 2018. Addresses for mail and hand delivery of objections and hearing requests are provided in 40 CFR 178.25(b).

In addition to filing an objection or hearing request with the Hearing Clerk as described in 40 CFR part 178, please submit a copy of the filing (excluding any Confidential Business Information (CBI)) for inclusion in the public docket. Information not marked confidential pursuant to 40 CFR part 2 may be disclosed publicly by EPA without prior notice. Submit the non-CBI copy of your objection or hearing request, identified by docket ID number EPA-HQ-OPP-2016-0681, by one of the following methods:

  • Federal eRulemaking Portal: Follow the online instructions for submitting comments. Do not submit electronically any information you consider to be CBI or other information whose disclosure is restricted by statute.
  • Mail: OPP Docket, Environmental Protection Agency Docket Center (EPA/DC), (28221T), 1200 Pennsylvania Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20460-0001.
  • Hand Delivery: To make special arrangements for hand delivery or Start Printed Page 5718delivery of boxed information, please follow the instructions at​dockets/​contacts.html.

Additional instructions on commenting or visiting the docket, along with more information about dockets generally, is available at​dockets.

II. Summary of Petitioned-For Tolerance

In the Federal Register of June 8, 2017 (82 FR 26641) (FRL-9661-14), EPA issued a document pursuant to FFDCA section 408(d)(3), 21 U.S.C. 346a(d)(3), announcing the filing of a pesticide petition (PP 6E8524) by Gowan Company, LLC, P.O. Box 556, Yuma, AZ 85366. The petition requested that 40 CFR 180.567 be amended by establishing a tolerance for residues of the fungicide zoxamide (3, 5-dichloro-N-(3-chloro-1-ethyl-1-methyl-2-oxopropyl)-4-methylbenzamide), in or on banana at 0.3 parts per million (ppm). That document referenced a summary of the petition prepared by Gowan Company, LLC, the registrant, which is available in the docket, One comment was received on the notice of filing. EPA's response is discussed in Unit IV.C. Based upon review of the data supporting the petition, EPA has determined that a tolerance of 0.20 ppm on banana is appropriate rather than the petitioned-for 0.3 ppm tolerance. The reason for this change is explained in Unit IV.D.

III. Aggregate Risk Assessment and Determination of Safety

Section 408(b)(2)(A)(i) of FFDCA allows EPA to establish a tolerance (the legal limit for a pesticide chemical residue in or on a food) only if EPA determines that the tolerance is “safe.” Section 408(b)(2)(A)(ii) of FFDCA defines “safe” to mean that “there is a reasonable certainty that no harm will result from aggregate exposure to the pesticide chemical residue, including all anticipated dietary exposures and all other exposures for which there is reliable information.” This includes exposure through drinking water and in residential settings, but does not include occupational exposure. Section 408(b)(2)(C) of FFDCA requires EPA to give special consideration to exposure of infants and children to the pesticide chemical residue in establishing a tolerance and to “ensure that there is a reasonable certainty that no harm will result to infants and children from aggregate exposure to the pesticide chemical residue. . . .”

Consistent with FFDCA section 408(b)(2)(D), and the factors specified in FFDCA section 408(b)(2)(D), EPA has reviewed the available scientific data and other relevant information in support of this action. EPA has sufficient data to assess the hazards of and to make a determination on aggregate exposure for zoxamide including exposure resulting from the import tolerance established by this action.

A. Risk Assessment

In the Federal Register of March 8, 2016 (81 FR 12011) (FRL-9942-18), EPA established tolerances for residues of zoxamide in or on several commodities. Because much of the safety assessment of zoxamide for the current action remains the same, EPA is incorporating several aspects of that previous rule and relying in part upon the findings made in the March 8, 2016 final rule in support of this action.

A summary of the toxicological profile and endpoints used for human risk assessment is discussed in Units III.A. and III.B of the March 8, 2016 final rule. In evaluating dietary exposure for this action, EPA considered exposure under the petitioned-for tolerances as well as all existing zoxamide tolerances in 40 CFR 180.567. The residue data used for the acute and chronic dietary exposure assessments have not changed since the assessment supporting the March 8, 2016 final rule, except to incorporate the exposure associated with the tolerance on banana, for which the Agency assumed tolerance-level residues, default processing factors, and 100 percent crop treated. For a summary of how EPA assessed these dietary exposures, see Unit III.C.1 of the March 8, 2016 final rule. In addition, because there is no U.S. registration associated with the use of zoxamide on banana, the estimated drinking water exposures reported in the 2016 final rule remain the same for this rule. A summary of EPA's assessment of drinking water exposure is discussed in Unit III.C.2. of the March 8, 2016 final rule. Similarly, the Agency's assessment of cumulative risks remains the same as in the March 8, 2016 final rule.

Because there have been no changes to the potential for prenatal and postnatal toxicity or in the completeness of data with respect to toxicity and exposure, EPA has determined that reliable data show the safety of infants and children would be adequately protected if the additional tenfold (10X) margin of safety required under section 408(b)(2)(C) (“FQPA safety factor”) were reduced to 1X. A summary of EPA's rationale for this determination is discussed in Unit III.D. of the March 8, 2016 final rule.

B. Determination of Safety

EPA determines whether acute and chronic dietary pesticide exposures are safe by comparing aggregate exposure estimates to the acute population-adjusted dose (aPAD) and chronic population-adjusted dose (cPAD). Short-, intermediate-, and chronic-term risks are evaluated by comparing the estimated aggregate food, water, and residential exposure to the appropriate points of departure to ensure that an adequate margin of exposure exists.

No acute effects were identified in the toxicological studies for zoxamide; therefore, a quantitative acute dietary exposure assessment is unnecessary. The chronic dietary risk is 1.8% of the chronic population adjusted dose (cPAD) for the general U.S. population and 6.4% of the cPAD for children 1 to 2 years old, the population subgroup with the highest estimated chronic dietary exposure to zoxamide. The Agency level of concern are percentage numbers greater than 100% of the cPAD. Because there are no existing or proposed residential uses for zoxamide, there are no exposures expected via the residential exposure pathway. Therefore, all aggregate risk estimates are expected to be equivalent only to dietary (food and drinking water) risk estimates mentioned above.

Therefore, EPA concludes that there is a reasonable certainty that no harm will result to the general population, or to infants and children from aggregate exposure to zoxamide residues.

For a detailed discussion of the aggregate risk assessments and determination of safety for these tolerances, please refer both to the March 8, 2016 final rule and its supporting documents, available at in docket ID number EPA-HQ-OPP-2014-0922, and to the risk assessment for this current action “Zoxamide: Human Health Risk Assessment for the Petition for a Tolerance Without U.S. Registration for Residues in/on Banana.” in docket ID number EPA-HQ-OPP-2016-0681.

IV. Other Considerations

A. Analytical Enforcement Methodology

A gas chromatography/mass selective detection (GC/MSD) method, modified Rohm and Haas Method #34-99-85, was previously submitted and concurrently revalidated with the submission of the current petition for the determination of residues of zoxamide in/on samples of banana. The method may be requested from: Chief, Analytical Chemistry Branch, Environmental Science Center, 701 Mapes Rd., Ft. Meade, MD 20755-5350; telephone number: (410) 305-Start Printed Page 57192905; email address:

B. International Residue Limits

In making its tolerance decisions, EPA seeks to harmonize U.S. tolerances with international standards whenever possible, consistent with U.S. food safety standards and agricultural practices. EPA considers the international maximum residue limits (MRLs) established by the Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex), as required by FFDCA section 408(b)(4). The Codex Alimentarius is a joint United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization food standards program, and it is recognized as an international food safety standards-setting organization in trade agreements to which the United States is a party. EPA may establish a tolerance that is different from a Codex MRL; however, FFDCA section 408(b)(4) requires that EPA explain the reasons for departing from the Codex level.

The Codex has not established a MRL for zoxamide.

C. Response to Comments

One comment was received from an anonymous respondent. The comment is general to all pesticides and is against tolerances being approved for any chemical on any commodity. Although the Agency recognizes that some individuals believe that no residue of pesticides should be allowed in or on food, the existing legal framework provided by section 408 of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) authorizes the establishment of pesticide tolerances or exemptions where the Agency determines that tolerance or exemption meets the safety standard imposed by the statute. EPA has sufficient data to support a safety determination for the tolerance for residues of zoxamide in or on banana. The commenter provided no additional information supporting a determination that the exemption is not safe.

D. Revisions to Petitioned-For Tolerances

The Agency is establishing a tolerance for residues of zoxamide in or on banana at 0.20 ppm, which is lower than the 0.30 ppm tolerance requested. This is because there is a difference between how the petitioner calculated the proposed tolerance and how the Agency calculates the tolerance. The 0.20 ppm tolerance being set on banana was calculated using the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) tolerance calculation procedures and available field-trial residue data. The field-trial data on unbagged, whole fruit banana residues with a 0-day pre-harvest interval (PHI) were used from each field trial to calculate the tolerance.

V. Conclusion

Therefore, a tolerance is established for residues of zoxamide, (3, 5-dichloro-N-(3-chloro-1-ethyl-1-methyl-2-oxopropyl)-4-methylbenzamide), in or on banana at 0.20 ppm.

VI. Statutory and Executive Order Reviews

This action establishes a tolerance under FFDCA section 408(d) in response to a petition submitted to the Agency. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has exempted these types of actions from review under Executive Order 12866, entitled “Regulatory Planning and Review” (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993). Because this action has been exempted from review under Executive Order 12866, this action is not subject to Executive Order 13211, entitled “Actions Concerning Regulations That Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use” (66 FR 28355, May 22, 2001); Executive Order 13045, entitled “Protection of Children from Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks” (62 FR 19885, April 23, 1997); or Executive Order 13771, entitled “Reducing Regulations and Controlling Regulatory Costs” (82 FR 9339, February 3, 2017). This action does not contain any information collections subject to OMB approval under the Paperwork Reduction Act (PRA) (44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.), nor does it require any special considerations under Executive Order 12898, entitled “Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations” (59 FR 7629, February 16, 1994).

Since tolerances and exemptions that are established on the basis of a petition under FFDCA section 408(d), such as the tolerance in this final rule, do not require the issuance of a proposed rule, the requirements of the Regulatory Flexibility Act (RFA) (5 U.S.C. 601 et seq.), do not apply.

This action directly regulates growers, food processors, food handlers, and food retailers, not States or tribes, nor does this action alter the relationships or distribution of power and responsibilities established by Congress in the preemption provisions of FFDCA section 408(n)(4). As such, the Agency has determined that this action will not have a substantial direct effect on States or tribal governments, on the relationship between the national government and the States or tribal governments, or on the distribution of power and responsibilities among the various levels of government or between the Federal Government and Indian tribes. Thus, the Agency has determined that Executive Order 13132, entitled “Federalism” (64 FR 43255, August 10, 1999) and Executive Order 13175, entitled “Consultation and Coordination with Indian Tribal Governments” (65 FR 67249, November 9, 2000) do not apply to this action. In addition, this action does not impose any enforceable duty or contain any unfunded mandate as described under Title II of the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act (UMRA) (2 U.S.C. 1501 et seq.).

This action does not involve any technical standards that would require Agency consideration of voluntary consensus standards pursuant to section 12(d) of the National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act (NTTAA) (15 U.S.C. 272 note).

VII. Congressional Review Act

Pursuant to the Congressional Review Act (5 U.S.C. 801 et seq.), EPA will submit a report containing this rule and other required information to the U.S. Senate, the U.S. House of Representatives, and the Comptroller General of the United States prior to publication of the rule in the Federal Register. This action is not a “major rule” as defined by 5 U.S.C. 804(2).

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List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 180

  • Environmental protection
  • Administrative practice and procedure
  • Agricultural commodities
  • Pesticides and pests
  • Reporting and recordkeeping requirements
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Dated: January 23, 2018.

Michael Goodis,

Director, Registration Division, Office of Pesticide Programs.

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Therefore, 40 CFR chapter I is amended as follows:

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1. The authority citation for part 180 continues to read as follows:

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Authority: 21 U.S.C. 321(q), 346a and 371.

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2. In § 180.567, add alphabetically the entry “Banana” to the table in paragraph (a) and add footnote 1 to the table to read as follows:

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Zoxamide; tolerances for residues.

(a) * * *

(1) * * *Start Printed Page 5720

CommodityParts per million
Banana 10.20
*    *    *    *    *
1 There are no U.S. registrations allowing use of zoxamide on banana as of February 9, 2018.
* * * * *
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[FR Doc. 2018-02668 Filed 2-8-18; 8:45 am]