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Comptroller of the Currency

The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency was created February 25, 1863 (12 Stat. 665), as a bureau of the Department of the Treasury. Its primary mission is to regulate national banks. The Office is headed by the Comptroller, who is appointed for a 5-year term by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate.

The Office regulates national banks by its power to examine banks; approves or denies applications for new bank charters, branches, or mergers; takes enforcement action--such as bank closures--against banks that are not in compliance with laws and regulations; and issues rules, regulations, and interpretations on banking practices.

The Office supervises approximately 2,100 national banks, including their trust activities and overseas operations. Each bank is examined annually through a nationwide staff of approximately 1,900 bank examiners supervised in 4 district offices. The Office is independently funded through assessments of the assets of national banks.

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