Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
Direct final rule.
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 5 is publishing a direct final Notice of Deletion of the Tomah Armory Landfill Superfund Site (Tomah Armory Site), located in Tomah, Wisconsin, from the National Priorities List (NPL). The NPL, promulgated pursuant to Section 105 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). This direct final deletion is being published by EPA with the concurrence of the State of Wisconsin, through the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR), because EPA has determined that all appropriate response actions under CERCLA, other than operation and maintenance, monitoring and five-year reviews, have been completed. However, this deletion does not preclude future actions under Superfund.
This direct final deletion is effective February 5, 2019 unless EPA receives adverse comments by January 7, 2019. If adverse comments are received, EPA will publish a timely withdrawal of the direct final deletion in the Federal Register informing the public that the direct final deletion will not take effect.
Submit your comments, identified by Docket ID No. EPA-HQ-SFUND-1987-0002, by one of the following methods: https://www.regulations.gov. Follow the on-line instructions for submitting comments. Once submitted, comments cannot be edited or removed from Regulations.gov. EPA may publish any comment received to its public docket. Do not submit electronically any information you consider to be Confidential Business Information (CBI) or other information whose disclosure is restricted by statute. Multimedia submissions (audio, video, etc.) must be accompanied by a written comment. The written comment is considered the official comment and should include discussion of all points you wish to make. EPA will generally not consider comments or comment contents located outside of the primary submission (i.e., on the web, cloud, or other file sharing system). For additional submission methods, the full EPA public comment policy, information about CBI or multimedia submissions, and general guidance on making effective comments, please visit https://www2.epa.gov/dockets/commenting-epa-dockets.
Mail: Randolph Cano, NPL Deletion Coordinator, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 5 (SR-6J), 77 West Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, IL 60604, (312) 886-6036.
Hand deliver: Superfund Records Center, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 5, 77 West Jackson Boulevard, 7th Floor South, Chicago, IL 60604, (312) 886-0900. Such deliveries are only accepted during the Docket's normal hours of operation, and special arrangements should be made for deliveries of boxed information. The normal business hours are Monday through Friday, 8 a.m. to 4 p.m., excluding Federal holidays.
Instructions: Direct your comments to Docket ID no. EPA-HQ-SFUND-1987-0002. EPA's policy is that all comments received will be included in the public docket without change and may be made available online at http://www.regulations.gov, including any personal information provided, unless the comment includes information claimed to be Confidential Business Information (CBI) or other information whose disclosure is restricted by statute. Do not submit information that you consider to be CBI or otherwise protected through https://www.regulations.gov or email. The https://www.regulations.gov website is an “anonymous access” system, which means EPA will not know your identity or contact information unless you provide it in the body of your comment. If you send an email comment directly to EPA without going through https://Start Printed Page 63069www.regulations.gov, your email address will be automatically captured and included as part of the comment that is placed in the public docket and made available on the internet. If you submit an electronic comment, EPA recommends that you include your name and other contact information in the body of your comment and with any disk or CD-ROM you submit. If EPA cannot read your comment due to technical difficulties and cannot contact you for clarification, EPA may not be able to consider your comment. Electronic files should avoid the use of special characters, any form of encryption, and be free of any defects or viruses.
Docket: All documents in the docket are listed in the https://www.regulations.gov index. Although listed in the index, some information is not publicly available, e.g., CBI or other information whose disclosure is restricted by statue. Certain other material, such as copyrighted material, will be publicly available only in hard copy. Publicly available docket materials are available either electronically in https://www.regulations.gov or in hard copy at:
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 5, Superfund Records Center, 77 West Jackson Boulevard, 7th Floor South, Chicago, IL 60604, Phone: (312) 886-0900, Hours: Monday through Friday, 8 a.m. to 4 p.m., excluding Federal holidays.
Tomah Public Library, 716 Superior Avenue, Tomah, WI 54660, Phone: (608) 374-7470. Hours: Monday through Wednesday, 9 a.m. to 8 p.m., Thursday through Saturday, 9 a.m. to 5 p.m., Sunday, 1 p.m. to 5 p.m.
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FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:
Randolph Cano, NPL Deletion Coordinator, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 5 (SR-6J), 77 West Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, IL 60604, (312) 886-6036, or via email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
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Table of Contents
II. NPL Deletion Criteria
III. Deletion Procedures
IV. Basis for Site Deletion
V. Deletion Action
EPA Region 5 is publishing this direct final Notice of Deletion of the Tomah Armory Site, from the NPL. The NPL constitutes Appendix B of 40 CFR part 300, which is the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP), which EPA promulgated pursuant to Section 105 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended. EPA maintains the NPL as the list of sites that appear to present a significant risk to public health, welfare, or the environment. Sites on the NPL may be the subject of remedial actions financed by the Hazardous Substance Superfund (Fund). As described in 40 CFR 300.425(e)(3) of the NCP, sites deleted from the NPL remain eligible for Fund-financed remedial actions if future conditions warrant such actions.
Section II of this document explains the criteria for deleting sites from the NPL. Section III discusses procedures that EPA is using for this action. Section IV discusses the Tomah Armory Site and demonstrates how it meets the deletion criteria. Section V discusses EPA's action to delete the Tomah Armory Site from the NPL unless adverse comments are received during the public comment period.
II. NPL Deletion Criteria
The NCP establishes the criteria that EPA uses to delete sites from the NPL. In accordance with 40 CFR 300.425(e), sites may be deleted from the NPL where no further response is appropriate. In making such a determination pursuant to 40 CFR 300.425(e), EPA will consider, in consultation with the state, whether any of the following criteria have been met:
i. Responsible parties or other persons have implemented all appropriate response actions required;
ii. all appropriate Fund-financed response under CERCLA has been implemented, and no further response action by responsible parties is appropriate; or
iii. the remedial investigation has shown that the release poses no significant threat to public health or the environment and, therefore, the taking of remedial measures is not appropriate.
Pursuant to CERCLA Section 121(c) and the NCP, EPA conducts five-year reviews to ensure the continued protectiveness of remedial actions where hazardous substances, pollutants, or contaminants remain at a site above levels that allow for unlimited use and unrestricted exposure. EPA conducts such five-year reviews even if a site is deleted from the NPL. EPA may initiate further action to ensure continued protectiveness at a deleted site if new information becomes available that indicates it is appropriate. Whenever there is a significant release from a site deleted from the NPL, the deleted site may be restored to the NPL without application of the hazard ranking system.
III. Deletion Procedures
The following procedures apply to deletion of the Tomah Armory Site:
(1) EPA consulted with the State of Wisconsin prior to developing this direct final Notice of Deletion and the Notice of Intent to Delete co-published today in the “Proposed Rules” section of the Federal Register.
(2) EPA has provided the State 30 working days for review of this notice and the parallel Notice of Intent to Delete prior to their publication today, and the State, through the WDNR, has concurred on the deletion of the Tomah Armory Site from the NPL.
(3) Concurrently with the publication of this direct final Notice of Deletion, a notice of the availability of the parallel Notice of Intent to Delete is being published in a major local newspaper, the Tomah Monitor-Herald. The newspaper advertisement announces the 30-day public comment period concerning the Notice of Intent to Delete the Tomah Armory Site from the NPL.
(4) The EPA placed copies of documents supporting the proposed deletion in the deletion docket and made these items available for public inspection and copying at the Tomah Armory Site information repositories identified above.
(5) If adverse comments are received within the 30-day public comment period on this deletion action, EPA will publish a timely notice of withdrawal of this direct final Notice of Deletion before its effective date and will prepare a response to comments and continue with the deletion process on the basis of the Notice of Intent to Delete and the comments already received.
Deletion of a site from the NPL does not itself create, alter, or revoke any individual's rights or obligations. Deletion of a site from the NPL does not in any way alter EPA's right to take enforcement actions, as appropriate. The NPL is designed primarily for informational purposes and to assist EPA management. Section 300.425(e)(3) of the NCP states that the deletion of a site from the NPL does not preclude eligibility for future response actions, should future conditions warrant such actions.
IV. Basis for Site Deletion
The following information provides EPA's rationale for deleting the Tomah Armory Site from the NPL:
Site Background and History
The Tomah Armory Site (CERCLS ID: WID980610299) is approximately 9.6 Start Printed Page 63070acres and is located in the northeastern section of the City of Tomah, Monroe County, Wisconsin. The Tomah Armory Site is bordered on the north by the former City of Tomah sewage disposal and treatment facility, to the east by Mill Street and a residential area, to the south by Arthur Street and a mixed use residential and business area, and to the west by Woodard Avenue, which separates the Tomah Armory Site from open fields and an apartment complex. The original landfill area covered the majority of the Armory property, a portion of the former City of Tomah sewage treatment plant property, a portion of a former museum property which is currently commercial, and a small area west of Woodard Avenue. See Tomah Armory Site Map, Docket Document ID No. EPA-HQ-SFUND-1987-0002-0389 in the Docket.
The City of Tomah owned the Tomah Armory Site property until 1968. The City used the Tomah Armory Site as a landfill from 1950 until sometime between 1955 and 1960. Waste disposal methods consisted of excavating six to eight feet of surface soil, disposing waste in the excavated area, covering the waste with previously excavated topsoil, and final grading. Some of the material disposed in the landfill may have been burned before it was buried. Records regarding the types (residential, commercial, or industrial) and quantities of landfilled waste are not available.
The Wisconsin Army National Guard (WIARNG) purchased 5.9 acres of the Tomah Armory Site in July of 1968 to support WIARNG activities associated with the administration, logistical support, and readiness of the unit. Prior to the purchase of the property by WIARNG, a portion of the landfill was excavated and disposed of off-site to construct the Armory building. Subsequently, several additional areas of the landfill were excavated. These areas included: An area west of Woodard Avenue, the northern 100 feet of a former telephone museum property in the southwest corner of the Tomah Armory Site deeded to WIARNG in 1997, and for a southern expansion of the Armory building. Excavated areas were filled and graded and seeded, or built over.
WDNR and EPA inspected the Tomah Armory Site in 1984 to obtain information about past waste disposal activities at the Tomah Armory Site. EPA prepared a Site Inspection Report in 1984 and scored the Tomah Armory Site using EPA's Hazard Ranking System. EPA's primary concern in the Tomah Armory Site Inspection Report was the potential for groundwater contamination and contaminated water supplies due to waste disposal into an unlined landfill.
EPA proposed the Tomah Armory Site to the NPL on January 22, 1987 (52 FR 2492). EPA finalized the Tomah Armory Site on the NPL on July 22, 1987 (52 FR 27620), effective August 21, 1987.
Current land use and occupants of the Tomah Armory Site include WIARNG (6.6 acres), a commercial property in the southwest corner of the Tomah Armory Site (1.717 acres) and the Tomah Fire Department (0.91 acres). Two residential properties are located in the southeast corner of the Tomah Armory Site (0.13 and 0.24 acres), however, these properties are not located within the landfilled area.
The landfilled area north of the Tomah Armory Site, which was the location of the former Tomah sewage disposal and wastewater treatment plant, is owned by the City of Tomah and is zoned as “other”. A recreational path for pedestrians and non-motorized bicycles runs along the northern portion of the City's property adjacent to the South Fork Lemonweir River.
Remedial Investigation (RI) and Feasibility Study (FS)
EPA conducted a Phase I Remedial Investigation (RI) at the Tomah Armory Site in 1993 in cooperation with WDNR and the United States Geological Survey. The purpose of the Phase I RI was to collect groundwater and soil samples to characterize the nature and extent of contamination and evaluate associated risks. The results of the Phase I RI determined there was a need for additional data. WIARNG conducted a Phase II RI from 1995 to 1997.
The Phase I and II RI involved the sampling and analysis of groundwater, air, and surface and subsurface soil. The RI included groundwater sampling at residential wells and groundwater monitoring wells around the Tomah Armory Site. Surface and subsurface soil samples were collected within the landfill area and outside the landfill to determine background conditions.
The RI included a geophysical investigation. The geophysical investigation consisted of a magnetic survey and an electromagnetic survey. The results of the geophysical investigation and the data collected from the soil borings and test pits were used to determine the approximate boundaries of the landfill, shown in the Tomah Armory Site Map, Docket Document ID No. EPA-HQ-SFUND-1987-0002-0839 in the Docket.
The Phase I groundwater investigation identified inorganic groundwater contaminants inside the boundaries of the landfill. The concentration of lead exceeded the Federal action level (AL) for lead of 15 micrograms/liter (µg/L). EPA also detected lead in a groundwater monitoring well at one location outside the boundary of the landfill at a concentration slightly above the AL.
Phase II groundwater sampling performed outside the boundaries of the landfill in 1995 and 1996 did not detect lead in any wells above the AL. Multiple rounds of groundwater sampling performed at the Tomah Armory Site in 1999, 2000, 2001, 2010 and 2011 confirmed that lead levels outside the boundaries of the landfill are well below the AL.
The RI identified organic groundwater contamination at the Tomah Armory Site from a source upgradient of the landfill. The Phase I sampling detected trichloroethene (TCE) in groundwater below the landfill at concentrations above the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for TCE of 5 µg/L. The Phase II sampling confirmed the presence of TCE, and detected TCE and other organic contaminants outside the boundaries of the landfill in upgradient wells at greater concentrations. Based on this, EPA determined that the organic groundwater contamination detected at the Tomah Armory Site was not site-related.
EPA evaluated the threats to human health and the environment posed by the Tomah Armory Site from ingestion and/or direct contact with contaminants in surface and subsurface soil. The contaminants of concern were benzo(a)pyrene (BAP) and lead in surface soil, and BAP, beryllium, chromium, arsenic and lead in subsurface soil.
Exposure to surface and subsurface soil did not pose any unacceptable risks. The calculated risks from exposure to surface soil were within EPA's acceptable range for cancer risk (10−4 to 10−6) under a residential use scenario, and the calculated exposure point concentrations of lead in surface soil were below EPA's residential soil screening levels. None of the subsurface soil contaminants exceeded risk-based concentrations for non-carcinogenic effects or the cancer risk range. Subsurface soil exposure point concentrations for lead were above EPA's residential soil screening level of 400 milligrams/kilogram (mg/kg), but were below the site-specific industrial risk-based concentration for lead in surface soil of 36,000 mg/kg calculated using the adult lead cleanup model and assuming an exposure frequency of 28 days/year at the Tomah Armory Site.
The risk assessment noted that waste material underlay the surface of the Start Printed Page 63071Tomah Armory Site and that groundwater under the landfill did not meet the AL level for lead. The concentrations of lead outside the landfill, however, did not exceed the AL, and the organic groundwater contamination detected in groundwater below the landfill was due to an upgradient source.
The Tomah Armory Site property and the City of Tomah are served by municipal water service. Given that the municipal water supply system had adequate capacity for expansion, EPA concluded that any potential future on-site development would also use municipal water.
EPA determined that the contamination at the landfill did not pose any significant risks to human health or the environment under current or reasonably anticipated future land use based upon the results of the Tomah Armory Site investigations and risk assessment. Additionally, institutional controls (ICs) to prevent inappropriate land and groundwater use at the Tomah Armory Site were already in place in the form of restrictive covenants enforceable by the WDNR.
EPA determined that remedial action at the Tomah Armory Site was not warranted, and recommended no action for the Tomah Armory Site. EPA proposed, however, that additional groundwater monitoring be conducted to ensure that groundwater conditions continued to pose no significant risk. EPA issued a Record of Decision (ROD) for no action with groundwater monitoring for the Tomah Armory Site on September 23, 1997.
EPA executed an Explanation of Significant Differences (ESD) modifying the Tomah Armory Site remedy in September 2014. The purpose of the ESD was to document EPA's decision to formally incorporate ICs as part of the remedy and to modify the requirement for groundwater monitoring.
The ESD noted the ICs that were already in place at the Tomah Armory Site, and added additional ICs in the form of Wisconsin Continuing Obligations regulations and a Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) Plan to the selected remedy. The ESD also changed the groundwater monitoring component of the remedy from being “required” to being conducted “as needed”.
WIARNG conducted seven rounds of post-ROD groundwater monitoring at the Tomah Armory Site from May 1999 through April 2011. WIARNG collected the groundwater samples from six monitoring locations around the Tomah Armory Site during the first six rounds of sampling, and follow-up groundwater sampling at three locations during the last round of sampling. WIARNG analyzed the groundwater samples for dissolved lead.
None of the groundwater samples exceeded the lead AL of 15 µg/L. Most of the groundwater monitoring results were at or below the detection limit. The highest value observed was 4.1 µg/L in 2010 at groundwater monitoring well MW-3. WIARNG resampled MW-3 in 2011 and did not detect any lead.
WIARNG collected, analyzed and reviewed all groundwater monitoring data in accordance with the Quality Assurance Project Plan for the Tomah Armory and Tomah Fairgrounds Remedial Investigation (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, June 1993).
WIARNG conducted a landfill cap evaluation in November 2010. The purpose of the evaluation was to assess areas of potential settlement and areas of potential contamination and stressed vegetation. WIARNG did not find any evidence of settlement or visible contamination in the paved or gravel covered areas of the Tomah Armory Site. WIARNG did not find any evidence of exposed refuse on the surface of the Tomah Armory Site or across the alleyway to the west. There were several areas of stressed vegetation in lawn-covered areas on the west side of the Tomah Armory Site. WIARNG personnel maintain the Tomah Armory Site by mowing the property, filling the occasional depression, and re-seeding areas of stressed vegetation as needed.
WIARNG requested EPA's concurrence with WDNR's recommendations to abandon the remaining monitoring wells around the Tomah Armory Site in December 2015. EPA reviewed WIARNG's request and concurred with removing the wells in April 2016. WIARNG properly abandoned the groundwater monitoring wells in June 2016.
WIARNG completed a Remedial Action (RA) Report in August 2016. The RA Report documents the successful implementation of the Landfill Cap Maintenance Plan and the Institutional Control Plan (ICP), including a Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) Plan for the Tomah Armory Site. A copy of the Landfill Cap Maintenance Plan, the ICP and the LTS Plan are included in Attachment 1 and Appendix H of the 2016 RA Report.
EPA completed a Final Close Out Report (FCOR) documenting the completion of all appropriate response actions at the Tomah Armory Site on February 7, 2018.
The Tomah Armory Site ROD is a no-action ROD with groundwater monitoring and does not establish any cleanup levels for soil or groundwater. During monitoring, EPA compared detected concentrations of lead in the groundwater to the Federal AL and Wisconsin Administrative Code (WAC) Natural Resources (NR) Chapter 140 limit for lead of 15 µg/L.
Eight rounds of groundwater samples collected from six groundwater monitoring locations around the Tomah Armory Site from 1995 to 2010, and a follow-up round of sampling at three wells in 2011, did not detect any lead concentrations above the AL for lead. The majority of the lead results were at or below the detection limit. The highest observed values for lead were 4.7 µg/L at MW-4 in 1996 and 4.1 µg/L in MW-3 in 2010.
Subsequent groundwater samples collected from MW-4 from 1999 to 2010 and from MW-3 in 2010 did not contain lead. The results of the groundwater monitoring confirm that EPA's no action remedy for the Tomah Armory Site selected in the 1997 ROD, as modified by the 2014 ESD, is appropriate. A summary of the groundwater monitoring data for the Tomah Armory Site is provided in Table 3 of the 2018 FCOR, Docket Document ID No. EPA-HQ-SFUND-1987-0002-0384 in the Docket.
Operation and Maintenance
WIARNG conducts operation and maintenance (O&M) in accordance with the Landfill Cap Maintenance Plan and the ICP and LTS Plan. WIARNG inspects the Tomah Armory Landfill annually, at a minimum. WIANRG mows and maintains the property throughout the year, and addresses maintenance issues such as filling occasional depressions, re-seeding areas of stressed vegetation, and evaluating the landfill cap for subsidence. If subsidence is observed indicating possible degradation of the landfill cap, the cap will be evaluated and potential problems addressed as soon as possible. Property owners must contact WDNR at least 45 days prior to making any removal, replacement or changes to the landfill cap.
The remedy for the Tomah Armory Site includes ICs to ensure long term protectiveness to human health and the environment. Several types of proprietary and government controls including deed restrictions, zoning, municipal ordinances, and Wisconsin state regulations are in place to provide Start Printed Page 63072multiple layers of protection at the Tomah Armory Site.
Declarations of Restrictions are implemented on the four properties where the majority of the historical extent of the landfill is located. These include parcels 286-00061-0000 and 286-00059-2000 owned by WIARNG (armory property), 286-02710-0000 owned by the City of Tomah (former waste water treatment plant/current bike path property), and the commercial property in the southwest corner of the Tomah Armory Site (286-00059-0000). See Tomah Armory Site Map, Docket Document ID No. EPA-HQ-SFUND-1987-0002-0389 in the Docket.
The deed restrictions subject the owner to the following limitation and restrictions unless prior written approval is obtained from the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources or its successor: (1) Excavating or grading of the land surface, (2) filling on the capped area, (3) plowing for agricultural cultivation, and (4) construction or installation of a building or other structure with a foundation that would sit on, or be placed within, the cap or which would interfere with the existing cap. Copies of the Declarations of Restrictions are available in Appendix G of the 2016 RA Report, Docket Document ID No. EPA-HQ-SFUND-1987-0002-0383 in the Docket.
Other implemented ICs include zoning, municipal ordinances and state regulations. Current zoning prohibits residential use of the landfill area. The armory property is zoned X2, state; the city property to the north and the Fire Department property are zoned X4, other; and the parcel to the southwest is zoned G2, commercial. Two Tomah Armory Site properties in the southeast corner of the Tomah Armory Site are zoned for residential use, however, these properties are outside the limits of the landfill. Tomah Armory Site zoning designations are shown in Figure 3 of the 2016 RA Report, Docket Document ID No. EPA-HQ-SFUND-1987-0002-0383 in the Docket.
A zoning district designation may be changed; however, this requires a petition for change to be filed with the city clerk and reviewed by the planning commission. A recommendation by the planning commission is then given to the city council, and requires a public hearing prior to the zoning change.
Tomah City Ordinance Section 46-101 restricts the installation and use of private wells and cross connections between municipal well lines and private wells. Private wells located on parcels served by the City municipal water supply were also to be properly abandoned by January 1, 1989 (Tomah Ordinance Section 46-529).
Private well operation is allowable in the city with a Well Operation Permit if the well meets the requirements of Tomah Ordinance Section 46-530. One of the requirements for obtaining a Well Operation Permit is that the well and pump installation meet the requirements of Chapter NR 812 of the WAC. The proposed well would also have to be necessary, considering the mandatory Tomah water supply system (Tomah Ordinance Section 46-50). Permits are also considered an Enforcement and Permit Tool control.
Well head protection areas are delineated for all City of Tomah municipal wells. The City of Tomah enacted a Wellhead Protection Ordinance that prohibits the issuance of a well operation permit for a 200-foot radius around the Tomah Armory Site (Tomah Ordinance Section 46-531; Code 1993, § 13.37(3)).
Changes and amendments to zoning district designations are governed by Tomah Ordinance Section 52-256. City of Tomah Ordinances apply to parcels within the municipal boundaries. Copies of pertinent ordinances are available in Appendix D in the 2016 RA Report, Docket Document ID No. EPA-HQ-SFUND-1987-0002-0383 in the Docket.
The State of Wisconsin through the WAC specifies the regulations applicable to waters of the state and land use. WDNR regulates the design and operation of municipal water systems through Chapter NR 811 WAC. Section NR 811.06 WAC prohibits unprotected cross-connections and Section NR 811.07 WAC prohibits interconnections between public water supply systems and other sources of water unless permitted by WDNR.
Chapter NR 812 WAC regulates construction and installation of new and existing water systems and drill holes (excepting certain monitoring wells, community water systems, and nonpotable surface water systems). Section NR 812.08 WAC (Table A) specifies a minimum separation distance between potable and nonpotable wells, reservoirs, springs, and landfills. This distance is measured from the nearest fill area, if known, otherwise to the property line. The 1,200-foot set-back distance for the Tomah Armory Site is indicated on Figure 4 in the RA Report, Docket Document ID No. EPA-HQ-SFUND-1987-0002-0383 in the Docket.
Chapter NR 504 WAC regulates landfill location, performance, design, and construction. Specifically, Section NR 504.07(9) prohibits the use of covered landfill sites which are no longer in operation for agricultural use, the establishment of construction of any buildings over the waste disposal area, or excavation of the final cover of any waste materials. A copy of the relevant state regulations for the Tomah Armory Site is provided in Appendix E of the RA Report, Docket Document ID No. EPA-HQ-SFUND-1987-0002-0383 in the Docket.
Five Year Review
The Tomah Armory Site requires statutory five-year reviews (FYRs) because hazardous substances remain at the Tomah Armory Site above levels that allow for unrestricted use and unlimited exposure. EPA conducted FYRs of the Tomah Armory Site in 2001, 2006, 2011, and 2016.
EPA's most recent FYR of the Tomah Armory Site, in August 2016, determined that the remedy at the Tomah Armory Site is protective of human health and the environment. The remedy is functioning as intended, groundwater standards continue to be met, there has been compliance with groundwater and land use restrictions on the property, and no incompatible groundwater or land use has occurred at the Tomah Armory Site. ICs that restrict groundwater use and the disturbance of the cap and buried waste remain in place, and are effectively monitored and maintained through the implementation of the ICP, which includes a LTS Plan.
The FYR did not identify any issues or recommendations that would affect the current or future protectiveness of the remedy for the Tomah Armory Site. The most important tasks to continue are maintaining the landfill cover and ensuring that the ICs remain in place and are effective.
Finally, the FYR recommended deleting the Tomah Armory Site from the NPL.
EPA satisfied public participation activities for the Tomah Armory Site required in Sections 113(k) and 117 of CERCLA, 42 U.S.C. 9613(k) and 9617. EPA hosted a “kick-off” public meeting for the Tomah Armory Site in July 1993 at the Tomah City Hall Council Chambers. During the meeting, EPA informed local residents about the Tomah Armory Site, the Superfund process and the work to be performed as part of the RI.
EPA established an information repository for the Tomah Armory Site in 1993 at the Tomah Public Library, 716 Superior Avenue, Tomah, Wisconsin 54660. EPA maintains a copy of the administrative record documents for the Start Printed Page 63073Tomah Armory Site in the information repository and at EPA's Region 5 office.
EPA released the RI Report to the public in April 1997. EPA made its Proposed Plan for cleaning up the Tomah Armory Site available to the public on July 22, 1997. EPA held a public meeting on August 18, 1997 to discuss the RI and EPA's Proposed Plan. EPA placed advertisements in local newspapers announcing EPA's proposed cleanup plan for the Tomah Armory Site, the public meeting and the comment period.
EPA held a public comment period on its Proposed Plan from July 25, 1997 to August 25, 1997. The public generally supported the selected remedy. EPA considered the public comments received during the public meeting and public comment period prior to selecting a final remedy for the Tomah Armory Site in the ROD. EPA's responses to the comments received are included in a Responsiveness Summary, which is part of the ROD. EPA also placed a copy of the 2014 ESD in the information repositories for the Tomah Armory Site.
EPA placed advertisements announcing the FYRs for the Tomah Armory Site in local newspapers including the Tomah Monitor-Herald (November 27, 2006 and November 23, 2015), the Tomah Journal (November 30, 2006 and February 2011), and the Tri-County Foxxy Shopper East Edition (November 27, 2006). EPA made the results of the FYRs available at the Tomah Armory Site information repositories and at the following website: http://www.epa.gov/superfund/tomah-armory.
EPA arranged to publish an advertisement announcing the publication of this proposed direct final Notice of Deletion in the Tomah Journal prior to its publication in the Federal Register.
Documents in the deletion docket which EPA relied on to support the deletion of the Tomah Armory Site from the NPL are available to the public in the Tomah Armory Site information repositories and at http://www.regulations.gov.
Determination That the Tomah Armory Site Meets the Criteria for Deletion From the NCP
The February 7, 2018, Final Close Out Report (FCOR) documents that EPA, the WIARNG and the WDNR have successfully implemented all appropriate response actions at the Tomah Armory Site in accordance with the 1997 EPA Record of Decision (ROD), the 2014 EPA Explanation of Significant Differences (ESD) and the Guidance for Management of Superfund Remedies in Post Construction (OLEM Directive 9200.3-105, February 2017), and Close Out Procedures for National Priorities List Sites (OLEM Directive 9320.2-22, May, 2011).
Cleanup actions specified in the ROD and ESD for the Tomah Armory Site have been implemented and the Tomah Armory Site meets acceptable risk levels for all media and exposure pathways. The ongoing IC and LTS actions required at the Tomah Armory Site are consistent with EPA policy and guidance.
Groundwater sampling results confirm that the Tomah Armory Site does not pose any threat to human health or the environment. Therefore, the EPA has determined that no further Superfund response is necessary at the Tomah Armory Site to protect human health and the environment.
The NCP (40 CFR 300.425(e)) states that a site may be deleted from the NPL when no further response action is appropriate. EPA, in consultation with the State of Wisconsin, has determined that all required response actions have been implemented at the Tomah Armory Site and that no further response action by the responsible parties is appropriate.
V. Deletion Action
The EPA, with concurrence of the State of Wisconsin through the WDNR, has determined that all appropriate response actions under CERCLA, other than operation and maintenance, monitoring and five-year reviews have been completed. Therefore, EPA is deleting the Tomah Armory Site from the NPL.
Because EPA considers this action to be noncontroversial and routine, EPA is taking it without prior proposal. This action will be effective February 5, 2019 unless EPA receives adverse comments by January 7, 2019. If adverse comments are received within the 30-day public comment period, EPA will publish a timely withdrawal of this direct final notice of deletion before the effective date of the deletion, and it will not take effect. EPA will prepare a response to comments and continue with the deletion process on the basis of the notice of intent to delete and the comments already received. There will be no additional opportunity to comment.
Start List of Subjects
End List of Subjects
- Environmental protection
- Air pollution control
- Hazardous waste
- Hazardous substances
- Intergovernmental relations
- Reporting and recordkeeping requirements
- Water pollution control
- Water supply
Dated: October 30, 2018.
Regional Administrator, Region 5.
For the reasons set out in the preamble, 40 CFR part 300 is amended as follows:
PART 300—NATIONAL OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES POLLUTION CONTINGENCY PLAN
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1. The authority citation for part 300 continues to read as follows: End Amendment Part
Appendix B to Part 300—[Amended]
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2. Table 1 of Appendix B to part 300 is amended by removing the entry “WI”, “Tomah Armory”, “Tomah”. End Amendment Part
End Supplemental Information
[FR Doc. 2018-26486 Filed 12-6-18; 8:45 am]
BILLING CODE 6560-50-P