California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Ocean-Going Vessels At-Berth in California Ports; Opportunity for Public Hearing and Comment
Notice Of Opportunity For Public Hearing And Comment.
The California Air Resources Board (CARB) has notified EPA that it has adopted airborne toxic control measures for auxiliary diesel engines operated on ocean-going vessels at-berth in California ports (“At-Berth Regulation”). The At-Berth Regulation is designed to reduce emissions of oxides of nitrogen and particulate matter from auxiliary diesel engines on container vessels, passenger vessels and refrigerated cargo vessels while they are docked at specified California ports. CARB has requested that EPA grant a new full authorization pursuant to Clean Air Act section 209(e) for this regulation. This notice announces that EPA has tentatively scheduled a public hearing to consider California's At-Berth Regulation, and that EPA is now accepting written comment on the request.
Table of Contents Back to Top
DATES: Back to Top
EPA has tentatively scheduled a public hearing concerning CARB's request on July 21, 2011, at 10 a.m. EST. EPA will hold a hearing only if any party notifies EPA by July 15, 2011, expressing its interest in presenting oral testimony. Parties wishing to present oral testimony at the public hearing should provide written notice to Kristien Knapp at the e-mail address noted below. If EPA receives a request for a public hearing, that hearing will be held at 1310 L Street, NW., Washington, DC 20005. If EPA does not receive a request for a public hearing, then EPA will not hold a hearing, and instead consider CARB's request based on written submissions to the docket. Any party may submit written comments until August 22, 2011.
By July 20, 2011, any person who plans to attend the hearing may call Ryan G. Rudich at (202) 343-9188, to learn if a hearing will be held.
ADDRESSES: Back to Top
Submit your comments, identified by Docket ID No. EPA-HQ-OAR-2011-0548, by one of the following methods:
- On-Line at http://www.regulations.gov: Follow the On-Line Instructions for Submitting Comments.
- E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
- Fax: (202) 566-1741.
- Mail: Air and Radiation Docket, Docket ID No. EPA-HQ-OAR-2011-0548, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Mailcode: 6102T, 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20460. Please include a total of two copies.
- Hand Delivery: EPA Docket Center, Public Reading Room, EPA West Building, Room 3334, 1301 Constitution Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20460. Such deliveries are only accepted during the Docket's normal hours of operation, and special arrangements should be made for deliveries of boxed information.
On-Line Instructions for Submitting Comments: Direct your comments to Docket ID No. EPA-HQ-OAR-2011-0548. EPA's policy is that all comments we receive will be included in the public docket without change and may be made available online at http://www.regulations.gov, including any personal information provided, unless the comment includes information claimed to be Confidential Business Information (CBI) or other information whose disclosure is restricted by statute. Do not submit information that you consider to be CBI or otherwise protected through http://www.regulations.gov or e-mail. The http://www.regulations.gov Web site is an “anonymous access” system, which means EPA will not know your identity or contact information unless you provide it in the body of your comment. If you send an e-mail comment directly to EPA without going through http://www.regulations.gov, your e-mail address will automatically be captured and included as part of the comment that is placed in the public docket and made available on the Internet. If you submit an electronic comment, EPA recommends that you include your name and other contact information in the body of your comment and with any disk or CD-ROM you submit. If EPA cannot read your comment due to technical difficulties and cannot contact you for clarification, EPA may not be able to consider your comment. Electronic files should avoid the use of special characters, any form of encryption, and be free of any defects or viruses. For additional information about EPA's public docket visit the EPA Docket Center homepage at http://www.epa.gov/epahome/dockets.htm.
EPA will make available for public inspection materials submitted by CARB, written comments received from any interested parties, and any testimony given at the public hearing. Materials relevant to this proceeding are contained in the Air and Radiation Docket and Information Center, maintained in Docket ID No. EPA-HQ-OAR-2011-0548. Publicly available docket materials are available either electronically through http://www.regulations.gov or in hard copy at the Air and Radiation Docket in the EPA Headquarters Library, EPA West Building, Room 3334, located at 1301 Constitution Avenue, NW., Washington, DC. The Public Reading Room is open to the public on all federal government work days from 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m.; generally, it is open Monday through Friday, excluding holidays. The telephone number for the Reading Room is (202) 566-1744. The Air and Radiation Docket and Information Center's Web site is http://www.epa.gov/oar/docket.html. The electronic mail (e-mail) address for the Air and Radiation Docket is: a-and-r-Docket@epa.gov, the telephone number is (202) 566-1742, and the fax number is (202) 566-9744. An electronic version of the public docket is available through the federal government's electronic public docket and comment system. You may access EPA dockets at http://www.regulations.gov. After opening the http://www.regulations.gov Web site, enter EPA-HQ-OAR-2011-0548, in the “Enter Keyword or ID” fill-in box to view documents in the record. Although a part of the official docket, the public docket does not include Confidential Business Information (“CBI”) or other information whose disclosure is restricted by statute.
EPA's Office of Transportation and Air Quality also maintains a webpage that contains general information on its review of California waiver requests. Included on that page are links to prior waiver and authorization Federal Register notices; the page can be accessed at http://www.epa.gov/otaq/cafr.htm.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Back to Top
Kristien G. Knapp, Attorney-Advisor, Compliance and Innovative Strategies Division, Office of Transportation and Air Quality, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue (6405J), NW., Washington, DC 20460. Telephone: (202) 343-9949. Fax: (202) 343-2804. E-mail: email@example.com.
SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Back to Top
I. California's At-Berth Regulation Back to Top
By letter dated August 2, 2010, CARB submitted to EPA its request pursuant to section 209(e) of the Clean Air Act (“CAA” or “the Act”), regarding its regulations to enforce its airborne toxic control measures (ATCM) for auxiliary diesel engines operated on ocean-going vessels at-berth in California ports (“At-Berth Regulation”).  The At-Berth Regulation is designed to significantly reduce emissions of diesel particulate matter (PM), which is a CARB-identified toxic air contaminant, oxides of nitrogen (NO X), and carbon dioxide (CO 2), a greenhouse gas. These reductions will assist California in meeting federal and state ambient air quality standards for the South Coast and San Joaquin Valley air basins for ozone and fine particulate matter (PM 2.5). CARB approved the At-Berth Regulation at a public hearing on December 6, 2007 (by Resolution 07-57).  After making modifications to the regulation available on August 22, 2008 for supplemental public comment, CARB's Executive Officer formally adopted the At-Berth Regulation in Executive Order R-08-013 on October 16, 2008.  The At-Berth Regulation is codified in title 13, California Code of Regulations, section 2299.3, and title 17, California Code of Regulations, section 93118.3. 
CARB's At-Berth Regulation contains requirements that apply, with limited exceptions,  to any person who owns, operates, charters, rents or leases any container vessel, passenger vessel, or refrigerated cargo vessel that visits any of six specified California ports.  It also contains requirements that affect any person who owns or operates those ports or terminals located at them.
The At-Berth Regulation requires fleets of container vessels, passenger vessels and refrigerated cargo vessels to either: (1) Limit the amount of time they operate their auxiliary diesel engines by connecting to shore power for most of a vessel's stay at port (“Shore Power Option”); or (2) achieve equivalent emission reductions by employing other emission control techniques (“Equivalent Emission Reduction Option”).  Fleet operators that elect the Shore Power Option are required to obtain the power that would otherwise be provided by a vessel's auxiliary engines by connecting to shore power for a percentage of the fleet's annual port visits.  The required percentage of shore power connected port visits increases over the life of the regulation. Specifically, fifty percent of a fleet's total visits must be connected to shore power by 2014, followed by seventy percent by 2017, and eighty percent by 2020. Additionally, if a vessel is equipped to connect to shore power and it visits a berth equipped to provide compatible power, the vessel must use the shore power provided.
Fleet operators that elect the Equivalent Emission Reduction Option must reduce their fleet's auxiliary engine emissions by specific amounts below the fleet's baseline emissions by specific dates.  This option requires that a fleet achieve a ten percent reduction from the fleet's baseline emissions by 2010, a twenty-five percent reduction by 2012, a fifty percent reduction by 2014, a seventy percent reduction by 2017, and an eighty percent reduction by 2020. Emission reductions can be achieved by: (1) Using grid-based shore power; (2) using distributed generation equipment to provide power to the vessel; (3) using alternative emission controls onboard a vessel or at the berth; or (4) using a combination of these techniques. Fleets that achieve reductions of emissions of oxides of nitrogen or particulate matter in excess of the prescribed reductions receive fleet emission credits that can be used to comply with emission reduction requirements in subsequent years.
The At-Berth Regulation also requires operators of terminals that received more than fifty vessel visits in 2008 to submit terminal plans identifying how the terminals would be upgraded to accommodate vessels under the two compliance options and including a schedule for implementing the needed infrastructure improvements. They are required to submit plan updates at a frequency dependent upon the compliance option selected by the vessel fleet owner or operator and the terminals.
II. Clean Air Act Nonroad Engine and Vehicle Authorizations Back to Top
Section 209(e)(1) of the Act permanently preempts any State, or political subdivision thereof, from adopting or attempting to enforce any standard or other requirement relating to the control of emissions for certain new nonroad engines or vehicles.
Section 209(e)(2) requires the Administrator, after notice and opportunity for public hearing, to authorize California to enforce standards and other requirements relating to the control of emissions from new engines not listed under section 209(e)(1), if certain criteria are met. EPA has promulgated regulations implementing these provisions at 40 CFR part 1074. These regulations set forth the criteria that EPA must consider before granting California authorization to enforce its new nonroad emission standards. 
As stated in the preamble to the section 209(e) rule, EPA has historically interpreted the section 209(e)(2)(iii) “consistency” inquiry to require, at minimum, that California standards and enforcement procedures be consistent with section 209(a), section 209(e)(1), and section 209(b)(1)(C) (as EPA has interpreted that subsection in the context of section 209(b) motor vehicle waivers). 
In order to be consistent with section 209(a), California's nonroad standards and enforcement procedures must not apply to new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines. To be consistent with section 209(e)(1), California's nonroad standards and enforcement procedures must not attempt to regulate engine categories that are permanently preempted from state regulation. To determine consistency with section 209(b)(1)(C), EPA typically reviews nonroad authorization requests under the same “consistency” criteria that are applied to motor vehicle waiver requests. Pursuant to section 209(b)(1)(C), the Administrator shall not grant California a motor vehicle waiver if she finds that California “standards and accompanying enforcement procedures are not consistent with section 202(a)” of the Act. Previous decisions granting waivers and authorizations have noted that state standards and enforcement procedures are inconsistent with section 202(a) if: (1) There is inadequate lead time to permit the development of the necessary technology giving appropriate consideration to the cost of compliance within that time, or (2) the federal and state testing procedures impose inconsistent certification requirements.
III. EPA's Request for Comments Back to Top
As stated above, EPA is offering the opportunity for a public hearing, and requesting written comment on issues relevant to a full authorization analysis. Specifically, we request comment on: (a) Whether CARB's determination that its standards, in the aggregate, are at least as protective of public health and welfare as applicable federal standards is arbitrary and capricious, (b) whether California needs such standards to meet compelling and extraordinary conditions, and (c) whether California's standards and accompanying enforcement procedures are consistent with section 209 of the Act.
IV. Procedures for Public Participation Back to Top
If a hearing is held, the Agency will make a verbatim record of the proceedings. Interested parties may arrange with the reporter at the hearing to obtain a copy of the transcript at their own expense. Regardless of whether a public hearing is held, EPA will keep the record open until August 22, 2011. Upon expiration of the comment period, the Administrator will render a decision on CARB's request based on the record from the public hearing, if any, all relevant written submissions, and other information that she deems pertinent. All information will be available for inspection at the EPA Air Docket No. EPA-HQ-OAR-2011-0548.
Persons with comments containing proprietary information must distinguish such information from other comments to the greatest extent possible and label it as “Confidential Business Information” (“CBI”). If a person making comments wants EPA to base its decision on a submission labeled as CBI, then a non-confidential version of the document that summarizes the key data or information should be submitted to the public docket. To ensure that proprietary information is not inadvertently placed in the public docket, submissions containing such information should be sent directly to the contact person listed above and not to the public docket. Information covered by a claim of confidentiality will be disclosed by EPA only to the extent allowed, and according to the procedures set forth in 40 CFR part 2. If no claim of confidentiality accompanies the submission when EPA receives it, EPA will make it available to the public without further notice to the person making comments.
Dated: June 24, 2011.
Margo Tsirigotis Oge,
Director, Office of Transportation and Air Quality, Office of Air and Radiation.
[FR Doc. 2011-16395 Filed 6-28-11; 8:45 am]
BILLING CODE 6560-50-P
Footnotes Back to Top
1. California Air Resources Board (“CARB”), “Request for Authorization,” August 2, 2010, EPA-HQ-OAR-2011-0548-0001.Back to Context
2. CARB Attachment #4, “Resolution 07-57,” EPA-HQ-OAR-2011-0548-0006.Back to Context
3. CARB Attachment #6, “Executive Order R-08-013,” EPA-HQ-OAR-2011-0548-0008.Back to Context
4. CARB Attachment #8, “Final Regulation Order for title 13, CCR section 2299.3,” EPA-HQ-OAR-2011-0548-0010; CARB Attachment #9, “Final Regulation Order for title 17, CCR section 93118.3,” EPA-HQ-OAR-2011-0548-0011.Back to Context
5. The following vessels are exempt from the At-Berth Regulation: ocean going vessel voyages consisting of continuous and expeditious navigation (i.e., traversing Regulated California Waters without entering California internal estuarine waters or calling at a port); vessels ownedor operated by local, state, federal, or foreign governments in government non-commercial services; steamships; auxiliary engines using natural gas; and fleets composed solely of container or refrigerated cargo vessels making fewer than twenty-five (25) visits to the same California port in a Calendar year or fleets composed solely of passenger vessels making fewer than five (5) visits to the same California port in a calendar year. Exemptions also exist for emergency events and hotelling required by a federal agency. Title 17, California Code of Regulations (CCR), section 93118.3(b)(3), CARB Attachment #9, “Final Regulation Order for title 17, CCR section 93118.3,” EPA-HQ-OAR-2011-0548-0011.Back to Context
6. The At-Berth Regulation applies to vessels docked at six California ports: the Port of Hueneme, the Port of Los Angeles, the Port of Long Beach, the Port of Oakland, the Port of San Diego, and the Port of San Francisco.Back to Context
7. “Fleet” means “all container, passenger, and refrigerated cargo vessels, visiting a specific California port, which are owned and operated by, or otherwise under the direct control, of the same Person * * * For purposes of this section, a person shall be deemed to have separate fleets for each California port visited and each fleet is composed of one type of vessel.” Title 17, CCR section 93118.3(c)(16). See also CARB, “Authorization Support Document,” EPA-HQ-OAR-2011-0548-0002.Back to Context
8. “Shore power” is defined as “electrical power being provided by either the local utility or by distributed generation.” CARB Attachment 9, “Final Regulation Order for title 17, CCR section 93118.3,” EPA-HQ-OAR-2011-0548-0011.Back to Context
9. CARB, “Authorization Support Document,” August 2, 2010, EPA-HQ-OAR-2011-0548-0002.Back to Context
10. Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations, part 1074.105 provides:
(a) The Administrator will grant the authorization if California determines that its standards will be, in the aggregate, at least as protective of public health and welfare as otherwise applicable federal standards.
(b) The authorization will not be granted if the Administrator finds that any of the following are true:
(1) California's determination is arbitrary and capricious.
(2) California does not need such standards to meet compelling and extraordinary conditions.
(3) The California standards and accompanying enforcement procedures are not consistent with section 209 of the Act.
(c) In considering any request from California to authorize the state to adopt or enforce standards or other requirements relating to the control of emissions from new nonroad spark-ignition engines smaller than 50 horsepower, the Administrator will give appropriate consideration to safety factors (including the potential increased risk of burn or fire) associated with compliance with the California standard.Back to Context
11. See 59 FR 36969 (July 20, 1994).Back to Context