Skip to Content

We invite you to try out our new beta eCFR site at https://ecfr.federalregister.gov. We’ve made big changes to make the eCFR easier to use. Be sure to leave feedback using the 'Help' button on the bottom right of each page!

Rule

Medical Devices; Dental Devices; Classification of the Auto Titration Device for Oral Appliances

Document Details

Information about this document as published in the Federal Register.

Document Statistics
Document page views are updated periodically throughout the day and are cumulative counts for this document including its time on Public Inspection. Counts are subject to sampling, reprocessing and revision (up or down) throughout the day.
Enhanced Content

Relevant information about this document from Regulations.gov provides additional context. This information is not part of the official Federal Register document.

Published Document

This document has been published in the Federal Register. Use the PDF linked in the document sidebar for the official electronic format.

Start Preamble

AGENCY:

Food and Drug Administration, HHS.

ACTION:

Final order.

SUMMARY:

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is classifying the auto titration device for oral appliances into class II (special controls). The special controls that apply to the device type are identified in this order and will be part of the codified language for the auto titration device for oral appliances' classification. We are taking this action because we have determined that classifying the device into class II (special controls) will provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device. We believe this action will also enhance patients' access to beneficial innovative devices, in part by reducing regulatory burdens.

DATES:

This order is effective February 20, 2019. The classification was applicable on August 23, 2018.

Start Further Info

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:

Anita Belani, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Ave., Bldg. 66, Rm. G314, Silver Spring, MD 20993-0002, 301-796-3944, Anita.Belani@fda.hhs.gov.

End Further Info End Preamble Start Supplemental Information

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:

I. Background

Upon request, FDA has classified the auto titration device for oral appliances as class II (special controls), which we have determined will provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness. In addition, we believe this action will enhance patients' access to beneficial innovation, in part by reducing regulatory burdens by placing the device into a lower device class than the automatic class III assignment.

The automatic assignment of class III occurs by operation of law and without any action by FDA, regardless of the level of risk posed by the new device. Any device that was not in commercial distribution before May 28, 1976, is automatically classified as, and remains within, class III and requires premarket approval unless and until FDA takes an action to classify or reclassify the device (see 21 U.S.C. 360c(f)(1)). We refer to these devices as “postamendments devices” because they were not in commercial distribution prior to the date of enactment of the Medical Device Amendments of 1976, which amended the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act).

FDA may take a variety of actions in appropriate circumstances to classify or reclassify a device into class I or II. We may issue an order finding a new device to be substantially equivalent under section 513(i) of the FD&C Act (21 U.S.C. 360c(i)) to a predicate device that does not require premarket approval. We determine whether a new device is substantially equivalent to a predicate Start Printed Page 4999by means of the procedures for premarket notification under section 510(k) of the FD&C Act (21 U.S.C. 360(k)) and part 807 (21 CFR part 807).

FDA may also classify a device through “De Novo” classification, a common name for the process authorized under section 513(f)(2) of the FD&C Act. Section 207 of the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 (Pub. L. 105-115) established the first procedure for De Novo classification. Section 607 of the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act (Pub. L. 112-144) modified the De Novo application process by adding a second procedure. A device sponsor may utilize either procedure for De Novo classification.

Under the first procedure, the person submits a 510(k) for a device that has not previously been classified. After receiving an order from FDA classifying the device into class III under section 513(f)(1) of the FD&C Act, the person then requests a classification under section 513(f)(2).

Under the second procedure, rather than first submitting a 510(k) and then a request for classification, if the person determines that there is no legally marketed device upon which to base a determination of substantial equivalence, that person requests a classification under section 513(f)(2) of the FD&C Act.

Under either procedure for De Novo classification, FDA is required to classify the device by written order within 120 days. The classification will be according to the criteria under section 513(a)(1) of the FD&C Act. Although the device was automatically within class III, the De Novo classification is considered to be the initial classification of the device.

We believe this De Novo classification will enhance patients' access to beneficial innovation, in part by reducing regulatory burdens. When FDA classifies a device into class I or II via the De Novo process, the device can serve as a predicate for future devices of that type, including for 510(k)s (see 21 U.S.C. 360c(f)(2)(B)(i)). As a result, other device sponsors do not have to submit a De Novo request or premarket approval application to market a substantially equivalent device (see 21 U.S.C. 360c(i), defining “substantial equivalence”). Instead, sponsors can use the 510(k) process, when necessary, to market their device.

II. De Novo Classification

For this device, FDA issued an order on November 23, 2016, finding the MATRx plus not substantially equivalent to a predicate not subject to premarket approval application. Thus, the device remained in class III in accordance with section 513(f)(1) of the FD&C Act when we issued the order.

On December 21, 2017, Zephyr Sleep Technologies submitted a request for De Novo classification of the MATRx plus. FDA reviewed the request in order to classify the device under the criteria for classification set forth in section 513(a)(1) of the FD&C Act.

We classify devices into class II if general controls by themselves are insufficient to provide reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness, but there is sufficient information to establish special controls that, in combination with the general controls, provide reasonable assurance of the safety and effectiveness of the device for its intended use (see 21 U.S.C. 360c(a)(1)(B)). After review of the information submitted in the request, we determined that the device can be classified into class II with the establishment of special controls. FDA has determined that these special controls, in addition to the general controls, will provide reasonable assurance of the safety and effectiveness of the device.

Therefore, on August 23, 2018, FDA issued an order to the requester classifying the device into class II. FDA is codifying the classification of the device by adding 21 CFR 872.5571. We have named the generic type of device auto titration device for oral appliances, and it is identified as a prescription home use device that determines a target position to be used for a final oral appliance for the reduction of snoring and mild to moderate obstructive sleep apnea.

FDA has identified the following risks to health associated specifically with this type of device and the measures required to mitigate these risks in table 1.

Table 1—Auto Titration Device for Oral Appliances Risks and Mitigation Measures

Identified risksMitigation measures
Adverse tissue reactionBiocompatibility evaluation.
InfectionReprocessing validation and Labeling.
Intraoral/temporomandibular joint injury, irritation, or pain due to:Clinical performance testing; Human factors assessment; Non-clinical performance testing; Software verification, validation, and hazard analysis; Electrical safety testing; Electromagnetic compatibility testing; and Wireless coexistence testing.
• Use error
• Algorithm-directed positioning
• Interference with other devices
• Device electrical failure
Incorrect titration level due to use errorHuman factors assessment and Labeling.
Disruption of sleepLabeling.
Temporary change in bite or dentitionLabeling.

FDA has determined that special controls, in combination with the general controls, address these risks to health and provide reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness. For a device to fall within this classification, and thus avoid automatic classification in class III, it would have to comply with the special controls named in this final order. The necessary special controls appear in the regulation codified by this order. This device is subject to premarket notification requirements under section 510(k) of the FD&C Act.

At the time of classification, auto titration devices for oral appliances are for prescription use only. Prescription devices are exempt from the requirement for adequate directions for use for the layperson under section 502(f)(1) of the FD&C Act (21 U.S.C. 352(f)(1)) and 21 CFR 801.5, as long as the conditions of 21 CFR 801.109 are met (referring to 21 U.S.C. 352(f)(1)).

III. Analysis of Environmental Impact

The Agency has determined under 21 CFR 25.34(b) that this action is of a type that does not individually or cumulatively have a significant effect on Start Printed Page 5000the human environment. Therefore, neither an environmental assessment nor an environmental impact statement is required.

IV. Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995

This final order establishes special controls that refer to previously approved collections of information found in other FDA regulations and guidance. These collections of information are subject to review by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) under the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. 3501-3520). The collections of information in the guidance document “De Novo Classification Process (Evaluation of Automatic Class III Designation)” have been approved under OMB control number 0910-0844; the collections of information in 21 CFR part 820, regarding quality system regulation, have been approved under OMB control number 0910-0073; the collections of information in 21 CFR part 814, subparts A through E, regarding premarket approval, have been approved under OMB control number 0910-0231; the collections of information in part 807, subpart E, regarding premarket notification submissions, have been approved under OMB control number 0910-0120; and the collections of information in 21 CFR part 801, regarding labeling, have been approved under OMB control number 0910-0485.

Start List of Subjects

List of Subjects in 21 CFR Part 872

  • Medical devices
End List of Subjects

Therefore, under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and under authority delegated to the Commissioner of Food and Drugs, 21 CFR part 872 is amended as follows:

Start Part

PART 872—DENTAL DEVICES

End Part Start Amendment Part

1. The authority citation for part 872 continues to read as follows:

End Amendment Part Start Authority

Authority: 21 U.S.C. 351, 360, 360c, 360e, 360j, 360 l, 371.

End Authority Start Amendment Part

2. Add § 872.5571 to subpart F to read as follows:

End Amendment Part
Auto titration device for oral appliances.

(a) Identification. An auto-titration device for oral appliances is a prescription home use device that determines a target position to be used for a final oral appliance for the reduction of snoring and mild to moderate obstructive sleep apnea.

(b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The special controls for this device are:

(1) Clinical performance testing must evaluate the following:

(i) Performance characteristics of the algorithm; and

(ii) All adverse events.

(2) Non-clinical performance testing must demonstrate that the device performs as intended under anticipated conditions for use, including the following:

(i) Validation of the closed loop algorithm;

(ii) Mechanical integrity over the expected use life;

(iii) Characterization of maximum force, distance, and speed of device movement; and

(iv) Movement accuracy of intraoral components.

(3) Performance testing must demonstrate the wireless compatibility, electrical safety, and electromagnetic compatibility of the device in its intended use environment.

(4) Software verification, validation, and hazard analysis must be performed.

(5) The patient-contacting components of the device must be demonstrated to be biocompatible.

(6) Performance data must validate the reprocessing instructions for any reusable components.

(7) Patient labeling must include:

(i) Information on device use, including placement of sensors and mouthpieces;

(ii) A description of all alarms; and

(iii) Instructions for reprocessing any reusable components.

(8) A human factors assessment must evaluate simulated use of the device in a home use setting.

Start Signature

Dated: February 14, 2019.

Lowell J. Schiller,

Acting Associate Commissioner for Policy.

End Signature End Supplemental Information

[FR Doc. 2019-02824 Filed 2-19-19; 8:45 am]

BILLING CODE 4164-01-P