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National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Public Notification Rule

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Correction

In rule document 00-9534 beginning on page 25982 in the issue of Thursday, May 4, 2000, make the following correction:

[Corrected]

1. On page 26037, in the third column, in §141.204(b), the paragraph designated as “(2)(2)” should be designated as “(2)”.

Appendix B to Subpart Q [Corrected]

2. On pages 26043 through 20647, appendix B to subpart Q of part 141 is corrected to read as follows:

Appendix B to Subpart Q of Part 141.—Standard Health Effects Language for Public Notification

ContaminantMCLG 1 mg/LMCL 2 mg/LStandard health effects language for public notification
National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWR)
A. Microbiological Contaminants
1a. Total coliformZeroSee footnote 3Coliforms are bacteria that are naturally present in the environment and are used as an indicator that other, potentially-harmful, bacteria may be present. Coliforms were found in more samples than allowed and this was a warning of potential problems.
1b. Fecal coliform/E. coliZeroZeroFecal coliforms and E. coli are bacteria whose presence indicates that the water may be contaminated with human or animal wastes. Microbes in these wastes can cause short-term effects, such as diarrhea, cramps, nausea, headaches, or other symptoms. They may pose a special health risk for infants, young children, some of the elderly, and people with severely compromised immune systems.
2a. Turbidity (MCL) 4None1 NTU 5/5 NTUTurbidity has no health effects. However, turbidity can interfere with disinfection and provide a medium for microbial growth. Turbidity may indicate the presence of disease-causing organisms. These organisms include bacteria, viruses, and parasites that can cause symptoms such as nausea, cramps, diarrhea and associated headaches.
2b. Turbidity (SWTR TT) 6NoneTT 7Turbidity has no health effects. However, turbidity can interfere with disinfection and provide a medium for microbial growth. Turbidity may indicate the presence of disease-causing organisms. These organisms include bacteria, viruses, and parasites that can cause symptoms such as nausea, cramps, diarrhea and associated headaches.
2c. Turbidity (IESWTR TT) 8NoneTTTurbidity has no health effects. However, turbidity can interfere with disinfection and provide a medium for microbial growth. Turbidity may indicate the presence of disease-causing organisms. These organisms include bacteria, viruses, and parasites that can cause symptoms such as nausea, cramps, diarrhea and associated headaches.
B. Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR) and Interim Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (IESWTR) violations
3. Giardia lamblia (SWTR/IESWTR)ZeroTT \10\Inadequately treated water may contain disease-causing organisms. These organisms include bacteria, viruses, and parasites which can cause symptoms such as nausea, cramps, diarrhea, and associated headaches.
4. Viruses (SWTR/IESWTR)
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5. Heterotrophic plate count (HPC) bacteria 9 (SWTR/IESWTR)
6. Legionella (SWTR/IESWTR)
7. Cryptosporidium (IESWTR)
8. Antimony0.0060.006Some people who drink water containing antimony well in excess of the MCL over many years could experience increases in blood cholesterol and decreases in blood sugar.
9. ArsenicNone0.05Some people who drink water containing arsenic in excess of the MCL over many years could experience skin damage or problems with their circulatory system, and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
10. Asbestos (10 μm)7 MFL 117 MFLSome people who drink water containing asbestos in excess of the MCL over many years may have an increased risk of developing benign intestinal polyps.
11. Barium22Some people who drink water containing barium in excess of the MCL over many years could experience an increase in their blood pressure.
12. Beryllium0.0040.004Some people who drink water containing beryllium well in excess of the MCL over many years could develop intestinal lesions.
13. Cadmium0.0050.005Some people who drink water containing cadmium in excess of the MCL over many years could experience kidney damage.
14. Chromium (total)0.10.1Some people who use water containing chromium well in excess of the MCL over many years could experience allergic dermatitis.
15. Cyanide0.20.2Some people who drink water containing cyanide well in excess of the MCL over many years could experience nerve damage or problems with their thyroid.
16. Fluoride4.04.0Some people who drink water containing fluoride in excess of the MCL over many years could get bone disease, including pain and tenderness of the bones. Fluoride in drinking water at half the MCL or more may cause mottling of children's teeth, usually in children less than nine years old. Mottling, also known as dental fluorosis, may include brown staining and/or pitting of the teeth, and occurs only in developing teeth before they erupt from the gums.
17. Mercury (inorganic)0.0020.002Some people who drink water containing inorganic mercury well in excess of the MCL over many years could experience kidney damage.
18. Nitrate1010Infants below the age of six months who drink water containing nitrate in excess of the MCL could become seriously ill and, if untreated, may die. Symptoms include shortness of breath and blue baby syndrome.
19. Nitrite11Infants below the age of six months who drink water containing nitrite in excess of the MCL could become seriously ill and, if untreated, may die. Symptoms include shortness of breath and blue baby syndrome.
20. Total Nitrate and Nitrite1010Infants below the age of six months who drink water containing nitrate and nitrite in excess of the MCL could become seriously ill and, if untreated, may die. Symptoms include shortness of breath and blue baby syndrome.
21. Selenium0.050.05Selenium is an essential nutrient. However, some people who drink water containing selenium in excess of the MCL over many years could experience hair or fingernail losses, numbness in fingers or toes, or problems with their circulation.
22. Thallium0.00050.002Some people who drink water containing thallium in excess of the MCL over many years could experience hair loss, changes in their blood, or problems with their kidneys, intestines, or liver.
C. Lead and Copper Rule
23. LeadZeroTT 12Infants and children who drink water containing lead in excess of the action level could experience delays in their physical or mental development. Children could show slight deficits in attention span and learning abilities. Adults who drink this water over many years could develop kidney problems or high blood pressure.
24. Copper1.3TT 13Copper is an essential nutrient, but some people who drink water containing copper in excess of the action level over a relatively short amount of time could experience gastrointestinal distress. Some people who drink water containing copper in excess of the action level over many years could suffer liver or kidney damage. People with Wilson's Disease should consult their personal doctor.
D. Synthetic Organic Chemicals (SOCs)
25. 2,4-D0.070.07Some people who drink water containing the weed killer 2,4-D well in excess of the MCL over many years could experience problems with their kidneys, liver, or adrenal glands.
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26. 2,4,5-TP (Silvex)0.050.05Some people who drink water containing silvex in excess of the MCL over many years could experience liver problems.
27. AlachlorZero0.002Some people who drink water containing alachlor in excess of the MCL over many years could have problems with their eyes, liver, kidneys, or spleen, or experience anemia, and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
28. Atrazine0.0030.003Some people who drink water containing atrazine well in excess of the MCL over many years could experience problems with their cardiovascular system or reproductive difficulties.
29. Benzo(a)pyrene (PAHs)Zero0.0002Some people who drink water containing benzo(a)pyrene in excess of the MCL over many years may experience reproductive difficulties and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
30. Carbofuran0.040.04Some people who drink water containing carbofuran in excess of the MCL over many years could experience problems with their blood, or nervous or reproductive systems.
31. ChlordaneZero0.002Some people who drink water containing chlordane in excess of the MCL over many years could experience problems with their liver or nervous system, and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
32. Dalapon0.20.2Some people who drink water containing dalapon well in excess of the MCL over many years could experience minor kidney changes.
33. Di (2-ethylhexyl) adipate0.40.4Some people who drink water containing di (2-ethylhexyl) adipate well in excess of the MCL over many years could experience general toxic effects or reproductive difficulties.
34. Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalateZero0.006Some people who drink water containing di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in excess of the MCL over many years may have problems with their liver, or experience reproductive difficulties, and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
35. Dibromochloropropane (DBCP)Zero0.0002Some people who drink water containing DBCP in excess of the MCL over many years could experience reproductive difficulties and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
36. Dinoseb0.0070.007Some people who drink water containing dinoseb well in excess of the MCL over many years could experience reproductive difficulties.
37. Dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD)Zero3×10 −8Some people who drink water containing dioxin in excess of the MCL over many years could experience reproductive difficulties and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
38. Diquat0.020.02Some people who drink water containing diquat in excess of the MCL over many years could get cataracts.
39. Endothall0.10.1Some people who drink water containing endothall in excess of the MCL over many years could experience problems with their stomach or intestines.
40. Endrin0.0020.002Some people who drink water containing endrin in excess of the MCL over many years could experience liver problems.
41. Ethylene dibromideZero0.00005Some people who drink water containing ethylene dibromide in excess of the MCL over many years could experience problems with their liver, stomach, reproductive system, or kidneys, and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
42. Glyphosate0.70.7Some people who drink water containing glyphosate in excess of the MCL over many years could experience problems with their kidneys or reproductive difficulties.
43. HeptachlorZero0.0004Some people who drink water containing heptachlor in excess of the MCL over many years could experience liver damage and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
44. Heptachlor epoxideZero0.0002Some people who drink water containing heptachlor epoxide in excess of the MCL over many years could experience liver damage, and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
45. HexachlorobenzeneZero0.001Some people who drink water containing hexachlorobenzene in excess of the MCL over many years could experience problems with their liver or kidneys, or adverse reproductive effects, and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
46. Hexachlorocyclo-pentadiene0.050.05Some people who drink water containing hexachlorocyclopentadiene well in excess of the MCL over many years could experience problems with their kidneys or stomach.
47. Lindane0.00020.0002Some people who drink water containing lindane in excess of the MCL over many years could experience problems with their kidneys or liver.
48. Methoxychlor0.040.04Some people who drink water containing methoxychlor in excess of the MCL over many years could experience reproductive difficulties.
49. Oxamyl (Vydate)0.20.2Some people who drink water containing oxamyl in excess of the MCL over many years could experience slight nervous system effects.
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50. PentachlorophenolZero0.001Some people who drink water containing pentachlorophenol in excess of the MCL over many years could experience problems with their liver or kidneys, and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
51. Picloram0.50.5Some people who drink water containing picloram in excess of the MCL over many years could experience problems with their liver.
52. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)Zero0.0005Some people who drink water containing PCBs in excess of the MCL over many years could experience changes in their skin, problems with their thymus gland, immune deficiencies, or reproductive or nervous system difficulties, and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
53. Simazine0.0040.004Some people who drink water containing simazine in excess of the MCL over many years could experience problems with their blood.
54. ToxapheneZero0.003Some people who drink water containing toxaphene in excess of the MCL over many years could have problems with their kidneys, liver, or thyroid, and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
E. Volatile Organic Chemicals (VOCs)
55. BenzeneZero0.005Some people who drink water containing benzene in excess of the MCL over many years could experience anemia or a decrease in blood platelets, and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
56. Carbon tetrachlorideZero0.005Some people who drink water containing carbon tetrachloride in excess of the MCL over many years could experience problems with their liver and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
57. Chlorobenzene (monochloro- benzene)0.10.1Some people who drink water containing chlorobenzene in excess of the MCL over many years could experience problems with their liver or kidneys.
58. o-Dichlorobenzene0.60.6Some people who drink water containing o-dichlorobenzene well in excess of the MCL over many years could experience problems with their liver, kidneys, or circulatory systems.
59. p-Dichlorobenzene0.0750.075Some people who drink water containing p-dichlorobenzene in excess of the MCL over many years could experience anemia, damage to their liver, kidneys, or spleen, or changes in their blood.
60. 1,2-DichloroethaneZero0.005Some people who drink water containing 1,2-dichloroethane in excess of the MCL over many years may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
61. 1,1-Dichloroethylene0.0070.007Some people who drink water containing 1,1-dichloroethylene in excess of the MCL over many years could experience problems with their liver.
62. cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene0.070.07Some people who drink water containing cis-1,2-dichloroethylene in excess of the MCL over many years could experience problems with their liver.
63. trans-1,2-Dichloroethylene0.10.1Some people who drink water containing trans-1,2-dichloroethylene well in excess of the MCL over many years could experience problems with their liver.
64. DichloromethaneZero0.005Some people who drink water containing dichloromethane in excess of the MCL over many years could have liver problems and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
65. 1,2-DichloropropaneZero0.005Some people who drink water containing 1,2-dichloropropane in excess of the MCL over many years may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
66. Ethylbenzene0.70.7Some people who drink water containing ethylbenzene well in excess of the MCL over many years could experience problems with their liver or kidneys.
67. Styrene0.10.1Some people who drink water containing styrene well in excess of the MCL over many years could have problems with their liver, kidneys, or circulatory system.
68. TetrachloroethyleneZero0.005Some people who drink water containing tetrachloroethylene in excess of the MCL over many years could have problems with their liver, and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
69. Toluene11Some people who drink water containing toluene well in excess of the MCL over many years could have problems with their nervous system, kidneys, or liver.
70. 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene0.070.07Some people who drink water containing 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene well in excess of the MCL over many years could experience changes in their adrenal glands.
71. 1,1,1-Trichloroethane0.20.2Some people who drink water containing 1,1,1-trichloroethane in excess of the MCL over many years could experience problems with their liver, nervous system, or circulatory system.
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72. 1,1,2-Trichloroethane0.0030.005Some people who drink water containing 1,1,2-trichloroethane well in excess of the MCL over many years could have problems with their liver, kidneys, or immune systems.
73. TrichloroethyleneZero0.005Some people who drink water containing trichloroethylene in excess of the MCL over many years could experience problems with their liver and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
74. Vinyl chlorideZero0.002Some people who drink water containing vinyl chloride in excess of the MCL over many years may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
75. Xylenes (total)1010Some people who drink water containing xylenes in excess of the MCL over many years could experience damage to their nervous system.
F. Radioactive Contaminants
76. Beta/photon emittersZero4 mrem/yr 14Certain minerals are radioactive and may emit forms of radiation known as photons and beta radiation. Some people who drink water containing beta and photon emitters in excess of the MCL over many years may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
77. Alpha emittersZero15 pCi/L 15Certain minerals are radioactive and may emit a form of radiation known as alpha radiation. Some people who drink water containing alpha emitters in excess of the MCL over many years may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
78. Combined radium (226 & 228)Zero5 pCi/LSome people who drink water containing radium 226 or 228 in excess of the MCL over many years may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
G. Disinfection Byproducts (DBPs), Byproduct Precursors, and Disinfectant Residuals: Where disinfection is used in the treatment of drinking water, disinfectants combine with organic and inorganic matter present in water to form chemicals called disinfection byproducts (DBPs). EPA sets standards for controlling the levels of disinfectants and DBPs in drinking water, including trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) 16
79. Total trihalomethanes (TTHMs)N/A0.10/0.08017 18Some people who drink water containing trihalomethanes in excess of the MCL over many years may experience problems with their liver, kidneys, or central nervous system, and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
80. Haloacetic Acids (HAA)N/A0.060 19Some people who drink water containing haloacetic acids in excess of the MCL over many years may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
81. BromateZero0.010Some people who drink water containing bromate in excess of the MCL over many years may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
82. Chlorite0.081.0Some infants and young children who drink water containing chlorite in excess of the MCL could experience nervous system effects. Similar effects may occur in fetuses of pregnant women who drink water containing chlorite in excess of the MCL. Some people may experience anemia.
83. Chlorine4 (MRDLG) 204.0 (MRDL) 21Some people who use water containing chlorine well in excess of the MRDL could experience irritating effects to their eyes and nose. Some people who drink water containing chlorine well in excess of the MRDL could experience stomach discomfort.
84. Chloramines4 (MRDLG)4.0 (MRDL)Some people who use water containing chloramines well in excess of the MRDL could experience irritating effects to their eyes and nose. Some people who drink water containing chloramines well in excess of the MRDL could experience stomach discomfort or anemia.
85a. Chlorine dioxide, where any 2 consecutive daily samples taken at the entrance to the distribution system are above the MRDL0.8 (MRDLG)0.8 (MRDL)Some infants and young children who drink water containing chlorine dioxide in excess of the MRDL could experience nervous system effects. Similar effects may occur in fetuses of pregnant women who drink water containing chlorine dioxide in excess of the MRDL. Some people may experience anemia.
Add for public notification only: The chlorine dioxide violations reported today are the result of exceedances at the treatment facility only, not within the distribution system which delivers water to consumers. Continued compliance with chlorine dioxide levels within the distribution system minimizes the potential risk of these violations to consumers.
85b. Chlorine dioxide, where one or more distribution system samples are above the MRDL0.8 (MRDLG)0.8 (MRDL)Some infants and young children who drink water containing chlorine dioxide in excess of the MRDL could experience nervous system effects. Similar effects may occur in fetuses of pregnant women who drink water containing chlorine dioxide in excess of the MRDL. Some people may experience anemia.
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Add for public notification only: The chlorine dioxide violations reported today include exceedances of the EPA standard within the distribution system which delivers water to consumers. Violations of the chlorine dioxide standard within the distribution system may harm human health based on short-term exposures. Certain groups, including fetuses, infants, and young children, may be especially susceptible to nervous system effects from excessive chlorine dioxide exposure.
86. Control of DBP precursors (TOC)NoneTTTotal organic carbon (TOC) has no health effects. However, total organic carbon provides a medium for the formation of disinfection byproducts. These byproducts include trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs). Drinking water containing these byproducts in excess of the MCL may lead to adverse health effects, liver or kidney problems, or nervous system effects, and may lead to an increased risk of getting cancer.
H. Other Treatment Techniques
87. AcrylamideZeroTTSome people who drink water containing high levels of acrylamide over a long period of time could have problems with their nervous system or blood, and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
88. EpichlorohydrinZeroTTSome people who drink water containing high levels of epichlorohydrin over a long period of time could experience stomach problems, and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
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[FR Doc. C0-9534 Filed 6-20-00; 8:45 am]

BILLING CODE 1505-01-D