Fluroxypyr; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions
This regulation establishes a time-limited tolerance for combined residues of fluroxypyr 1-methylheptyl ester and its metabolite fluroxypyr in or on onion. This action is in response to EPA's granting of an emergency exemption under section 18 of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) authorizing use of the pesticide on onion. This regulation establishes a maximum permissible level for residues of fluroxypyr 1-methylheptyl ester and its metabolite fluroxypyr in this food commodity. The tolerance will expire and is revoked on June 30, 2007.
Table of Contents Back to Top
- FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:
- SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:
- I. General Information
- A. Does this Action Apply to Me?
- B. How Can I Access Electronic Copies of this Document and Other Related Information?
- II. Background and Statutory Findings
- III. Emergency Exemption for Fluroxypyr 1-methylheptyl ester on onion and FFDCA Tolerances
- IV. Aggregate Risk Assessment and Determination of Safety
- A. Toxicological Endpoints
- B. Exposure Assessment
- C. Safety Factor for Infants and Children
- D. Aggregate Risks and Determination of Safety
- V. Other Considerations
- A. Analytical Enforcement Methodology
- B. International Residue Limits
- VI. Conclusion
- VII. Objections and Hearing Requests
- A. What Do I Need to Do to File an Objection or Request a Hearing?
- B. When Will the Agency Grant a Request for a Hearing?
- VIII. Statutory and Executive Order Reviews
- IX. Congressional Review Act
- List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 180
- PART 180—[AMENDED]
Tables Back to Top
- Table 1.—Summary of Toxicological Dose and Endpoints for Fluroxypyr for Use in Human Risk Assessment
- Table 2.—Aggregate Risk Assessment for Chronic (Non-Cancer) Exposure to Fluroxypyr 1-methylheptyl ester
- Table 3.—Aggregate Risk Assessment for Short-Term Exposure to Fluroxypyr 1-methylheptyl ester
- Table 4.—Aggregate Risk Assessment for Intermediate-Term Exposure to Fluroxypyr 1-methylheptyl ester
DATES: Back to Top
This regulation is effective January 26, 2005. Objections and requests for hearings must be received on or before March 28, 2005
ADDRESSES: Back to Top
To submit a written objection or hearing request follow the detailed instructions as provided in Unit VII. of the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION. EPA has established a docket for this action under Docket identification (ID) number OPP-2005-0008. All documents in the docket are listed in the EDOCKET index at http://www.epa.gov/edocket. Although listed in the index, some information is not publicly available, i.e., CBI or other information whose disclosure is restricted by statute. Certain other material, such as copyrighted material, is not placed on the Internet and will be publicly available only in hard copy form. Publicly available docket materials are available either electronically in EDOCKET or in hard copy at the Public Information and Records Integrity Branch (PIRIB), Rm. 119, Crystal Mall #2, 1801 S. Bell St., Arlington, VA. This docket facility is open from 8:30 a.m. to 4 p.m., Monday through Friday, excluding legal holidays. The docket telephone number is (703) 305-5805.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Back to Top
Barbara Madden, Registration Division (7505C), Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Washington, DC 20460-0001; telephone number: (703) 305-6463; e-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Back to Top
I. General Information Back to Top
A. Does this Action Apply to Me?
You may be potentially affected by this action if you are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer. Potentially affected entities may include, but are not limited to:
- Crop production (NAICS code 111)
- Animal production (NAICS code 112)
- Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311)
- Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS code 32532)
This listing is not intended to be exhaustive, but rather provides a guide for readers regarding entities likely to be affected by this action. Other types of entities not listed in this unit could also be affected. The North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS) codes have been provided to assist you and others in determining whether this action might apply to certain entities. To determine whether you or your business may be affected by this action, you should carefully examine the applicability provisions above. If you have any questions regarding the applicability of this action to a particular entity, consult the person listed under FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT.
B. How Can I Access Electronic Copies of this Document and Other Related Information?
In addition to using EDOCKET (http://www.epa.gov/edocket/), you may access this Federal Register document electronically through the EPA Internet under the “Federal Register” listings at http://www.epa.gov/fedrgstr/. A frequently updated electronic version of 40 CFR part 180 is available at E-CFR Beta Site Two at http://www.gpoaccess.gov/ecfr/.
II. Background and Statutory Findings Back to Top
EPA, on its own initiative, in accordance with sections 408(e) and 408(l)(6) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA), 21 U.S.C. 346a, is establishing a tolerance for combined residues of the herbicide fluroxypyr 1-methylheptyl ester 1-methylheptyl ((4-amino-3,5-dichloro-6-fluoro-2-pyridinyl)oxy)acetate and its metabolite fluroxypyr [((4-amino-3,5-dichloro-6-fluoro-2-pyridinyl)oxy)acetic acid], in or on onion at 0.02 parts per million (ppm). This tolerance will expire and is revoked on June 30, 2007. EPA will publish a document in the Federal Register to remove the revoked tolerance from the Code of Federal Regulations.
Section 408(l)(6) of the FFDCA requires EPA to establish a time-limited tolerance or exemption from the requirement for a tolerance for pesticide chemical residues in food that will result from the use of a pesticide under an emergency exemption granted by EPA under section 18 of FIFRA. Such tolerances can be established without providing notice or period for public comment. EPA does not intend for its actions on section 18 related tolerances to set binding precedents for the application of section 408 of the FFDCA and the new safety standard to other tolerances and exemptions. Section 408(e) of the FFDCA allows EPA to establish a tolerance or an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance on its own initiative, i.e., without having received any petition from an outside party.
Section 408(b)(2)(A)(i) of the FFDCA allows EPA to establish a tolerance (the legal limit for a pesticide chemical residue in or on a food) only if EPA determines that the tolerance is “safe.” Section 408(b)(2)(A)(ii) of the FFDCA defines “safe” to mean that “there is a reasonable certainty that no harm will result from aggregate exposure to the pesticide chemical residue, including all anticipated dietary exposures and all other exposures for which there is reliable information.” This includes exposure through drinking water and in residential settings, but does not include occupational exposure. Section 408(b)(2)(C) of the FFDCA requires EPA to give special consideration to exposure of infants and children to the pesticide chemical residue in establishing a tolerance and to “ensure that there is a reasonable certainty that no harm will result to infants and children from aggregate exposure to the pesticide chemical residue. . . .”
Section 18 of the FIFRA authorizes EPA to exempt any Federal or State agency from any provision of FIFRA, if EPA determines that “emergency conditions exist which require such exemption.” This provision was not amended by the Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 (FQPA). EPA has established regulations governing such emergency exemptions in 40 CFR part 166.
III. Emergency Exemption for Fluroxypyr 1-methylheptyl ester on onion and FFDCA Tolerances Back to Top
According to the State of Colorado, due to a long string of mild winters, volunteer potatoes have become a more important problem. They are especially difficult to control in onions, and due to the noncompetitive nature of onions versus the large vigorous growth of volunteer potatoes, they result in very large yield reductions if not controlled. None of the currently registered herbicides for onions provide acceptable control of volunteer potatoes. EPA has authorized under FIFRA section 18 the use of fluroxypyr 1-methylheptyl ester on onion for control of volunteer potatoes in Colorado. After having reviewed the submission, EPA concurs that emergency conditions exist for this State.
As part of its assessment of this emergency exemption, EPA assessed the potential risks presented by residues of fluroxypyr 1-methylheptyl ester in or on onion. In doing so, EPA considered the safety standard in section 408(b)(2) of the FFDCA, and EPA decided that the necessary tolerance under section 408(l)(6) of the FFDCA would be consistent with the safety standard and with FIFRA section 18. Consistent with the need to move quickly on the emergency exemption in order to address an urgent non-routine situation and to ensure that the resulting food is safe and lawful, EPA is issuing this tolerance without notice and opportunity for public comment as provided in section 408(l)(6) of the FFDCA. Although this tolerance will expire and is revoked on June 30, 2007, under section 408(l)(5) of the FFDCA, residues of the pesticide not in excess of the amounts specified in the tolerance remaining in or on onion after that date will not be unlawful, provided the pesticide is applied in a manner that was lawful under FIFRA, and the residues do not exceed a level that was authorized by this tolerance at the time of that application. EPA will take action to revoke this tolerance earlier if any experience with, scientific data on, or other relevant information on this pesticide indicate that the residues are not safe.
Because this tolerance is being approved under emergency conditions, EPA has not made any decisions about whether fluroxypyr 1-methylheptyl ester meets EPA's registration requirements for use on onion or whether a permanent tolerance for this use would be appropriate. Under these circumstances, EPA does not believe that this tolerance serves as a basis for registration of fluroxypyr 1-methylheptyl ester by a State for special local needs under FIFRA section 24(c). Nor does this tolerance serve as the basis for any State other than Colorado to use this pesticide on this crop under section 18 of FIFRA without following all provisions of EPA's regulations implementing FIFRA section 18 as identified in 40 CFR part 166. For additional information regarding the emergency exemption for fluroxypyr 1-methylheptyl ester, contact the Agency's Registration Division at the address provided under FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT.
IV. Aggregate Risk Assessment and Determination of Safety Back to Top
EPA performs a number of analyses to determine the risks from aggregate exposure to pesticide residues. For further discussion of the regulatory requirements of section 408 of the FFDCA and a complete description of the risk assessment process, see the final rule on Bifenthrin Pesticide Tolerances (62 FR 62961, November 26, 1997) (FRL-5754-7).
Consistent with section 408(b)(2)(D) of the FFDCA, EPA has reviewed the available scientific data and other relevant information in support of this action. EPA has sufficient data to assess the hazards of fluroxypyr 1-methylheptyl ester and to make a determination on aggregate exposure, consistent with section 408(b)(2) of the FFDCA, for a time-limited tolerance for combined residues of fluroxypyr 1-methylheptyl ester in or on onion at 0.02 ppm. EPA's assessment of the dietary exposures and risks associated with establishing the tolerance follows.
A. Toxicological Endpoints
The dose at which no adverse effects are observed (the NOAEL) from the toxicology study identified as appropriate for use in risk assessment is used to estimate the toxicological endpoint. However, the lowest dose at which adverse effects of concern are identified (the LOAEL) is sometimes used for risk assessment if no NOAEL was achieved in the toxicology study selected. An uncertainty factor (UF) is applied to reflect uncertainties inherent in the extrapolation from laboratory animal data to humans and in the variations in sensitivity among members of the human population as well as other unknowns. An UF of 100 is routinely used, 10X to account for interspecies differences and 10X for intraspecies differences.
For dietary risk assessment (other than cancer) the Agency uses the UF to calculate an acute or chronic reference dose (acute RfD or chronic RfD) where the RfD is equal to the NOAEL divided by the appropriate UF (RfD = NOAEL/UF). Where an additional safety factor is retained due to concerns unique to the FQPA, this additional factor is applied to the RfD by dividing the RfD by such additional factor. The acute or chronic Population Adjusted Dose (aPAD or cPAD) is a modification of the RfD to accommodate this type of FQPA SF.
For non-dietary risk assessments (other than cancer) the UF is used to determine the level of concern (LOC). For example, when 100 is the appropriate UF (10X to account for interspecies differences and 10X for intraspecies differences) the LOC is 100. To estimate risk, a ratio of the NOAEL to exposures (margin of exposure (MOE) = NOAEL/exposure) is calculated and compared to the LOC.
The linear default risk methodology (Q*) is the primary method currently used by the Agency to quantify carcinogenic risk. The Q* approach assumes that any amount of exposure will lead to some degree of cancer risk. A Q* is calculated and used to estimate risk which represents a probability of occurrence of additional cancer cases (e.g., risk is expressed as 1 x10 -  or one in a million). Under certain specific circumstances, MOE calculations will be used for the carcinogenic risk assessment. In this non-linear approach, a “point of departure” is identified below which carcinogenic effects are not expected. The point of departure is typically a NOAEL based on an endpoint related to cancer effects though it may be a different value derived from the dose response curve. To estimate risk, a ratio of the point of departure to exposure (MOE cancer= point of departure/exposures) is calculated. A summary of the toxicological endpoints for fluroxypyr 1-methylheptyl ester used for human risk assessment is shown in the following Table 1:
|Exposure Scenario||Dose Used in Risk Assessment, UF||FQPA SF* and LOC for Risk Assessment||Study and Toxicological Effects|
|* The reference to the FQPA SF refers to any additional SF retained due to concerns unique to the FQPA.|
|Acute dietary (All populations)||None||None||No effects were observed in oral toxicity studies (including developmental studies), which could be attributed to a single-dose exposure.|
|Chronic dietary (All populations)||NOAEL = 100 mg/kg/day UF = 100 Chronic RfD = 1 mg/kg/day||FQPA SF = 1x cPAD = chronic RfD ÷ FQPA SF = 1 mg/kg/day||Chronic/oncogenicity - Rat LOAEL = 100 mg/kg/day based on kidney effects.|
|Short-term Incidental oral (1-30 days)||NOAEL = 100 mg/kg/day||Residential LOC for MOE = 100 Occupational = NA||Chronic/oncogenicity - Rat LOAEL = 100 mg/kg/day based on kidney effects.|
|Intermediate-term Incidental oral (1-6 months)||NOAEL= 100 mg/kg/day||Residential LOC for MOE = 100 Occupational = NA||Chronic/oncogenicity - Rat LOAEL = 100 mg/kg/day based on kidney effects.|
|Dermal (All durations)||Dermal (or oral) study NOAEL = NA||Residential LOC for MOE = NA Occupational LOC for MOE = NA||Quantification not required since 21-day dermal Rabbit NOAEL = 1,000 mg/kg/day and there is no developmental toxicity concern.|
|Inhalation (All durations)||Inhalation (or oral) study NOAEL= 100 mg/kg/day (inhalation absorption rate = 100%)||Residential LOC for MOE = 100 Occupational LOC for MOE = 100||Chronic/oncogenicity - Rat LOAEL = 100 mg/kg/day based on kidney effects.|
|Cancer (oral, dermal, inhalation)||Fluroxypyr is classified as a “not likely” human carcinogen.|
B. Exposure Assessment
1. Dietary exposure from food and feed uses. Tolerances have been established (40 CFR 180.535) for the combined residues of fluroxypyr 1-methylheptyl ester and its metabolite fluroxypyr, in or on a variety of raw agricultural commodities including barley, corn, grass, oats, sorghum, wheat, milk, and meat, kidney, meat byproducts and fat of cattle, goat, hog, horse, and sheep. Risk assessments were conducted by EPA to assess dietary exposures from fluroxypyr 1-methylheptyl ester in food as follows:
i. Acute exposure. Quantitative Acute dietary risk assessments are performed for a food-use pesticide if a toxicological study has indicated the possibility of an effect of concern occurring as a result of a one day or single exposure. There were no toxic effects attributable to a single dose. Therefore, an endpoint of concern was not identified to quantitate acute-dietary risk to the general population or to the subpopulation females 13-50 years old. As a result, no acute risk is expected from exposure to fluroxypyr and hence no quantitative acute dietary risk assessment was performed.
ii. Chronic exposure. In conducting this chronic dietary risk assessment EPA used the Dietary Exposure Evaluation Model software with the Food Commodity Intake Database (DEEM-FCID [TM] , version 1.3) which incorporates food consumption data as reported by respondents in the USDA 1994-1996 and 1998 nationwide Continuing Surveys of Food Intake by Individuals (CSFII) and accumulated exposure to the chemical for each commodity. The following assumptions were made: an unrefined, Tier 1 chronic-dietary exposure assessment using tolerance-level residues and assuming 100% crop treated (CT) for all commodities, and default processing factors for all commodities.
iii. Cancer. Fluroxypyr has been classified as not likely to be carcinogenic to humans. Therefore, a quantitative exposure assessment was not conducted to assess cancer risk.
2. Dietary exposure from drinking water. The Agency lacks sufficient monitoring exposure data to complete a comprehensive dietary exposure analysis and risk assessment for fluroxypyr 1-methylheptyl ester in drinking water. Because the Agency does not have comprehensive monitoring data, drinking water concentration estimates are made by reliance on simulation or modeling taking into account data on the physical characteristics of fluroxypyr 1-methylheptyl ester.
The Agency uses the Generic Estimated Environmental Concentration (GENEEC) or the Pesticide Root Zone/Exposure Analysis Modeling System (PRZM/EXAMS) to estimate pesticide concentrations in surface water and SCI-GROW, which predicts pesticide concentrations in ground water. In general, EPA will use GENEEC (a Tier 1 model) before using PRZM/EXAMS (a Tier 2 model) for a screening-level assessment for surface water. The GENEEC model is a subset of the PRZM/EXAMS model that uses a specific high-end runoff scenario for pesticides. GENEEC incorporates a farm pond scenario, while PRZM/EXAMS incorporate an index reservoir environment in place of the previous pond scenario. The PRZM/EXAMS model includes a percent crop area factor as an adjustment to account for the maximum percent crop coverage within a watershed or drainage basin.
None of these models include consideration of the impact processing (mixing, dilution, or treatment) of raw water for distribution as drinking water would likely have on the removal of pesticides from the source water. The primary use of these models by the Agency at this stage is to provide a coarse screen for sorting out pesticides for which it is highly unlikely that drinking water concentrations would ever exceed human health levels of concern.
Since the models used are considered to be screening tools in the risk assessment process, the Agency does not use estimated environmental concentrations (EECs) from these models to quantify drinking water exposure and risk as a %RfD or %PAD. Instead drinking water levels of comparison (DWLOCs) are calculated and used as a point of comparison against the model estimates of a pesticide's concentration in water. DWLOCs are theoretical upper limits on a pesticide's concentration in drinking water in light of total aggregate exposure to a pesticide in food, and from residential uses. Since DWLOCs address total aggregate exposure to fluroxypyr 1-methylheptyl ester they are further discussed in the aggregate risk sections below.
Based on the GENEEC and SCI-GROW models the estimated environmental concentrations (EECs) of fluroxypyr 1-methylheptyl ester for chronic exposures are estimated to be 1.6 ppb for surface water and 0.017 ppb for ground water.
3. From non-dietary exposure. The term “residential exposure” is used in this document to refer to non-occupational, non-dietary exposure (e.g., for lawn and garden pest control, indoor pest control, termiticides, and flea and tick control on pets). Fluroxypyr is currently registered for use on the following residential non-dietary sites: Residential turfgrass and recreational sites such as golf courses and sports fields. The risk assessment was conducted using the following residential exposure assumptions: Adults and children may be exposed to fluroxypyr residues from dermal contact with turf during postapplication activities. Toddlers may receive short- and intermediate-term oral exposure from incidental ingestion during postapplication activities. Residential handlers may receive short-term dermal and inhalation exposure to fluroxypyr when mixing, loading and applying the formulations.
4. Cumulative exposure to substances with a common mechanism of toxicity. Section 408(b)(2)(D)(v) of the FFDCA requires that, when considering whether to establish, modify, or revoke a tolerance, the Agency consider “available information” concerning the cumulative effects of a particular pesticide's residues and “other substances that have a common mechanism of toxicity.”
EPA does not have, at this time, available data to determine whether fluroxypyr 1-methylheptyl ester has a common mechanism of toxicity with other substances or how to include this pesticide in a cumulative risk assessment. Unlike other pesticides for which EPA has followed a cumulative risk approach based on a common mechanism of toxicity, fluroxypyr 1-methylheptyl ester does not appear to produce a toxic metabolite produced by other substances. For the purposes of this tolerance action, therefore, EPA has not assumed that fluroxypyr 1-methylheptyl ester has a common mechanism of toxicity with other substances. For information regarding EPA's efforts to determine which chemicals have a common mechanism of toxicity and to evaluate the cumulative effects of such chemicals, see the final rule for Bifenthrin Pesticide Tolerances (62 FR 62961, November 26, 1997).
C. Safety Factor for Infants and Children
1. In general. Section 408 of the FFDCA provides that EPA shall apply an additional tenfold margin of safety for infants and children in the case of threshold effects to account for prenatal and postnatal toxicity and the completeness of the data base on toxicity and exposure unless EPA determines that a different margin of safety will be safe for infants and children. Margins of safety are incorporated into EPA risk assessments either directly through use of a MOE analysis or through using uncertainty (safety) factors in calculating a dose level that poses no appreciable risk to humans.
2. Developmental toxicity studies. In a prenatal developmental study in rats the Maternal NOAEL is 300 mg/kg/day and the LOAEL is 600 mg/kg/day based on increased maternal deaths and decreased body weight gains and food consumption. The Developmental NOAEL is 600 mg/kg/day and a LOAEL was not established.
In a prenatal developmental study in rabbits the Maternal NOAEL is 500 mg/kg/day and the LOAEL is 1,000 mg/kg/day based on increased abortions. The Developmental NOAEL is 500 mg/kg/day and the LOAEL is 1,000 mg/kg/day based on increased abortions.
3. Reproductive toxicity study. In a reproduction and fertility study the Parental/Systemic NOAEL is 100 mg/kg/day effects (Males) and 500 mg/kg/day (Females) with a LOAEL of 500 mg/kg/day (Males) / 1,000 mg/kg/ day (Females), based on kidney effects in males and females and increased deaths in females. The Reproductive NOAEL is 750 mg/kg/day for males and 1,000 mg/kg/day for females. A LOAEL was not established. Offspring NOAEL is 500 mg/kg/day and the LOAEL is 1,000 mg/kg/day based on decreased pup weight and body weight gain and slightly lower survival.
4. Prenatal and postnatal sensitivity. There is no evidence of increased susceptibility of rat or rabbit fetuses following in utero exposure in the developmental studies with fluroxypyr. There is no evidence of increased susceptibility of rats in the reproduction study with fluroxypyr. EPA concluded there are no residual uncertainties for prenatal and/or postnatal exposure.
5. Conclusion. There is a complete toxicity data base for fluroxypyr and exposure data are complete or are estimated based on data that reasonably accounts for potential exposures. EPA determined that the 10X SF to protect infants and children should be removed and instead, a different additional safety factor of 1X should be used. The FQPA factor is removed because: There is no evidence (quantitative/ qualitative) of increased susceptibility following in utero exposure to the acid and the ester of fluroxypyr in rats and rabbits, or following pre and/or postnatal exposure to the acid of fluroxypyr in rats; there are no concerns or residual uncertainties for pre- and/or post-natal toxicity; there is no evidence of neurotoxicity or neuropathology in the available studies; the toxicological database is complete for FQPA assessment; the chronic dietary food exposure assessment utilizes tolerance level residue estimates and assumes 100% CT for all commodities, thus not likely to underestimate exposure/risk; the dietary drinking water assessment utilizes water concentration values generated by model and associated modeling parameters which are designed to provide conservative, health protective, high-end estimates of water concentrations which will not likely be exceeded; and the residential exposure assessment was conducted using standard assumptions which are based on carefully reviewed data.
D. Aggregate Risks and Determination of Safety
To estimate total aggregate exposure to a pesticide from food, drinking water, and residential uses, the Agency calculates DWLOCs which are used as a point of comparison against the model estimates of a pesticide's concentration in water (EECs). DWLOC values are not regulatory standards for drinking water. DWLOCs are theoretical upper limits on a pesticide's concentration in drinking water in light of total aggregate exposure to a pesticide in food and residential uses. In calculating a DWLOC, the Agency determines how much of the acceptable exposure (i.e., the PAD) is available for exposure through drinking water [e.g., allowable chronic water exposure (mg/kg/day) = cPAD - (average food + chronic non-dietary, non-occupational exposure)]. This allowable exposure through drinking water is used to calculate a DWLOC.
A DWLOC will vary depending on the toxic endpoint, drinking water consumption, and body weights. Default body weights and consumption values as used by the USEPA Office of Water are used to calculate DWLOCs: 2 liter (L)/70 kg (adult male), 2L/60 kg (adult female), and 1L/10 kg (child). Default body weights and drinking water consumption values vary on an individual basis. This variation will be taken into account in more refined screening-level and quantitative drinking water exposure assessments. Different populations will have different DWLOCs. Generally, a DWLOC is calculated for each type of risk assessment used: Acute, short-term, intermediate-term, chronic, and cancer.
When EECs for surface water and ground water are less than the calculated DWLOCs, EPA concludes with reasonable certainty that exposures to fluroxypyr 1-methylheptyl ester in drinking water (when considered along with other sources of exposure for which EPA has reliable data) would not result in unacceptable levels of aggregate human health risk at this time. Because EPA considers the aggregate risk resulting from multiple exposure pathways associated with a pesticide's uses, levels of comparison in drinking water may vary as those uses change. If new uses are added in the future, EPA will reassess the potential impacts of fluroxypyr 1-methylheptyl ester on drinking water as a part of the aggregate risk assessment process.
1. Acute risk. An endpoint of concern was not identified to quantitate acute-dietary risk to the general population or to the subpopulation females 13-50 years old. As a result, no acute risk is expected from exposure to fluroxypyr.
2. Chronic risk. Using the exposure assumptions described in this unit for chronic exposure, EPA has concluded that exposure to fluroxypyr from food will utilize 1% of the cPAD for the U.S. population, 1% of the cPAD for all infants, and 2% of the cPAD for children (1-2 years old), the subpopulation at greatest exposure. Based upon the use pattern, chronic (non-dietary) residential exposure to residues of fluroxypyr is not expected.In addition, there is potential for chronic dietary exposure to fluroxypyr in drinking water. After calculating DWLOCs and comparing them to the EECs for surface water and ground water, EPA does not expect the aggregate exposure to exceed 100% of the cPAD, as shown in Table 2 of this unit.
|Population Subgroup||cPAD mg/kg/day||%cPAD (Food)||Surface Water EEC (ppb)||Ground Water EEC (ppb)||Chronic DWLOC (ppb)|
|Children (1-2 years old)||1||2%||1.6||0.017||9,900|
3. Short-term risk. Short-term aggregate exposure takes into account residential exposure plus chronic exposure to food and water (considered to be a background exposure level). Fluroxypyr is currently registered for use that could result in short-term residential exposure and the Agency has determined that it is appropriate to aggregate chronic food and water and short-term exposures for fluroxypyr. Using the exposure assumptions described in this unit for short-term exposures, EPA has concluded that food and residential exposures aggregated result in aggregate MOEs of 31,000 for the U.S. population and 4,500 for children (1-2 years old). These aggregate MOEs do not exceed the Agency's LOC for aggregate exposure to food and residential uses. In addition, short-term DWLOCs were calculated and compared to the EECs for chronic exposure of fluroxypyr in ground water and surface water. After calculating DWLOCs and comparing them to the EECs for surface water and ground water, EPA does not expect short-term aggregate exposure to exceed the Agency's LOC, as shown in Table 3.
|Population Subgroup||Aggregate MOE (Food + Residential)||Aggregate LOC||Surface Water EEC (ppb)||Ground Water EEC (ppb)||Short-Term DWLOC (ppb)|
|Children (1-2 years old)||4,500||100||1.6||0.017||4,500|
4. Intermediate-term risk. Intermediate-term aggregate exposure takes into account residential exposure plus chronic exposure to food and water (considered to be a background exposure level). Fluroxypyr is currently registered for use(s) that could result in intermediate-term residential exposure and the Agency has determined that it is appropriate to aggregate chronic food and water and intermediate-term exposures for fluroxypyr. Using the exposure assumptions described in this unit for intermediate-term exposures, EPA has concluded that food and residential exposures aggregated result in aggregate MOEs of 31,000 for the U.S. population and 4,500 for children (1-2 years old). These aggregate MOEs do not exceed the Agency's LOC for aggregate exposure to food and residential uses. In addition, intermediate-term DWLOCs were calculated and compared to the EECs for chronic exposure of fluroxypyr in ground water and surface water. After calculating DWLOCs and comparing them to the EECs for surface water and ground water, EPA does not expect intermediate-term aggregate exposure to exceed the Agency's LOC, as shown in Table 4. of this unit:
|Population Subgroup||Aggregate MOE (Food + Residential)||Aggregate LOC||Surface Water EEC (ppb)||Ground Water EEC (ppb)||Short-Term DWLOC (ppb)|
|Children (1-2 years old)||4,500||100||1.6||0.017||4,500|
5. Aggregate cancer risk for U.S. population. Fluroxypyr has been classified as not likely to be carcinogenic to humans. Therefore, fluroxypyr is expected to pose at most a negligible cancer risk.
6. Determination of safety. Based on these risk assessments, EPA concludes that there is a reasonable certainty that no harm will result to the general population, and to infants and children from aggregate exposure to fluroxypyr 1-methylheptyl ester residues.
V. Other Considerations Back to Top
A. Analytical Enforcement Methodology
The gas chromatography/mass selective detector (GC/MSD) enforcement method, submitted by Dow AgroSciences LLC, has been validated for the determination of residues of fluroxypyr and fluroxypyr 1-MHE as the acid equivalent in plant commodities. The method for livestock commodities has been validated for the determination of residues of fluroxypyr and fluroxypyr 1-MHE in cow milk and liver. The proposed plant and animal method is adequate for enforcement of tolerances in/on field corn, sweet corn, sorghum, range and pasture grass, and animal commodities as a result of this use. Fluroxypyr has been tested through the FDAs Multiresidue Methodology, Protocols C, D, and E. The results have been published in the FDA Pesticide Analytical Manual, Volume I.
B. International Residue Limits
There is neither a Codex proposal, nor Canadian or Mexican limits, for residues of fluroxypyr in/on onion. Harmonization is not an issue for this time-limited tolerance.
VI. Conclusion Back to Top
Therefore, the tolerance is established for combined residues of fluroxypyr 1-methylheptyl ester, fluroxypyr 1-methylheptyl ester [1-methylheptyl ((4-amino-3,5-dichloro-6-fluoro-2pyridinyl)oxy)acetate and its metabolite fluroxypyr [((4-amino-3,5-dichloro-6-fluoro-2-pyridinyl)oxy)acetic acid], in or on onion at 0.02 ppm.
VII. Objections and Hearing Requests Back to Top
Under section 408(g) of the FFDCA, as amended by the FQPA, any person may file an objection to any aspect of this regulation and may also request a hearing on those objections. The EPA procedural regulations which govern the submission of objections and requests for hearings appear in 40 CFR part 178. Although the procedures in those regulations require some modification to reflect the amendments made to the FFDCA by the FQPA, EPA will continue to use those procedures, with appropriate adjustments, until the necessary modifications can be made. The new section 408(g) of the FFDCA provides essentially the same process for persons to “object” to a regulation for an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance issued by EPA under new section 408(d) of the FFDCA, as was provided in the old sections 408 and 409 of the FFDCA. However, the period for filing objections is now 60 days, rather than 30 days.
A. What Do I Need to Do to File an Objection or Request a Hearing?
You must file your objection or request a hearing on this regulation in accordance with the instructions provided in this unit and in 40 CFR part 178. To ensure proper receipt by EPA, you must identify docket ID number OPP-2005-0008 in the subject line on the first page of your submission. All requests must be in writing, and must be mailed or delivered to the Hearing Clerk on or before March 28, 2005.
1. Filing the request. Your objection must specify the specific provisions in the regulation that you object to, and the grounds for the objections (40 CFR 178.25). If a hearing is requested, the objections must include a statement of the factual issues(s) on which a hearing is requested, the requestor's contentions on such issues, and a summary of any evidence relied upon by the objector (40 CFR 178.27). Information submitted in connection with an objection or hearing request may be claimed confidential by marking any part or all of that information as CBI. Information so marked will not be disclosed except in accordance with procedures set forth in 40 CFR part 2. A copy of the information that does not contain CBI must be submitted for inclusion in the public record. Information not marked confidential may be disclosed publicly by EPA without prior notice.
Mail your written request to: Office of the Hearing Clerk (1900L), Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Washington, DC 20460-0001. You may also deliver your request to the Office of the Hearing Clerk in Suite 350, 1099 14th St., NW., Washington, DC 20005. The Office of the Hearing Clerk is open from 8 a.m. to 4 p.m., Monday through Friday, excluding legal holidays. The telephone number for the Office of the Hearing Clerk is (202) 564-6255.
2. Copies for the Docket. In addition to filing an objection or hearing request with the Hearing Clerk as described in Unit VII.A., you should also send a copy of your request to the PIRIB for its inclusion in the official record that is described in ADDRESSES. Mail your copies, identified by the docket ID number OPP-2005-0008, to: Public Information and Records Integrity Branch, Information Resources and Services Division (7502C), Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Washington, DC 20460-0001. In person or by courier, bring a copy to the location of the PIRIB described in ADDRESSES. You may also send an electronic copy of your request via e-mail to: email@example.com. Please use an ASCII file format and avoid the use of special characters and any form of encryption. Copies of electronic objections and hearing requests will also be accepted on disks in WordPerfect 6.1/8.0 or ASCII file format. Do not include any CBI in your electronic copy. You may also submit an electronic copy of your request at many Federal Depository Libraries.
B. When Will the Agency Grant a Request for a Hearing?
A request for a hearing will be granted if the Administrator determines that the material submitted shows the following: There is a genuine and substantial issue of fact; there is a reasonable possibility that available evidence identified by the requestor would, if established resolve one or more of such issues in favor of the requestor, taking into account uncontested claims or facts to the contrary; and resolution of the factual issues(s) in the manner sought by the requestor would be adequate to justify the action requested (40 CFR 178.32).
VIII. Statutory and Executive Order Reviews Back to Top
This final rule establishes a time-limited tolerance under section 408 of the FFDCA. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has exempted these types of actions from review under Executive Order 12866, entitled Regulatory Planning and Review (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993). Because this rule has been exempted from review under Executive Order 12866 due to its lack of significance, this rule is not subject to Executive Order 13211, Actions Concerning Regulations That Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use (66 FR 28355, May 22, 2001). This final rule does not contain any information collections subject to OMB approval under the Paperwork Reduction Act (PRA), 44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq., or impose any enforceable duty or contain any unfunded mandate as described under Title II of the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995 (UMRA) (Public Law 104-4). Nor does it require any special considerations under Executive Order 12898, entitled Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations (59 FR 7629, February 16, 1994); or OMB review or any Agency action under Executive Order 13045, entitled Protection of Children from Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks (62 FR 19885, April 23, 1997). This action does not involve any technical standards that would require Agency consideration of voluntary consensus standards pursuant to section 12(d) of the National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995 (NTTAA), Public Law 104-113, section 12(d) (15 U.S.C. 272 note). Since tolerances and exemptions that are established on the basis of a FIFRA section 18 exemption under section 408 of the FFDCA, such as the [tolerance in this final rule, do not require the issuance of a proposed rule, the requirements of the Regulatory Flexibility Act (RFA) (5 U.S.C. 601 et seq.) do not apply. In addition, the Agency has determined that this action will not have a substantial direct effect on States, on the relationship between the national government and the States, or on the distribution of power and responsibilities among the various levels of government, as specified in Executive Order 13132, entitled Federalism (64 FR 43255, August 10, 1999). Executive Order 13132 requires EPA to develop an accountable process to ensure “meaningful and timely input by State and local officials in the development of regulatory policies that have federalism implications.” “Policies that have federalism implications” is defined in the Executive Order to include regulations that have “substantial direct effects on the States, on the relationship between the national government and the States, or on the distribution of power and responsibilities among the various levels of government.” This final rule directly regulates growers, food processors, food handlers, and food retailers, not States. This action does not alter the relationships or distribution of power and responsibilities established by Congress in the preemption provisions of section 408(n)(4) of the FFDCA. For these same reasons, the Agency has determined that this rule does not have any “tribal implications” as described in Executive Order 13175, entitled Consultation and Coordination with Indian Tribal Governments (65 FR 67249, November 6, 2000). Executive Order 13175, requires EPA to develop an accountable process to ensure “meaningful and timely input by tribal officials in the development of regulatory policies that have tribal implications.” “Policies that have tribal implications” is defined in the Executive Order to include regulations that have “substantial direct effects on one or more Indian tribes, on the relationship between the Federal Government and the Indian tribes, or on the distribution of power and responsibilities between the Federal Government and Indian tribes.” This rule will not have substantial direct effects on tribal governments, on the relationship between the Federal Government and Indian tribes, or on the distribution of power and responsibilities between the Federal Government and Indian tribes, as specified in Executive Order 13175. Thus, Executive Order 13175 does not apply to this rule.
IX. Congressional Review Act Back to Top
The Congressional Review Act, 5 U.S.C. 801 et seq., as added by the Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act of 1996, generally provides that before a rule may take effect, the agency promulgating the rule must submit a rule report, which includes a copy of the rule, to each House of the Congress and to the Comptroller General of the United States. EPA will submit a report containing this rule and other required information to the U.S. Senate, the U.S. House of Representatives, and the Comptroller General of the United States prior to publication of this final rule in the Federal Register. This final rule is not a “major rule” as defined by 5 U.S.C. 804(2).
Dated: January 14, 2005.
Acting Director, Registration Division, Office of Pesticide Programs.
Therefore, 40 CFR chapter I is amended as follows:
PART 180—[AMENDED] Back to Top
1.The authority citation for part 180 continues to read as follows:
2. Section 180.535 is amended by alphabetically adding a commodity to the table in paragraph (b) to read as follows:
§ 180.535 Fluroxypyr 1-methylheptyl ester; tolerances for residues.
|Commodity||Parts per million||Expiration/revocation date|
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[FR Doc. 05-1440 Filed 1-25-05; 8:45 am]
BILLING CODE 6560-50-S