Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA.
This rule establishes a marketing agreement and order (order) for pistachios grown in California. The order sets standards for the quality of pistachios produced and handled in California by establishing a maximum aflatoxin tolerance level, maximum limits for defects, a minimum size requirement, and mandatory inspection and certification. An eleven-member committee, consisting of eight producers, two handlers, and one public member, will locally administer the program. The program will be financed by assessments on handlers of pistachios grown in the production area. The program is designed to enhance grower returns through the delivery of higher-quality pistachios to consumers.
This rule is effective April 6, 2004, except for §§ 983.38 through 983.46, which are effective August 1, 2004.Start Further Info
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:
Melissa Schmaedick, Marketing Order Administration Branch, Fruit and Vegetable Programs, Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA, Post Office Box 1035, Moab, UT 84532, telephone: (435) 259-7988, fax: (435) 259-4945; or Anne M. Dec, Marketing Order Administration Branch, Fruit and Vegetable Programs, AMS, USDA, 1400 Independence Avenue, SW., Stop 0237, Washington, DC 20250-0237; telephone: (202) 720-2491, fax: (202) 720-8938. Small businesses may request information on compliance with this regulation by contacting Jay Guerber, Marketing Order Administration Branch, Fruit and Vegetable Programs, AMS, USDA, 1400 Independence Avenue, SW., Stop 0237, Washington, DC 20250-0237; telephone: (202) 720-2491, fax: (202) 720-8938.End Further Info End Preamble Start Supplemental Information
Prior documents in this proceeding: Notice of Hearing issued on June 19, 2002, and published in the June 26, 2002, issue of the Federal Register (67 FR 43045); Recommended Decision and Opportunity to File Written Exceptions issued on July 23, 2003, and published in the August 4, 2003, issue of the Federal Register (68 FR 45990); and Secretary's Decision and Referendum Order issued on December 11, 2003, and published in the December 30, 2003, issue of the Federal Register (68 FR 75320).
This administrative action is governed by the provisions of sections 556 and 557 of title 5 of the United States Code and, therefore, is excluded from the requirements of Executive Order 12866.
The marketing agreement and order regulating the handling of pistachios grown in California is based on the record of a public hearing held July 23-25, 2002, in Fresno, California. The hearing was held to receive evidence on the proposed marketing order from producers, handlers, and other interested parties located throughout the production area. The hearing was held pursuant to the provisions of the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (7 U.S.C. 601 et seq.), hereinafter referred to as the “Act,” and the applicable rules of practice and procedure governing the formulation of marketing agreements and orders (7 CFR part 900). Notice of this hearing was published in the Federal Register on June 26, 2002.
The proposal was submitted for consideration to the Department by the Proponents Committee (proponents), a group representing the majority of producers and handlers of pistachios in California. The proponents are independent of the California Pistachio Commission and the Western Pistachio Association.
The order provides the California pistachio industry with a tool to regulate the quality of pistachios handled in California. This includes preventing pistachios containing aflatoxin above the permitted maximum tolerance level of 15 parts per billion (ppb) from entering the market place. The order also precludes defective and small pistachios from being sold. Under the order, testing and certification of pistachios for quality (including aflatoxin) will be mandatory. The mandatory regulatory program is designed to provide the industry with an effective means of ensuring product quality, thereby enhancing customer satisfaction.
Upon the basis of evidence introduced at the hearing and the record thereof, the Administrator of AMS on July 23, 2003, filed with the Hearing Clerk, U.S. Department of Agriculture, a Recommended Decision and Opportunity to File Written Exceptions thereto by September 3, 2003. That document also announced AMS's intent to request approval of new information collection requirements to implement the program. Written comments on the proposed information collection requirements were due by October 3, 2003.
One exception (and as corrected) was filed during the period provided on behalf of the proponents. The exception expressed general support of the marketing order and requested that several changes be made to the proposed order provisions, including that one proposed definition be revised, one definition be deleted, and several editorial and clarifying changes be made. The specifics of the exception were addressed in the Secretary's Decision and Referendum Order issued on December 11, 2003, and published in the Federal Register on December 30, 2003.
That document also directed that a referendum be conducted during the period January 12 through February 9, 2004, among growers of California pistachios to determine whether they favored issuance of the order. In the referendum, the order was favored by more than two-thirds of the growers voting in the referendum by number and volume.
The marketing agreement was mailed to all pistachio handlers in the production area for their approval. The marketing agreement was approved by handlers representing more than 50 percent of the volume of pistachios handled by all handlers during the representative period of September 1, 2002, through August 31, 2003.
Small Business Consideration
Pursuant to the requirements set forth in the Regulatory Flexibility Act (RFA), the Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) has considered the economic impact of this action on small entities. Accordingly, the AMS has prepared this final regulatory flexibility analysis.
The purpose of the RFA is to fit regulatory actions to the scale of business subject to such actions so that small businesses will not be unduly or disproportionately burdened. Marketing orders are unique in that they are normally brought through group action of essentially small entities for their own benefit. Thus, both the RFA and the Act are compatible with respect to small entities.
Small agricultural producers have been defined by the Small Business Administration (SBA) (13 CFR 121.201) as those having annual receipts of less than $750,000. Small agricultural service firms, which include handlers that will be regulated under the pistachio order, are defined as those Start Printed Page 17845with annual receipts of less than $5,000,000.
Interested persons were invited to present evidence at the hearing on the probable regulatory and informational impact of the pistachio marketing order program on small businesses. The record evidence is that while the program will impose some costs on the regulated parties, those costs will be outweighed by the benefits expected to accrue to the U.S. pistachio industry.
The record indicates that there are approximately 647 pistachio producers, which includes the members of the one existing pistachio producer cooperative. There are 19 handlers who process pistachios in the production area.
Statistics prepared by the California Pistachio Commission and submitted as evidence at the hearing show that 445 California pistachio producers (69% of the total) produce less than 100,000 pounds per year; 100 producers (15%) produce more than 100,000 and less than 250,000 pounds; 43 producers (7%) produce more than 250,000 and less than 500,000 pounds; and 59 producers (9%) grow more than 500,000 pounds.
Using an average grower price of $1.10 per pound, 91 percent of the California pistachio producers receive less than $550,000 annually, and 9 percent receive more than $550,000 annually. Thus, at least 91 percent of these producers would meet SBA's definition of a small agricultural producer.
The record shows that 12 California pistachio handlers (63 percent of the total) handle less than 1,000,000 pounds per year; 4 handlers (21%) handle between 1,000,000 and 10,000,000 pounds; and 3 handlers (16%) handle more than 10,000,000 pounds annually. The largest handler processes over 50 percent of industry production.
Using an average handler price of $1.80 per pound, 63 percent of the pistachio handlers would receive annual receipts of less than $1.8 million, 2 percent would receive between $1.8 and $18.0 million, and 16 percent would receive more than $18.0 million. At least 12 of the pistachio handlers (or 63 percent of the total) could be considered small businesses under SBA's definition.
Record evidence concerning pistachio production and handling costs provide an understanding of the California pistachio industry and potential impacts of implementing the order. Farming pistachios is a costly investment with a significant delay in benefits and an unreliable crop yield.
Although increasing yields have led to an increasing overall value of California pistachio production, producers must maintain a level of return per pound harvested that covers the cost of production in order for their pistachio operations to remain economically viable. Witnesses testified that maintaining a high level of quality product in the market should lead to increasing consumer demand and greater stability in producer returns.
Evidence suggests that poor quality pistachios impact the demand, and the potential growth of demand, for pistachios. Characteristics routinely deemed as “poor quality” by customers of the California pistachio industry include small size, and excessive internal and external blemishes. Market studies and customer comments presented by handler witnesses demonstrate that the presence of poor quality pistachios in the marketplace significantly impacts demand in a negative way.
Minimizing the level of aflatoxin in California pistachios is another significant quality factor, as aflatoxin is a known carcinogen. Consumer concerns over aflatoxin can affect their perception of pistachio quality, and therefore negatively impact demand. Moreover, any market disturbances related to aflatoxin in pistachios, regardless of the geographic origin of those pistachios, could have a detrimental effect on the California pistachio industry. A regulatory program limiting the amount of aflatoxin in pistachios should be useful in bolstering consumer confidence in the quality of California pistachios.
Pistachio acreage has been consistently increasing in California, from just over 20,000 bearing acres in 1979 to 78,000 bearing acres in 2001. The number of non-bearing acres (i.e. acres less than 7 years old, not yet in full production) has also shown consistent growth in recent years, rising from 13,400 acres in 1995 to 23,500 acres in 2001, a 75 percent increase. Yield per acre has also been steadily rising. Over the 1976-1980 period, average yield per bearing acre measured 1,110 pounds; by 1996-2000, this average had increased to 2,512 pounds.
Higher yields and increasing acreage has resulted in increasing production. According to information submitted by the CPC, production in 2000 totaled 242 million pounds, a 64-percent increase over 1995 production, which totaled 148 million pounds. Moreover, witnesses at the hearing indicated that maturing acreage, absent any additional new plantings, will likely result in a 60-percent increase in California pistachio production over the coming years.
Several witnesses at the hearing testified that, in light of increasing production, future stability of market returns is reliant on continually increasing consumer demand for pistachios. These witnesses stated that strong consumer demand, which is ultimately related to consumer perceptions of product quality, is essential to the continued economic well being of the California pistachio industry. Moreover, witnesses discussed the importance of implementing a marketing order program that would provide them with a regulatory structure to monitor and assure that minimum quality standards are not compromised as production of California pistachios increases.
The relationship between product quality, consumer demand and producer returns in the pistachio industry was demonstrated at the hearing. Pistachio production is not only costly in terms of initial investment and cultural costs, but it is highly unpredictable in terms of producer returns. Between the initial processes of cleaning, hulling, sorting and drying, a significant portion of the initial volume harvested is reduced. This volume is further reduced as the handling process reaches its final stages of sorting for quality and final preparation for market. Witnesses explained that ultimate pistachio sales are based on approximately 30 percent of the volume initially harvested from the field. Because of this, witnesses stated that the process of extracting the highest quality portion of the harvest, and ensuring consumer satisfaction with that product, is crucial to determining the value of the crop.
Pistachio production is similar to other nut crops in that yield and total production vary substantially from year to year because of the alternate bearing nature of pistachio trees resulting in cyclical high and low production years. Total value and value per acre are generally higher in higher yielding years. Conversely, grower return per pound is generally higher in low yielding years.
Producer returns and total crop value are also dependent on the percentage of harvest that is either “open shell” or “closed shell.” Each harvest yields a certain percentage of nuts that have not naturally opened prior to cultivation. These nuts are classified as “closed shell,” “shelling stock” or “non-splits,” and have a lower market value than those nuts that are naturally split, or “open shell.” The proportion of open-shells is a key factor in year-to-year changes in the total value of production.Start Printed Page 17846
Economic evidence presented at the hearing, based on data from the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) and the CPC, indicates that trends for total crop value and value per bearing acre have been increasing over the past 20 years. In 1980, the pistachio crop in California was valued at $55.8 million. By 2000, total crop value had increased more than four-fold, reaching $245 million. These gains are attributed to increases in both total pistachio producing acreage and yield per acre. Average value per bearing acre increased from $1,642 per acre in 1980-1984 to $2,665 per acre in 1996-2000.
According to CPC historical price data, price per pound has gradually decreased over the past 20 years, ranging from a high of $2.05 per pound in 1980 to a low of $0.99 per pound in 2001. According to the record, the order will assist in improving producer returns for pistachios. The order will not only assist in fortifying consumer demand by ensuring consumer satisfaction with product quality, but mandatory quality and aflatoxin requirements are also likely to boost domestic prices by culling lower quality pistachios, which tend to have price-depressing effects, from the market.
A University of California Cooperative Extension study presented as part of record evidence estimates total cost of production in 2001 at $2,643 per acre. According to industry data, the average grower return (value per bearing acre) for 1998-2001 was $2,619. This average revenue estimate is just below the Extension study's $2,643 estimate of typical cost. Record evidence indicates that over that 4-year period, the lowest value per bearing acre was $2,137 in 2001 and the highest was $3,207 in 2000.
Witnesses supplied an additional set of cost estimates, which ranged from a low-cost operation of $2,350 per acre to a high of $3,400 per acre. In their testimony, total costs of production were divided into three categories: the costs of orchard establishment, cultural costs and administrative costs. Establishment costs, or the overall cost to develop an acre of pistachios until revenues exceed growing expenses, were estimated at between $10,000 and $15,000, with an average tree maturation period of 7 years. In order to recover these investment costs, the hearing record states that producers generally target an 11% return on investment, estimated at between $1,100 and $1,650 per acre. Annual per acre cultural costs average between $1,100 and $1,600, once the trees are productive. Administrative costs include the cost of farm management and crop financing, and can vary between $150 and $200 per acre. The sum of cultural and administrative costs therefore range from $1,250 to $1,800.
Grower price per pound averaged approximately $1.10 between 1997 and 2001. Given that $1.10 average grower price and the cost estimates above, a producer would need to harvest an average of at least 2,000 pounds per acre to cover total production costs for the low-cost operation ($2,350 per acre). A producer would need to harvest at least 1,136 pounds per acre to cover the cultural and administrative costs of $1,250 per acre (not including a return on investment).
The CPC Annual Report for Crop Year 2001-2002 reveals that 6 out of 26 California counties with pistachio production yielded on average more than 2,000 pounds per acre between 1998 and 2001. These six counties, which together represented over 88 percent of total California pistachio production in 2000, are Colusa, Sutter, Madera, Fresno, Kings and Kern. Glenn, Butte, Placer, Yolo, Contra Costa, San Joaquin, Calaveras, Stanislaus, Merced, Tulare and Santa Barbara counties yield on average between 1,000 to 2,000 pounds per acre and represent roughly 12 percent of total state production. Shasta, Tehama, Yuba, Solano, Sacramento, San Luis Obispo, Los Angeles, San Bernardino and Riverside counties yield on average less than 1,000 pounds per acre and represent less than one percent of California pistachio production.
Given the assumptions made above, approximately 88 percent of the industry is covering total costs of production. Conversely, roughly 12 percent of the industry is currently covering cultural costs but not generating a return on their investment.
Record evidence includes an economic analysis presented by Dr. Daniel Sumner, University of California-Davis, on the potential impacts of the marketing order provisions. Dr. Sumner presented a cost-benefit analysis based on a simulation model, the purpose of which was to provide a framework for comparing costs of compliance to the benefits of improved quality through implementation of the standards.
Dr. Sumner's presentation focused on the regulatory features of the marketing order: (1) Mandatory testing of pistachios for the presence of aflatoxin, with a maximum allowable tolerance of 15 ppb; and (2) mandatory minimum quality standards. The quality standards specify minimum size and maximum allowable defects.
According to record testimony, the major costs associated with these features are the cost of aflatoxin testing and the cost of USDA presence in the handlers' plant to inspect and sample lots of pistachios. Expected benefits identified by the witnesses are an increase in consumer confidence in pistachios as a result of aflatoxin regulation, and the combined increases in consumer demand for pistachios due to mandatory USDA regulation and stringent quality standards.
Dr. Sumner's analysis took into account many of the variables presented in testimony by other witnesses describing typical production and processing costs, and presented a weighted average cost computation for marketing order compliance. The average cost of compliance, as identified by several witnesses and reiterated in Dr. Sumner's analysis, is approximately one half cent per pound of domestic pistachio production, or $0.00525 per pound.
Record evidence suggests that the cost of having a USDA inspector in the plant, including mileage plus the standard fee per hour, is approximately $291 per day for the largest plants (which process about 80 percent of total production). Total production for the domestic market that would be processed by the largest plants (those that process over 10 million pounds annually) is estimated at 136 million pounds. If an average lot is 40,000 pounds (the most common lot size for testing cited by the largest handlers), then 3,400 lots would need to be tested to account for all 136 million pounds (166.67 million pounds times 80 per cent). If a USDA official were to test 5.5 lots per day, then 618 person-days would be needed to test all of the lots. Multiplying $291 per day times 618 person-days yields an annual cost of $180,000 for testing 136 million pounds. Dividing the $180,000 annual cost by 136 million pounds yields an estimated cost per pound of $0.0013 for having USDA personnel in the plant to sample and certify that the pistachios meet minimum quality standards. Testimony suggests that this cost estimate is on the high side, since many handlers already have USDA personnel in their plants to perform other grading services besides certification of lots for minimum quality.
The cost of aflatoxin testing in the witnesses' simulation analysis is estimated at the current rate charged by a private laboratory ($75 per test). Given this rate information, the aflatoxin testing cost per pound would be $0.0019 Start Printed Page 17847($75 divided by the average lot size of 40,000 pounds).
For the largest handlers, the combined cost of aflatoxin testing and paying for the USDA presence in the plants will be equal to the sum of the quality and aflatoxin cost figures outlined above ($0.0013 + $0.0019), or $0.0032 per pound. To account for imprecision of data and other incidental costs, Dr. Sumner's analysis employs a median cost per pound for marketing order compliance, which is slightly higher, or $0.005 per pound. The analysis further assumes that per unit costs are somewhat higher for smaller plants. Thus, median costs for two categories of smaller plants are estimated at $0.006 and $0.007.
Weighting these cost figures for the three different size categories of plants yields an overall median estimated cost per pound for compliance of $0.00525. In terms of economic theory, this cost increase is represented by an upward shift in the supply curve of about one-half cent, as measured along the vertical axis in a supply-demand graph. The total direct cost of compliance is estimated at $875,000 in the median scenario ($0.00525 times 166.67 million pounds in the domestic market).
The witness's economic analysis takes into account three separate demand benefits, which he considers distinct. The first, and largest, of the demand benefits is higher expected long run average demand due to the reduced chance of an aflatoxin event that would cause a major negative shock to demand. The mandatory aflatoxin testing under the marketing order will reduce the chance of a demand-decreasing market disturbance in the U.S.
Witnesses cited a 1996 pistachio aflatoxin case that occurred in Germany as an example of what could befall the U.S. pistachio industry if aflatoxin were not properly regulated. Widespread negative publicity about aflatoxin in foreign pistachios exported to Germany caused sales revenue to decline by 50 percent for a duration of three years or more. Witnesses estimate that a similar event in the United States could cost the industry over $300 million in gross revenue. Witnesses also pointed out that there were significant additional repercussions on pistachio sales worldwide as word of the German aflatoxin incident spread through the media of other nations, especially in Europe, affecting pistachio sales in those countries.
The witness's analysis assumes that an aflatoxin related market disturbance would cause a more moderate decrease, represented in the median simulation case as a 10 percent decline (18 cents) from the $1.80 per pound typical base price at the handler level.
By requiring aflatoxin testing for all pistachios destined for the domestic market, the marketing order will make the probability of an aflatoxin event less likely. As a starting point, witnesses argued that without mandatory aflatoxin testing through the marketing order, there is a 5-percent annual probability of an aflatoxin related market disturbance. If such an incident were to occur, witnesses estimated that its impact would last for 3 years. Implementation of mandatory testing is then assumed to reduce the probability to 1 percent, a decline of 4 percentage points.
Mandatory testing under the marketing order therefore increases expected demand, or willingness to pay for pistachios, by $0.0216 per pound (4 per cent decline in probability times 18 cents times 3 years).
The witness's analysis includes two additional demand-side benefits. The witness asserts that USDA requirements convey a positive benefit in the market as reflected by the use of this claim in product promotion, labels, and displays. A median increase of $0.0025 in willingness to pay reflects a reasonably conservative estimate of the higher buyer confidence in pistachios due solely to USDA participation in the pistachio quality testing and certification process. The certification gives additional confidence in the quality of the product.
The third demand benefit is higher buyer perception of quality due to minimum standards. Witnesses assume a similarly small magnitude for this estimated increase in willingness to pay ($0.003 per pound).
Summing the median parameters for each of these three demand impacts, the increase in willingness to pay for pistachios supplied to the domestic market is a little under 3 cents per pound ($0.0271). In terms of economic theory, this figure represents an upward shift in the demand curve of nearly 3 cents, as measured along the vertical axis in a supply-demand graph. Most of the impact is from the first benefit, the reduced probability of aflatoxin being found in California pistachios.
Thus the median benefit in terms of increased per unit demand (willingness to pay) is estimated to be substantially larger than the estimated median per unit direct cost of marketing order compliance ($0.0271 versus $0.00525). Expected or average demand is higher, reflecting the lower probability of an aflatoxin event and the average quality and certification effects in the domestic market. Handlers will face higher costs to comply with the requirements.
These figures for increased cost and increased willingness to pay were combined with different demand and supply elasticities in the simulation model developed by Dr. Sumner to assess the net economic impact of marketing order implementation. The median elasticities used were unitary (−1.0 for demand and 1.0 for supply). The supply response that is modeled is a long run supply response (additional planting) due to the permanent change in market conditions resulting from the marketing order. These assumed elasticities are based on other prior econometric estimates for pistachios and other tree nuts. Witnesses cited a 1999 report by Lucinda Lewis of Competition Economics, Inc., “Charting a Direction for the U.S. Pistachio Industry,” which found a −1.14 demand elasticity for pistachios. According to the record testimony, the range of elasticities used in the simulation scenarios are consistent with published economic studies of supply and demand for pistachios and other tree nuts.
The simulation model solves a system of supply and demand equations for a new set of industry prices and quantities from marketing order implementation. As stated above, the total direct cost of compliance is $875,000. In the simulation, there is an upward shift in the market supply curve, representing increased costs to firms in the pistachio market. The magnitude of the price and quantity change from the shift in the supply curve is determined by the higher cost of production (compliance cost) and the elasticity of supply. The resulting computed (simulated) loss to the handler segment of the industry from higher expenses for marketing order compliance is $490,000.
This $490,000 differs from the previously stated $875,000 cost of compliance figure by the amount of an implied price increase and the small equalization effect on the smaller handlers that process 20 percent of the product.
The witness's analysis assumes that with minimum quality requirements the relative position of the smaller firms will improve to match those of other handlers. This is because prior to the new mandatory requirements, these firms are assumed to have fewer quality controls than most other firms, and thus end up selling nuts to the part of the Start Printed Page 17848market that buys lower quality nuts at lower prices. The equalization effect resulting from uniform minimum quality specifications is a small positive benefit that offsets some of the cost of compliance for the smaller firms.
On the demand side, the higher willingness to pay is $0.0216 per pound for the reduced probability of aflatoxin in California pistachios, and $0.0055 for the two additional demand-side benefits (higher buyer confidence from USDA certification and higher buyer perception of quality). The magnitude of the price and quantity change from the shift in the demand curve is determined by the higher willingness to pay and the elasticity of demand.
In the median simulation, the amount sold in the domestic market rises by 1.6 million pounds. The benefit to industry participants is the total value of this increase in domestic sales which is the 1.6 million pound increase in quantity sold multiplied by the higher expected price level resulting from the shifting of the supply and demand curves in the simulation of marketing order impacts.
Using the median supply and demand elasticities in the simulation model, and the median compliance cost and willingness to pay figures, the computed benefit to the handler portion of the market from the reduced chance of an aflatoxin market disturbance is $1.545 million dollars. The value of the two additional demand-side benefits is $.392 million dollars. The total benefit to handlers is thus $1.938 million dollars.
When the loss due to compliance-related expenses ($490,000) is factored in, the resulting net benefit to pistachio handlers from the marketing order is $1.448 million dollars. This $1.448 million dollar estimate of net benefit to handlers is the key result from the witness's cost-benefit analysis.
In economic theory terminology, this part of the simulation is measuring the change in producer surplus. Viewed in terms of a supply-demand graph, producer surplus is the area below the price and above the supply curve. The $1.448 million dollar estimate of net benefit is a measure of the difference between producer surplus at the initial equilibrium (e.g., $1.80 average price at the handler level, or $1.10 at the grower level) and the new higher price and quantity after the supply and demand curves have been shifted to represent the median changes in cost (supply) and willingness to pay (demand).
|Reduced chance of aflatoxin event||$1,545,000|
|Improved quality perception||214,000|
|Impact of cost of compliance||−490,000|
It should be noted that although the witness asserts that Benefit 2 and Benefit 3 are conceptually distinct, one could argue that there is significant overlap between the value of USDA certification and improved quality perception on the part of pistachio buyers and consumers. However, the assumed benefits are small in both cases, and if either of the benefit figures is eliminated, net estimated benefits to handlers still exceed one million dollars.
Cost-benefit studies which use economic welfare analysis also typically include consumer impacts, and the witness's economic analysis includes a parallel set of computations for the buyer/consumer segment of the pistachio industry. The largest demand-side benefit, the reduced chance of an aflatoxin event, is estimated at $2.586 million. The combined value of the two additional demand-side benefits is $.655 million, yielding a total benefit estimate of $3.241 million. Subtracting the estimated impact on buyers/consumers of introducing added costs of marketing order compliance ($245,000) yields a buyer/consumer net benefit estimate of $2.996 million. A key aspect of this economic analysis is that consumer willingness to pay for pistachios rises as consumer confidence improves from the higher quality standards imposed by the order. With the demand and supply elasticities used in the analysis, the benefits to the domestic buyers/consumers in this simulation are larger than benefits to the handler side of the market.
In economic theory terminology, this part of the simulation is measuring the change in consumer surplus. Viewed in terms of a supply-demand graph, consumer surplus is the area above the price and below the demand curve. The $2.996 million dollar estimate of net benefit is a measure of the difference between consumer surplus at the initial equilibrium and the new price and quantity after the supply and demand curves have been shifted to represent the median changes in cost (supply) and willingness to pay (demand).
Summing the producer/handler and buyer/consumer net benefits ($2.996 + $1.448) yields a $4.444 million median estimated value of the marketing order to the economy.
Estimated Impacts on Small Producers
The marketing order does not impose any direct compliance costs on producers. The direct impact is on the handlers who are required to pay for testing and inspection. Producers will be affected to the extent that they may have to discard more low quality nuts than previously, if they produce quantities of nuts below the size and quality standard. Witnesses stated there is no evidence that the proportion of low quality nuts is correlated with farm size.
Additionally, the record shows that handler costs of compliance are typically reflected in handler payments to producers. Witnesses stated that the anticipated benefit derived from increased consumer demand will offset the cost of compliance to producers.
Witnesses stated that most producers sell to large handlers (which handle 80 percent of production). Distinguishing among handlers by size does not indicate different economic impacts on individual farms, which are distributed broadly across handlers.
Witnesses also pointed out that there is substantial inter-handler competition in the pistachio industry, with at least 10 handlers out of 19 competing for producers' pistachios (with the remainder presumably processing for their own account). Given the distribution of producers across processing firms and the level of competition, the overall cost-benefit results may be taken as the impact on the full size range of producers.
Based on a farm price of $1.10 and a handler price of $1.80, producers receive about 60 percent of the revenue in the industry, and are likely (given certain supply elasticities) to receive more than 60 percent of the estimated handler net benefits. Producer total gain (out of the estimated $1.448 million in net benefits to the handler segment) is thus at least $870,000 per year ($1.448 million times 0.60). This is distributed across producers in proportion to output, with no differential impact on smaller or larger producers.
Based on the hearing record, AMS therefore concludes that pistachio producers will benefit from implementation of the order. Further, Start Printed Page 17849there is no evidence of differing economic impacts between small and large producers.
Estimated Impact on Small Handlers
Most compliance costs are uniform across handlers, but some differences could be correlated with the size of a handler's operation. Two relevant points are the number of lots ready to be tested per day and the lot size to be tested. Larger firms, which are more likely to have larger lot sizes for testing and to have more lots ready per day (up to about 5), may experience some savings relative to firms with smaller lot sizes and fewer lots to be tested at one time.
The marketing order includes provisions to reduce compliance costs for small handlers. Firms that handle less than 1,000,000 pounds per year will be subject to simplified aflatoxin testing procedures. Additionally, they will be exempt from testing for remaining minimum quality requirements. This should reduce the expenses for smaller handlers.
Some other handlers, which process substantially more, may face somewhat higher costs for at least part of their production. Those handlers are likely, however, to have more than $5 million in total revenue, and would thus not be classified as small business entities.
Table 2 shows that the compliance costs and net economic impacts for different sizes of handlers. A positive net economic impact would exist for all handler groups.
|Handler group*||Direct compliance cost (dollars)||Net economic impact (dollars)|
|Higher Volume/Lower Compliance Costs||−$667,000||1,178,000|
|Medium Volume/Compliance Costs||−150,000||208,000|
|Lower Volume/Higher Compliance Costs||−58,000||61,000|
|*80%, 15%, and 5%, respectively, of total quantity of pistachios marketed annually.|
The above table shows that the net economic impact is in direct proportion to the volume of pistachios handled by each handler group. For example, the largest handler group, accounting for 80 percent of the pistachios marketed, will reap about 81 percent of the benefits of the program. AMS therefore concludes that the program will not have a disproportionate impact on small entities.
The cost and benefit estimates presented above focus on a single set of results using median parameter values. The witness's economic analysis involved simulating a number of scenarios, using alternative values for compliance costs, benefits, and elasticities of supply and demand. All scenarios, even the low benefit, high cost scenarios, indicated positive net economic impacts.
The witness's analysis concludes that the marketing order will require minimal adjustments in current processing activities and will yield large estimated benefits. The simulation results indicate that costs of compliance are small relative to benefits for all firms, and that both small and large entities are likely to benefit significantly. Producers are likely to share net producer benefits in proportion to production. Large and small handlers both gain from the marketing order, also in proportion to the volumes handled. Some of the smallest handlers could have larger net benefits per unit because of the provision allowing special lower-cost testing arrangements.
The witness's net benefit analysis represents a reasonable, plausible set of estimates of the economic impact of mandatory aflatoxin testing and minimum quality standards through a Federal marketing order. The median cost and benefit figures explained during the hearing are considered to adequately represent estimates of the economic impact of implementation of the program and its regulatory provisions.
The order will impose some reporting and recordkeeping requirements on handlers. However, handler testimony indicated that the expected burden that will be imposed with respect to these requirements will be negligible. Most of the information that will be reported to the committee is already compiled by handlers for other uses and is readily available. Reporting and recordkeeping requirements issued under the peanut aflatoxin certification program (7 CFR part 996) impose an average annual burden on each regulated handler and importer of about 8 hours. It is reasonable to expect that a similar burden will be imposed under this marketing order on the estimated 19 handlers of pistachios in California.
The record evidence also indicates that the benefits to small as well as large handlers are likely to be greater than would accrue under the alternatives to the order, namely no marketing order, or an order without the combination of quality, size and aflatoxin regulation.
USDA has not identified any relevant Federal rules that duplicate, overlap, or conflict with this rule.
In determining that the order and its provisions will not have a disproportionate economic on a substantial number of small entities, all of the issues discussed above were considered. Based on hearing record evidence and USDA's analysis of the economic information provided, the order provisions have been carefully reviewed to ensure that every effort has been made to eliminate any unnecessary costs or requirements.
Although the order will impose some additional costs and requirements on handlers, it is anticipated that the order will help to strengthen demand for California pistachios. Therefore, any additional costs should be offset by the benefits derived from expanded sales benefiting handlers and producers alike. Accordingly, it is determined that the order will not have a disproportionate economic impact on a substantial number of small handlers or producers.
Paperwork Reduction Act
In compliance with OMB regulations (5 CFR part 1320) which implement the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (Pub. L. 104-13), the forms to be used for nomination and selection of the initial administrative committee have been submitted to and approved by OMB.
Any additional information collection and recordkeeping requirements that Start Printed Page 17850may be imposed under the order will be submitted to OMB for approval. Those requirements would not become effective prior to OMB approval.
Civil Justice Reform
The provisions of the marketing agreement and order have been reviewed under Executive Order 12778, Civil Justice Reform. They are not intended to have retroactive effect. The agreement and order will not preempt any State or local laws, regulations, or policies, unless they present an irreconcilable conflict with this rule.
The Act provides that administrative proceedings must be exhausted before parties may file suit in court. Under section 608c(15)(A) of the Act, any handler subject to an order may file with the Department a petition stating that the order, any provision of the order, or any obligation imposed in connection with the order is not in accordance with law and request a modification of the order or to be exempted therefrom. A handler is afforded the opportunity for a hearing on the petition. After the hearing, the USDA would rule on the petition. The Act provides that the district court of the United States in any district in which the handler is an inhabitant, or has his or her principal place of business, has jurisdiction to review the Department's ruling on the petition, provided an action is filed not later than 20 days after the date of the entry of the ruling.
Findings and Determinations
(a) Findings upon the basis of the hearing record. Pursuant to the provisions of the Agricultural Marketing Agreement of 1937, as amended (7 U.S.C. 601 et seq.), and the applicable rules of practice and procedure effective thereunder (7 CFR part 900), a public hearing was held upon a proposed marketing agreement and order regulating the handling of pistachios grown in California.
Upon the basis of the evidence introduced at such hearing and the record thereof, it is found that:
(1) The marketing agreement and order, and all of the terms and conditions thereof, will tend to effectuate the declared policy of the Act;
(2) The marketing agreement and order regulate the handling of pistachios in California in the same manner as, and are applicable only to, persons in the respective classes of commercial and industrial activity specified in the marketing agreement and order upon which a hearing has been held;
(3) The marketing agreement and order are limited in their application to the smallest regional production area which is practicable, consistent with carrying out the declared policy of the Act, and the issuance of several orders applicable to subdivision of the production area would not effectively carry out the declared policy of the Act;
(4) The marketing agreement and order prescribe, insofar as practicable, such different terms applicable to different parts of the production area as are necessary to give due recognition to the differences in the production and marketing of pistachios grown in the production area; and
(5) All handling of pistachios grown in California as defined in the marketing agreement and order, is in the current of interstate or foreign commerce or directly burdens, obstructs, or affects such commerce.
(b) Additional findings. It is necessary and in the public interest to make most of the provisions of this order effective not later than one day after publication in the Federal Register. The exception would be for those provisions of the order (§§ 983.38 through 983.46) that establish mandatory testing inspection and certification for maximum aflatoxin and minimum quality levels of California pistachios. These provisions would not become effective until August 1, 2004.
A later effective date would unnecessarily delay implementation of the program, which is expected to benefit the California pistachio industry. Making the program effective as specified would allow for the nomination, selection and organization of the initial administrative committee sufficiently in advance of the 2004 pistachio harvest season. It also allows time for the committee to recommend a budget and assessment rate and any administrative rules and regulations deemed necessary to operate the program.
In view of the foregoing, it is hereby found and determined that good cause exists for making most of the order provisions effective one day after publication in the Federal Register, and that it would be contrary to the public interest to delay the effective date for 30 days after publication in the Federal Register (Sec. 553(d), Administrative Procedure Act; 5 U.S.C. 551-559).
(c) Determinations. It is hereby determined that:
(1) The “Marketing Agreement Regulating the Handling of Pistachios Grown in California,” upon which the aforesaid public hearing was held, has been signed by handlers (excluding cooperative associations of producers who are not engaged in processing, distributing, or shipping pistachios covered by the order) who during the period September 1, 2002, through August 31, 2003, handled not less than 50 percent of the volume of such pistachios covered by the order, and
(2) The issuance of this order is favored or approved by at least two-thirds of the producers who participated in a referendum on the question of its approval and who, during the period September 1, 2002, through August 31, 2003 (which has been determined to be a representative period), have been engaged within the production area in the production of pistachios for market, such producers having also produced for market at least two-thirds of the volume of such commodity represented in the referendum.Start List of Subjects
List of Subjects in Proposed 7 CFR Part 983
- Marketing agreements
- Reporting and recordkeeping requirements
Order Relative to the Handling of Pistachios Grown in California
It is therefore ordered, That on and after the effective date hereof, all handling of pistachios grown in California shall be in conformity to, and in compliance with, the terms and conditions of the said order, as follows:
The provisions of the marketing order are set forth in full herein.Start Amendment Part
Title 7, chapter IX is amended by adding part 983 to read as follows:End Amendment Part Start Part
PART 983—PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA
Subpart—Order Regulating Handling
- Accredited laboratory.
- Aflatoxin inspection certificate.
- Assessed weight.
- Certified pistachios.
- Confidential data or information.
- Department or USDA.
- Domestic shipments.
- Inshell pistachios.
- Minimum quality requirements.
- Minimum quality certificate.
- Part and subpart.
- Production area.
- Production year. Start Printed Page 17851
- Proprietary capacity.
- Shelled pistachios.
- Substandard pistachios.
- Establishment and membership.
- Initial members and nomination of successor members.
- Marketing policy.
- Aflatoxin levels.
- Minimum quality levels.
- Failed lots/rework procedure.
- Testing of minimal quantities.
- Inspection, certification and identification.
- Substandard pistachios.
- Modification or suspension of regulations.
- Confidential information.
- Random verification audits.
- Verification of reports.
- Delinquent assessments.
- Implementation and amendments.
- Right of the Secretary.
- Personal liability.
- Duration of immunities.
- Effective time.
- Suspension or termination.
- Procedure upon termination.
- Effect of termination or amendment.
- Relationship with the California Pistachio Commission.
An accredited laboratory is a laboratory that has been approved or accredited by the U.S. Department of Agriculture for testing aflatoxin.
Act means Public Act No. 10, 73rd Congress (May 12, 1933), as amended and as re-enacted and amended by the Agricultural Marketing Order Act of 1937, as amended (48 Stat. 31, as amended; 7 U.S.C. 601 et seq.).
Affiliation. This term normally appears as “affiliate of”, or “affiliated with”, and means a person such as a producer or handler who is: A producer or handler that directly, or indirectly through one or more intermediaries, owns or controls, or is controlled by, or is under common control with the producer or handler specified; or a producer or handler that directly, or indirectly through one or more intermediaries, is connected in a proprietary capacity, or shares the ownership or control of the specified producer or handler with one or more other producers or handlers. As used in this part, the term “control” (including the terms “controlling”, “controlled by”, and “under the common control with”) means the possession, direct or indirect, of the power to direct or cause the direction of the management and policies of a handler or a producer, whether through voting securities, membership in a cooperative, by contract or otherwise.
Aflatoxin is one of a group of mycotoxins produced by the molds Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Aflatoxins are naturally occurring compounds produced by molds, which can be spread in improperly processed and stored nuts, dried fruits and grains.
Aflatoxin inspection certificate is a certificate issued by an accredited laboratory or by a USDA laboratory.
Assessed weight means pounds of inshell pistachios, free of internal defects as defined in § 983.39(b)(4) and (5), with the weight computed at 5 percent moisture, received for processing by a handler within each production year: Provided, That for loose kernels, the actual weight shall be multiplied by two to obtain an inshell weight; or based on such other elements as may be recommended by the committee and approved by the Secretary.
Certified pistachios are those for which aflatoxin inspection and minimum quality certificates have been issued.
Committee means the administrative committee for pistachios established pursuant to § 983.32.
Confidential data or information submitted to the committee consists of data or information constituting a trade secret or disclosure of the trade position, financial condition, or business operations of a particular entity or its customers.
Department or USDA means the United States Department of Agriculture.
(a) Districts shall consist of the following:
(1) District 1 consists of Tulare, Kern, San Bernardino, San Luis Obispo, Santa Barbara, Ventura, Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Diego, and Imperial Counties of California.
(2) District 2 consists of Kings, Fresno, Madera, and Merced Counties of California.
(3) District 3 consists of all counties in California where pistachios are produced that are not included in Districts 1 and 2.
(b) With the approval of the Secretary, the boundaries of any district may be changed by the committee to ensure proper representation. The boundaries need not coincide with county lines. In addition, the boundaries in the production area may be adjusted to conform to changes to the boundaries of the districts established for those of the California Pistachio Commission upon the recommendation of the committee and approval of the Secretary.
Domestic shipments means shipments to the fifty states of the United States or to territories of the United States and the District of Columbia.
Handle means to engage in:
(a) Receiving pistachios;
(b) Hulling and drying pistachios;
(c) Further preparing pistachios by sorting, sizing, shelling, roasting, cleaning, salting, and/or packaging for marketing in or transporting to any and all markets in the current of interstate or foreign commerce; and/or
(d) Placing pistachios into the current of commerce from within the production area to points outside thereof: Provided, however, that transportation within the production area between handlers and from the Start Printed Page 17852orchard to the processing facility is not handling.
Handler means any person who handles pistachios.
Inshell pistachios means pistachios that have a shell that has not been removed.
Inspector means any inspector authorized by the USDA to inspect pistachios.
Lot means any quantity of pistachios that is submitted for testing purposes under this part.
Minimum quality requirements are permissible maximum defects and minimum size levels for inshell pistachios and kernels specified in § 983.39.
Minimum quality certificate is a certificate issued by the USDA or Federal/State Inspection Service.
Part means the order regulating the handling of pistachios grown in the State of California, and all rules, regulations and supplementary orders issued there under. The aforesaid order regulating the handling of pistachios grown in California shall be a subpart of such part.
Person means an individual, partnership, limited liability corporation, corporation, trust, association, or any other business unit.
Pistachios means the nuts of the pistachio tree of the genus Pistacia vera grown in the production area whether inshell or shelled.
Processing means hulling and drying pistachios in preparation for market.
Producer means any person engaged within the production area in a proprietary capacity in the production of pistachios for sale.
Production area means the State of California.
Production year is synonymous with “fiscal period” and means the period beginning on September 1 and ending on August 31 of each year or such other period as may be recommended by the committee and approved by the Secretary. Pistachios harvested and received in August of any year shall be applied to the subsequent production year for marketing order purposes.
Proprietary capacity means the capacity or interest of a producer or handler that, either directly or through one or more intermediaries, is a property owner together with all the appurtenant rights of an owner including the right to vote the interest in that capacity as an individual, a shareholder, member of a cooperative, partner, trustee or in any other capacity with respect to any other business unit.
Secretary means the Secretary of Agriculture of the United States or any officer or employee of the United States Department of Agriculture who is, or who may hereafter be, authorized to act in his/her stead.
Shelled pistachios means pistachio kernels, or portions of kernels, after the pistachio shells have been removed.
Substandard pistachios means pistachios, inshell or shelled, which do not comply with the maximum aflatoxin and/or minimum quality regulations of this part.
There is hereby established an administrative committee for pistachios to administer the terms and provisions of this part. This committee, consisting of eleven (11) member positions, each of whom shall have an alternate, shall be allocated as follows:
(a) Handlers. Two of the members shall represent handlers, as follows:
(1) One handler member nominated by one vote for each handler; and
(2) One handler member nominated by voting based on each handler casting one vote for each ton (or portion thereof) of the assessed weight of pistachios processed by such handler during the two production years preceding the production year in which the nominations are made.
(b) Producers. Eight members shall represent producers. Producers within the respective districts shall nominate four producers from District 1, three producers from District 2 and one producer from District 3. The Secretary, upon recommendation of the committee, may reapportion producer membership among the districts to ensure proper representation.
(c) Public member. One member shall be a public member who is neither a producer nor a handler and shall have all the powers, rights and privileges of any other member of the committee. The public member and alternate public member shall be nominated by the committee and selected by the Secretary.
Nomination of committee members and alternates shall follow the procedure set forth in this section or as may be changed as recommended by the committee and approved by the Secretary.
(a) Initial members. Nominations for initial grower and handler members shall be conducted by the Secretary by either holding meetings of handlers and producers, or by mail.
(b) Successor members. Subsequent to the first nomination of committee members under this part, persons to be nominated to serve on the committee as producer or handler members shall be selected pursuant to nomination procedures that shall be established by the committee with the approval of the Secretary: Provided, That:
(1) Any qualified individuals who seek nomination as a producer member shall submit to the committee an intent to seek office in one designated district on such form and with such information as the committee shall designate; ballots, accompanied by the names of all such candidates, with spaces to indicate voters' choices and spaces for write-in candidates, together with voting instructions, shall be mailed to all producers who are on record with the committee within the respective districts; the person(s) receiving the highest number of votes shall be the member nominee(s) for that district, and the person(s) receiving the second highest number of votes shall be the alternate member nominee(s). In case of a tie vote, the nominee shall be selected by a drawing.
(2) Any qualified individuals who seek nomination as a handler member shall submit to the committee an intent to seek office with such information as the committee shall designate; ballots, accompanied by the names of all such candidates, with spaces to indicate voters' choices and spaces for write-in candidates, together with voting Start Printed Page 17853instructions, shall be mailed to all handlers who are on record with the committee. For the first handler member seat, the person receiving the highest number of votes shall be the handler member nominee for that seat, and the person receiving the second highest number of votes shall be the alternate member nominee. For the second handler member seat, the person receiving the highest number of votes representing handler volume shall be the handler member nominee for that seat, and the person receiving the second highest number of votes representing handler volume shall be the alternate member nominee. In case of a tie vote, the nominee shall be selected by a drawing.
(c) Handlers. Only handlers, including duly authorized officers or employees of handlers, may participate in the nomination of the two handler member nominees and their alternates. Nomination of the two handler members and their alternates shall be as follows:
(1) For one handler member nomination, each handler entity shall be entitled to one vote;
(2) For the second handler member nomination, each handler entity shall be entitled to cast one vote respectively for each ton of assessed weight of pistachios processed by that handler during the two production years preceding the production year in which the nominations are made. For the purposes of nominating handler members and alternates by volume, the assessed weight of pistachios shall be credited to the handler responsible under the order for the payment of assessments of those pistachios. The committee with the approval of the Secretary, may revise the handler representation on the committee if the committee ceases to be representative of the industry.
(d) Producers. Only producers, including duly authorized officers or employees of producers, may participate in the nomination of nominees for producer members and their alternates. Each producer shall be entitled to cast only one vote, whether directly or through an authorized officer or employee, for each position to be filled in the district in which the producer produces pistachios. If a producer is engaged in producing pistachios in more than one district, such producer shall select the district in which to participate in the nomination. If a person is both a producer and a handler of pistachios, such person may participate in both producer and handler nominations, provided, however, that a single member may not hold concurrent seats as both a producer and handler.
(e) Member's affiliation. Not more than two members and not more than two alternate members shall be persons employed by or affiliated with producers or handlers that are affiliated with the same handler and/or producer. Additionally, only one member and one alternate in any one district representing producers and only one member and one alternate representing handlers shall be employed by, or affiliated with the same handler and/or producer. No handler, and all of its affiliated handlers, can be represented by more than one handler member.
(f) Cooperative affiliation. In the case of a producer cooperative, a producer shall not be deemed to be connected in a proprietary capacity with the cooperative notwithstanding any outstanding retains, contributions or financial indebtedness owed by the cooperative to a producer if the producer has not marketed pistachios through the cooperative during the current and one preceding production year. A cooperative that has as its members one or more other cooperatives that are handlers shall not be considered as a handler for the purpose of nominating or voting under this part.
(g) Alternate members. Each member of the committee shall have an alternate member to be nominated in the same manner as the member. Any alternate serving in the same district as a member where both are employed by, or connected in a proprietary capacity with the same corporation, firm, partnership, association, or business organization, shall serve as the alternate to that member. An alternate member, in the absence of the member for whom that alternate is selected shall serve in place of that member on the committee, and shall have and be able to exercise all the rights, privileges, and powers of the member when serving on the committee. In the event of death, removal, resignation, or the disqualification of a member, the alternate shall act as a member on the committee until a successor member is selected and has been qualified.
(h) Selection by Secretary. Nominations under paragraph (g) of this section received by the committee for all handler and producer members and alternate member positions shall be certified and sent to the Secretary at least 60 days prior to the beginning of each two-year term of office, together with all necessary data and other information deemed by the committee to be pertinent or requested by the Secretary. From those nominations, the Secretary shall select the ten producer and handler members of the committee and an alternate for each member.
(i) Acceptance. Each person to be selected by the Secretary as a member or as an alternate member of the committee shall, prior to such selection, qualify by advising the Secretary that if selected, such person agrees to serve in the position for which that nomination has been made.
(j) Failure to nominate. If nominations are not made within the time and manner specified in this part, the Secretary may, without regard to nominations, select the committee members and alternates qualified to serve on the basis of the representation provided for in § 983.32.
(k) Term of office. Selected members and alternate members of the committee shall serve for terms of two years: Provided, That four of the initially selected producer members and one handler member and their alternates shall, by a drawing, be seated for terms of one year so that approximately half of the memberships' terms expire each year. Each member and alternate member shall continue to serve until a successor is selected and has qualified. The term of office shall begin on July 1st of each year. Committee members and alternates may serve up to four consecutive, two-year terms of office. In no event shall any member or alternate serve more than eight consecutive years on the committee. For purposes of determining when a member or alternate has served four consecutive terms, the accrual of terms shall begin following any period of at least twelve consecutive months out of office.
(l) Qualifications. (1) Each producer member and alternate shall be, at the time of selection and during the term of office, a producer or an officer, or employee, of a producer in the district for which nominated.
(2) Each handler member and alternate shall be, at the time of selection and during the term of office, a handler or an officer or employee of a handler.
(3) Any member or alternate member who at the time of selection was employed by or affiliated with the person who is nominated, that member shall, upon termination of that relationship, become disqualified to serve further as a member and that position shall be deemed vacant.
(4) No person nominated to serve as a public member or alternate public member shall have a financial interest in any pistachio growing or handling operation.
(m) Vacancy. Any vacancy on the committee occurring by the failure of any person selected to the committee to Start Printed Page 17854qualify as a member or alternate member due to a change in status making the member ineligible to serve, or due to death, removal, or resignation, shall be filled, by a majority vote of the committee for the unexpired portion of the term. However, that person shall fulfill all the qualifications set forth in this part as required for the member whose office that person is to fill. The qualifications of any person to fill a vacancy on the committee shall be certified in writing to the Secretary. The Secretary shall notify the committee if the Secretary determines that any such person is not qualified.
(n) The committee, with the approval of the Secretary, may issue rules and regulations implementing §§ 983.32, 983.33 and 983.34.
(a) Quorum. A quorum of the committee shall be any seven voting committee members. The vote of a majority of members present at a meeting at which there is a quorum shall constitute the act of the committee: Provided, That actions of the committee with respect to the following issues shall require at least seven concurring votes of the voting members regarding any recommendation to the Secretary for adoption or change in:
(1) Minimum quality levels;
(2) Aflatoxin levels;
(3) Inspection programs;
(4) The establishment of the committee.
(b) Voting. Members of the committee may participate in a meeting by attendance in person or through the use of a conference telephone or similar communication equipment, as long as all members participating in such a meeting can communicate with one another. An action required or permitted to be taken by the committee may be taken without a meeting, if all members of the committee shall consent in writing to that action.
(c) Compensation. The members of the committee and their alternates shall serve without compensation, but members and alternates acting as members shall be allowed their necessary expenses: Provided, That the committee may request the attendance of one or more alternates not acting as members at any meeting of the committee, and such alternates may be allowed their necessary expenses; and, Provided further, That the public member and the alternate for the public member may be paid reasonable compensation in addition to necessary expenses.
The committee shall have the following powers:
(a) To administer the provisions of this part in accordance with its terms;
(b) To make and adopt bylaws, rules and regulations to effectuate the terms and provisions of this part with the approval of the Secretary;
(c) To receive, investigate, and report to the Secretary complaints of violations of this part; and
(d) To recommend to the Secretary amendments to this part.
The committee shall have, among others, the following duties:
(a) To adopt bylaws and rules for the conduct of its meetings and the selection of such officers from among its membership, including a chairperson and vice-chairperson, as may be necessary, and define the duties of such officers; and adopt such other bylaws, regulations and rules as may be necessary to accomplish the purposes of the Act and the efficient administration of this part;
(b) To employ or contract with such persons or agents as the committee deems necessary and to determine the duties and compensation of such persons or agents;
(c) To select such subcommittees as may be necessary;
(d) To submit to the Secretary a budget for each fiscal period, prior to the beginning of such period, including a report explaining the items appearing therein and a recommendation as to the rate of assessments for such period;
(e) To keep minutes, books, and records which will reflect all of the acts and transactions of the committee and which shall be subject to examination by the Secretary;
(f) To prepare periodic statements of the financial operations of the committee and to make copies of each statement available to producers and handlers for examination at the office of the committee;
(g) To cause its financial statements to be audited by a certified public accountant at least once each fiscal year and at such times as the Secretary may request. Such audit shall include an examination of the receipt of assessments and the disbursement of all funds. The committee shall provide the Secretary with a copy of all audits and shall make copies of such audits, after the removal of any confidential individual or handler information that may be contained in them, available for examination at the offices of the committee;
(h) To act as intermediary between the Secretary and any producer or handler with respect to the operations of this part;
(i) To investigate and assemble data on the growing, handling, shipping and marketing conditions with respect to pistachios;
(j) To apprise the Secretary of all committee meetings in a timely manner;
(k) To submit to the Secretary such available information as the Secretary may request;
(l) To investigate compliance with the provisions of this part;
(m) To provide, through communication to producers and handlers, information regarding the activities of the committee and to respond to industry inquiries about committee activities;
(n) To oversee the collection of assessments levied under this part;
(o) To borrow such funds, subject to the approval of the Secretary and not to exceed the expected expenses of one fiscal year, as are necessary for administering its responsibilities and obligations under this part.
Prior to August 1st each year, the committee shall prepare and submit to the Secretary a report setting forth its recommended marketing policy covering quality regulations for the pending crop. In the event it becomes advisable to modify such policy, because of changed crop conditions, the committee shall formulate a new policy and shall submit a report thereon to the Secretary. In developing the marketing policy, the committee shall give consideration to the production, harvesting, processing and storage conditions of that crop. The committee may also give consideration to current prices being received and the probable general level of prices to be received for pistachios by producers and handlers. Notice of the committee's marketing policy, and of any modifications thereof, shall be given promptly by reasonable publicity, to producers and handlers.
(a) Maximum level. No handler shall ship for domestic human consumption, pistachios that exceed an aflatoxin level of more than 15 ppb. All shipments must also be covered by an aflatoxin inspection certificate. Pistachios that fail to meet the aflatoxin requirements shall be disposed in such manner as described in Failed lots/rework procedure of this part.Start Printed Page 17855
(b) Change in level. The committee may recommend to the Secretary changes in the aflatoxin level specified in this section. If the Secretary finds on the basis of such recommendation or other information that such an adjustment of the aflatoxin level would tend to effectuate the declared policy of the Act, such change shall be made accordingly.
(c) Transfers between handlers. Transfers between handlers within the production area are exempt from the aflatoxin regulation of this section.
(d) Aflatoxin testing procedures. To obtain an aflatoxin inspection certificate, each lot to be certified shall be uniquely identified, be traceable from testing through shipment by the handler and be subjected to the following:
(1) Samples for testing. Prior to testing, a sample shall be drawn from each lot and divided between those pistachios for aflatoxin testing and those for minimum quality testing (“lot samples”) in sufficient weight to comply with Table 1, Table 2 and Table 4 of this part.
(2) Test samples for aflatoxin. Prior to submission of samples to an accredited laboratory for aflatoxin analysis, three samples shall be created equally from the pistachios designated for aflatoxin testing in compliance with the requirements of Tables 1 and 2 of this paragraph (d)(2)(“test samples”). The test samples shall be prepared by, or under the supervision of, an inspector, or as approved under an alternative USDA-recognized inspection program. The test samples shall be designated by an inspector as Test Sample #1, Test Sample #2, and Test Sample #3. Each sample shall be placed in a suitable container, with the lot number clearly identified, and then submitted to an accredited laboratory. The gross weight of the inshell lot sample for aflatoxin testing and the number of samplings required are shown in the following Table 1. The gross weight of the kernel lot sample for aflatoxin testing and the number of incremental samples required is shown in the following Table 2 of this paragraph.
|Lot weight (lbs.)||Number of incremental samples for the lot sample||Total weight of lot sample (kilograms)||Weight of test sample (kilograms)|
|220 or less||10||3.0||1.0|
|Lot weight (lbs.)||Number of incremental samples for the lot sample||Total weight of lot sample (kilograms)||Weight of test sample (kilograms)|
|220 or less||10||1.5||.5|
(3) Testing of pistachios. Test samples shall be received and logged by an accredited laboratory and each test sample shall be prepared and analyzed using High Pressure Liquid Chromatograph (HPLC), Vicam Method (Aflatest) or other methods as recommended by not less than seven members of the committee and approved by the Secretary. The aflatoxin level shall be calculated on a kernel weight basis.
(4) Certification of lots “negative” as to aflatoxin. Lots will be certified as “negative” on the aflatoxin inspection certificate if Test Sample #1 has an aflatoxin level at or below 5 ppb. If the aflatoxin level of Test Sample #1 is above 25 ppb, the lot fails and the accredited laboratory shall fill out a failed lot notification report as specified in § 983.40. If the aflatoxin level of Test Sample #1 is above 5 ppb and below 25 ppb, the accredited laboratory may at the handler's discretion analyze Test Sample #2 and the test results of Test Samples #1 and #2 will be averaged. Alternatively, the handler may elect to withdraw the lot from testing, rework the lot, and re-submit it for testing after re-working. If the handler directs the laboratory to proceed with the analysis of Test Sample #2, a lot will be certified as negative to aflatoxin and the laboratory shall issue an aflatoxin inspection certificate if the averaged results of Test Sample #1 and Test Sample #2 is at or below 10 ppb. If the averaged aflatoxin level of the Test Samples #1 and #2 is at or above 20 ppb, the lot fails and the accredited laboratory shall fill out a failed lot notification report as specified in § 983.40. If the averaged aflatoxin level of Test Sample #1 and #2 is above 10 ppb and below 20 ppb, the accredited laboratory may, at the handler's discretion, analyze Test Sample #3 and the results of Test Samples #1, #2 and #3 will be averaged. Alternatively, the handler may elect to withdraw the lot from testing, re-work the lot, and re-submit it for testing after a re-working. If the handler directs the laboratory to proceed with the analysis of Test Sample #3, a lot will be certified as negative to aflatoxin and the laboratory shall issue an aflatoxin inspection Start Printed Page 17856certificate if the averaged results of Test Samples #1, #2 and #3 is at or below 15 ppb. If the averaged aflatoxin results of Test Samples #1, #2 and #3 is above 15 ppb, the lot fails and the accredited laboratory shall fill out a failed lot notification report as specified in § 983.40. The accredited laboratory shall send a copy of the failed lot notification report to the committee and to the failed lot's owner within 10 working days of any failure described in this section. If the lot is certified as negative as described in this section, the aflatoxin inspection certificate shall certify the lot using a certification form identifying each lot by weight, grade and date. The certification expires for the lot or remainder of the lot after 12 months.
(5) Certification of aflatoxin levels. Each accredited laboratory shall complete aflatoxin testing and reporting and shall certify that every lot of California pistachios shipped domestically does not exceed the aflatoxin levels as required in § 983.38(d)(4). Each handler shall keep a record of each test, along with a record of final shipping disposition. These records must be maintained for three years beyond the crop year of their applicability, and are subject to audit by the Secretary or the committee at any time.
(6) Test samples that are not used for analysis. If a handler does not elect to use Test Samples #2 or #3 for certification purposes the handler may request the laboratory to return them to the handler.
(a) Maximum defect and minimum size. No handler shall ship for domestic human consumption, pistachios that exceed permissible maximum defect and minimum size levels shown in the following Table 3 of this paragraph.
|Factor||Maximum permissible defects (percent by weight)|
|EXTERNAL (SHELL) DEFECTS|
|1. Non-splits & not split on suture||10.0|
|(i) Maximum non-splits allowed||4.0|
|2. Adhering hull material||2.0|
|3. Dark stain||3.0|
|4. Damage by other means, other than 1, 2 and 3 above, which materially detracts from the appearance or the edible or marketing quality of the individual shell or the lot||10.0|
|INTERNAL (KERNEL) DEFECTS|
|Immature kernel (Fills <75%->50% of the shell)|
|Kernel spotting (Affects 1/8 aggregate surface)|
|2. Serious damage||4.0||2.5|
|Minor insect or vertebrate injury/insect damage, insect evidence, mold, rancidity, decay|
|(i) Maximum insect damage allowed||2.0||0.5|
|Total external or internal defects allowed||9.0|
|1. Shell pieces and blanks (Fills <50% of the shell)||2.0|
|(i) Maximum blanks allowed||1.0|
|2. Foreign material—No glass, metal or live insects permitted||0.25||0.1|
|3. Particles and dust||0.25|
|4. Loose kernels||6.0|
|Minimum permissible defects|
|(percent by weight)|
|Maximum allowable inshell pistachios that will pass through a 30/64ths inch round hole screen||5.0|
(b) Definitions applicable to permissible maximum defect and minimum size levels: The following definitions shall apply to inshell pistachio and pistachio kernel maximum defect and minimum size:
(1) Loose kernels means kernels or kernel portions that are out of the shell and which cannot be considered particles and dust.
(2) External (shell) defects means any abnormal condition affecting the hard covering around the kernel. Such defects include, but are not limited to, non-split shells, shells not split on suture, adhering hull material or dark stains.
(3) Damage by external (shell) defects shall also include any specific defect described in paragraphs (b)(3)(i) through (iv) of this section or an equally objectionable variation of any one of these defects, any other defect or any combination of defects which materially detracts from the appearance or the edibility or the marketing quality of the individual shell or the lot.
(i) Non-split shells means shells are not opened or are partially opened and will not allow an 18/1000 (.018) inch thick by 1/4 (.25) inch wide gauge to slip into the opening.
(ii) Not split on suture means shells are split other than on the suture and will allow an 18/1000 (.018) inch thick by 1/4 (.25) inch wide gauge to slip into the opening.
(iii) Adhering hull material means an aggregate amount of hull covers more than one-eighth (1/8) of the total shell surface, or when readily noticeable on dyed shells.
(iv) Dark stain on raw or roasted nuts means an aggregate amount of dark brown, dark gray or black discoloration Start Printed Page 17857that affects more than one-eighth of the total shell surface. Pistachios that are dyed or color-coated to improve their marketing quality are not subject to the maximum permissible defects for dark stain. Speckled discoloration on the stem end, bottom quarter of the nut is not considered damage.
(4) Internal (kernel) defects means any damage affecting the kernel. Such damage includes, but is not limited to evidence of insects, immature kernels, rancid kernels, mold or decay.
(i) Damage by internal (kernel) defects shall also include any specific defect described in paragraphs (b)(4)(i)(A) and (B) of this section, or an equally objectionable variation of any one of these defects, any other defect, or any combination of defects, which materially detracts from the appearance or the edibility or the marketing quality of the individual kernel or of the lot.
(A) Immature kernels in inshell are excessively thin kernels, or when a kernel fills less than three-fourths, but not less than one-half of the shell cavity. “Immature kernels” in shelled pistachios are excessively thin kernels and can have black, brown or gray surface with a dark interior color and the immaturity has adversely affected the flavor of the kernel.
(B) Kernel spotting refers to dark brown or dark gray spots aggregating more than one-eighth of the surface of the kernel.
(ii) Serious damage by internal (kernel) defects means any specific defect described in paragraphs (b)(4)(ii)(A) through (E) of this section, or an equally objectionable variation of any one of these defects, which seriously detracts from the appearance or the edibility or the marketing quality of the individual kernel or of the lot.
(A) Minor insect or vertebrate injury means the kernel shows conspicuous evidence of feeding.
(B) Insect damage means an insect, insect fragment, web or frass attached to the kernel. No live insects shall be permitted.
(C) Mold that is readily visible on the shell or kernel.
(D) Rancidity means the kernel is distinctly rancid to taste. Staleness of flavor shall not be classed as rancidity.
(E) Decay means 1/16th or more of the kernel surface is decomposed.
(5) Other defects means defects that cannot be considered internal defects or external defects. Such defects include, but are not limited to shell pieces, blanks, foreign materials or particles and dust. The following shall be considered other defects:
(i) Shell pieces means open inshell without a kernel, half shells or pieces of shell which are loose in the sample.
(ii) Blanks means a non-split shell not containing a kernel or containing a kernel that fills less than one-half of the shell cavity.
(iii) Foreign material means leaves, sticks, loose hulls or hull pieces, dirt, rocks, insects or insect fragments not attached to nuts, or any substance other than pistachio shells or kernels. Glass, metal or live insects shall not be permitted.
(iv) Particles and dust means pieces of nut kernels that will pass through 5/64 inch round opening.
(v) Undersized means inshell pistachios that fall through a 30/64-inch round hole screen.
(c) Minimum quality certificate. Each shipment for domestic human consumption must be covered by a USDA certificate certifying a minimum quality or higher. Pistachios that fail to meet the minimum quality specifications shall be disposed of in such manner as described in § 983.40.
(d) Transfers between handlers. Transfers between handlers within the production area are exempt from the minimum quality regulation of this section.
(e) Minimum quality testing procedures. To obtain a minimum quality certificate, each lot to be certified shall be uniquely identified, shall be traceable from testing through shipment by the handler and shall be subjected to the following procedure:
(1) Sampling of pistachios for maximum defects and minimum size. The gross weight of the inshell and kernel sample, and number of samplings required to meet the minimum quality regulation, is shown in Table 4 of this paragraph (e)(1). These samples shall be drawn from the lot that is to be certified pursuant to § 983.38(d)(1) under the supervision of an inspector or as approved under an alternative USDA recognized inspection program.
|Lot weight (lbs.)||Number of incremental samples for the lot sample||Total weight of lot sample (grams)||Weight of inshell and kernel test sample (grams)|
|220 or less||10||500||500|
(2) Testing of pistachios for maximum defect and minimum size. The sample shall be analyzed according to USDA protocol, current or as subsequently revised, to insure that the lot does not exceed maximum defects and meets at least the minimum size levels as specified in Table 3 of paragraph (a) of this section. For inshell pistachios, those nuts with dark stain, adhering hull, and those exhibiting apparent serious defects shall be shelled for internal kernel analysis. The USDA protocol currently appears in USDA inspection instruction manual “Pistachios in the Shell, Shipping Point and Market Inspection Instructions,” June 1994: revised September 1994, HU-125-9(b). Copies may be obtained from the Fresh Products Branch, Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. Contact information may be found at http://www.ams.usda.gov/fv/fvstand.htm.
(f) Certification of minimum quality. Each inspector shall complete minimum quality testing and reporting and shall certify that every lot of California pistachios or portion thereof shipped domestically meets minimum quality levels. A record of each test, along with a record of final shipping disposition, shall be kept by each handler. These records must be maintained for three years following the production year in which the pistachios were shipped, and Start Printed Page 17858are subject to audit by the committee at any time.
(a) Substandard pistachios. Each lot of substandard pistachios may be reworked to meet minimum quality requirements.
(b) Failed lot reporting. If a lot fails to meet the aflatoxin and/or the minimum quality requirements of this part, a failed lot notification report shall be completed and sent to the committee within 10 working days of the test failure. This form must be completed and submitted to the committee each time a lot fails either aflatoxin or the minimum quality testing. The accredited laboratories shall send the failed lot notification reports for aflatoxin tests to the committee, and the handler, under the supervision of an inspector, shall send the failed lot notification reports for the lots that do not meet the minimum quality requirements to the committee.
(c) Inshell rework procedure for aflatoxin. If inshell rework is selected as a remedy to meet the aflatoxin requirements of this part, then 100% of the product within that lot shall be removed from the bulk and/or retail packaging containers and reworked to remove the portion of the lot that caused the failure. Reworking shall consist of mechanical, electronic or manual procedures normally used in the handling of pistachios. After the rework procedure has been completed the total weight of the accepted product and the total weight of the rejected product shall be reported to the committee. The reworked lot shall be sampled and tested for aflatoxin as specified in § 983.38 except that the lot sample size and the test sample size shall be doubled. The reworked lot shall also be sampled and tested for the minimum quality requirements. If, after the lot has been reworked and tested, it fails the aflatoxin test for a second time, the lot may be shelled and the kernels reworked, sampled and tested in the manner specified for an original lot of kernels, or the failed lot may be used for non-human consumption or otherwise disposed of.
(d) Kernel rework procedure for aflatoxin. If pistachio kernel rework is selected as a remedy to meet the aflatoxin requirements of § 983.38, then 100% of the product within that lot shall be removed from the bulk and/or retail packaging containers and reworked to remove the portion of the lot that caused the failure. Reworking shall consist of mechanical, electronic or manual procedures normally used in the handling of pistachios. After the rework procedure has been completed the total weight of the accepted product and the total weight of the rejected product shall be reported to the committee. The reworked lot shall be sampled and tested for aflatoxin as specified in § 983.38.
(e) Minimum quality rework procedure for inshell pistachios and kernels. If rework is selected as a remedy to meet the minimum quality requirements of § 983.39, then 100% of the product within that lot shall be removed from the bulk and/or retail packaging containers and processed to remove the portion of the lot that caused the failure. Reworking shall consist of mechanical, electronic or manual procedures normally used in the handling of pistachios. The reworked lot shall be sampled and tested for the minimum quality requirements as specified in the minimum quality regulations of § 983.39.
(a) Aflatoxin. Handlers who handle less than 1 million pounds of assessed weight per year, have the option of utilizing both of the following methods for testing for aflatoxin:
(1) The handler may have an inspector sample and test his or her entire inventory of hulled and dried pistachios for the aflatoxin certification before further processing.
(2) The handler may segregate receipts into various lots at the handler's discretion and have an inspector sample and test each specific lot. Any lots that have less than 15 ppb aflatoxin can be certified by an inspector to be negative as to aflatoxin. Any lots that are found to be above 15 ppb may be tested after reworking in the same manner as specified in § 983.38.
(b) Minimum quality. Handlers who handle less than 1 million pounds of assessed weight can apply to the committee for an exemption from minimum quality testing. If the committee grants an exemption, then the handler must pull and retain samples of the lots and make samples available for review by the committee. The handler shall maintain the samples for 90 days.
After a lot is issued an aflatoxin inspection certificate and minimum quality certificate, it may be commingled with other certified lots.
The Secretary, upon recommendation of the committee, may establish rules and regulations to establish conditions under which pistachios would be subject to reinspection.
Upon recommendation of the committee and approval of the Secretary, all pistachios that are required to be inspected and certified in accordance with this part, shall be identified by appropriate seals, stamps, tags, or other identification to be affixed to the containers by the handler. All inspections shall be at the expense of the handler.
The committee shall, with the approval of the Secretary, establish such reporting and disposition procedures as it deems necessary to ensure that pistachios which do not meet the outgoing maximum aflatoxin tolerance and minimum quality requirements prescribed by §§ 983.38 and 983.39 shall not be shipped for domestic human consumption.
(a) In the event that the committee, at any time, finds that the order provisions contained in §§ 983.38 through 983.45 should be modified or suspended, it shall by vote of at least seven concurring members, so recommend to the Secretary.
(b) Whenever the Secretary finds from the recommendations and information submitted by the committee or from other available information, that the aflatoxin or minimum quality provisions in §§ 983.38 and 983.39 should be modified, suspended, or terminated with respect to any or all shipments of pistachios in order to effectuate the declared policy of the Act, the Secretary shall modify or suspend such provisions. If the Secretary finds that a regulation obstructs or does not tend to effectuate the declared policy of the Act, the Secretary shall suspend or terminate such regulation.
(c) The committee, with the approval of the Secretary, may issue rules and regulations implementing §§ 983.38 through 983.45.
Reports, Books and Records
Upon the request of the committee, with the approval of the Secretary, each handler shall furnish such reports and information on such forms as are needed to enable the Secretary and the committee to perform their functions and enforce the regulations under this part. The committee shall provide a uniform report format for the handlers.
All reports and records furnished or submitted by handlers to the committee which include confidential data or information constituting a trade secret or disclosing the trade position, financial condition, or business operations of the particular handler or their customers shall be received by, and at all times kept in the custody and under the control of, one or more employees of the committee, who shall disclose such data and information to no person except the Secretary. However, such data or information may be disclosed only with the approval of the Secretary, to the committee when reasonably necessary to enable the committee to carry out its functions under this part.
Records of pistachios received, held and shipped by him, as will substantiate any required reports and will show performance under this part will be maintained by each handler for at least three years beyond the crop year of their applicability.
(a) All handlers' pistachio inventory shall be subject to random verification audits by the committee to ensure compliance with the terms of the order, and regulations adopted pursuant thereto.
(b) Committee staff or agents of the committee, based on information from the industry or knowledge of possible violations, may make buys of handler product in retail locations. If it is determined that violations of the order have occurred as a result of the buys, the matter will be referred to the Secretary for appropriate action.
For the purpose of checking and verifying reports filed by handlers or the operation of handlers under the provisions of this part, the Secretary and the committee, through their duly authorized agents, shall have access to any premises where pistachios and records relating thereto may be held by any handler and at any time during reasonable business hours, shall be permitted to inspect any pistachios so held by such handler and any and all records of such handler with respect to the acquisition, holding, or disposition of all pistachios which may be held or which may have been shipped by him/her.
Expenses and Assessments
The committee is authorized to incur such expenses as the Secretary finds are reasonable and likely to be incurred by it during each production year for the maintenance and functioning of the committee and for such other purposes as the Secretary may, pursuant to the provisions of this part, determine to be appropriate.
(a) Each handler who receives pistachios for processing in each production year shall pay the committee on demand, an assessment based on the pro rata share of the expenses authorized by the Secretary for that year attributable to the assessed weight of pistachios received by that handler in that year.
(b) The committee, prior to the beginning of each production year, shall recommend and the Secretary shall set the assessment for the following production year, which shall not exceed one-half of one percent of the average price received by producers in the preceding production year. The committee, with the approval of the Secretary, may revise the assessment if it determines, based on information including crop size and value, that the action is necessary, and if the revision does not exceed the assessment limitation specified in this section and is made prior to the final billing of the assessment.
The committee may accept voluntary contributions but these shall only be used to pay for committee expenses.
Any handler who fails to pay any assessment within the time required by the committee, shall pay to the committee a late payment charge of 10 percent of the amount of the assessment determined to be past due and, in addition, interest on the unpaid balance at the rate of one and one-half percent per month. The late payment and interest charges may be modified by the Secretary upon recommendation of the committee.
(a) If, at the end of a production year, the assessments collected are in excess of expenses incurred, such excess shall be accounted for in accordance with one of the following:
(1) If such excess is not retained in a reserve, as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, it shall be refunded proportionately to the persons from whom it was collected in accordance with § 983.53: Provided, That any sum paid by a person in excess of his/her pro rata share of the expenses during any production year may be applied by the committee at the end of such production year as credit for such person, toward the committee's fiscal operations of the following production year;
(2) The committee, with the approval of the Secretary, may carry over such excess into subsequent production years as a reserve: Provided, That funds already in the reserve do not exceed approximately two production years' budgeted expenses. In the event that funds exceed two production years' budgeted expenses, future assessments will be reduced to bring the reserves to an amount that is less than or equal to two production years' budgeted expenses. Such reserve funds may be used:
(i) To defray expenses, during any production year, prior to the time assessment income is sufficient to cover such expenses;
(ii) To cover deficits incurred during any production year when assessment income is less than expenses;
(iii) To defray expenses incurred during any period when any or all provisions of this part are suspended; and
(iv) To cover necessary expenses of liquidation in the event of termination of this part. Upon such termination, any funds not required to defray the necessary expenses of liquidation shall be disposed of in such manner as the Secretary may determine to be appropriate: Provided, That to the extent practical, such funds shall be returned pro rata to the persons from whom such funds were collected.
(b) All funds received by the committee pursuant to the provisions of this part shall be used solely for the purpose specified in this part and shall be accounted for in the manner provided in this part. The Secretary may at any time require the committee and its members to account for all receipts and disbursements.
(c) Upon the removal or expiration of the term of office of any member of the committee, such member shall account for all receipts and disbursements for which that member was personally responsible, deliver all committee property and funds in the possession of such member to the committee, and execute such assignments and other instruments as may be necessary or appropriate to vest in the committee full title to all of the committee property, funds, and claims vested in such member pursuant to this part.
The Secretary, upon the recommendation of a majority of the committee, may issue rules and regulations implementing or modifying §§ 983.47 through 983.56, inclusive.
Except as provided in this part, no handler shall handle pistachios, the handling of which has been prohibited or otherwise limited by the Secretary in accordance with provisions of this part; and no handler shall handle pistachios except in conformity to the provision of this part.
The members of the committee (including successors or alternates) and any agent or employee appointed or employed by the committee, shall be subject to removal or suspension at the discretion of the Secretary, at any time. Each and every decision, determination, or other act of the committee shall be subject to the continuing right of the Secretary to disapprove of the same at any time, and upon such disapproval, shall be deemed null and void.
No member or alternate member of the committee, nor any employee, representative, or agent of the committee shall be held personally responsible to any handler, either individually, or jointly with others, in any way whatsoever, to any person, for errors in judgment, mistakes, or other acts, either of commission or omission, as such member, alternate member, employee, representative, or agent, except for acts of dishonesty, willful misconduct, or gross negligence.
If any provision of this part is declared invalid, or the applicability thereof to any person, circumstance, or thing is held invalid, the validity of the remainder, or the applicability thereof to any other person, circumstance, or thing, shall not be affected thereby.
Nothing contained in this part is, or shall be construed to be, in derogation or in modification of the rights of the Secretary or of the United States to exercise any powers granted by the Act or otherwise, or, in accordance with such powers, to act in the premises whenever such action is deemed advisable.
The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this part shall cease upon its termination, except with respect to acts done under and during the existence thereof.
The Secretary may, by a designation in writing, name any person, including any officer or employee of the United States Government, or name any service, division or branch in the United States Department of Agriculture, to act as agent or representative of the Secretary in connection with any of the provisions of this part.
The provisions of this part, as well as any amendments, shall become effective at such time as the Secretary may declare, and shall continue in force until terminated or suspended in one of the ways specified in § 983.66 or § 983.67.
The Secretary shall terminate or suspend the operation of any or all of the provisions of this part, whenever he/she finds that such provisions do not tend to effectuate the declared policy of the Act.
(a) The Secretary may at any time terminate the provisions of this part.
(b) The Secretary shall terminate or suspend the operations of any or all of the provisions of this part whenever it is found that such provisions do not tend to effectuate the declared policy of the Act.
(c) The Secretary shall terminate the provisions of this part at the end of any fiscal period whenever it is found that such termination is favored by a majority of producers who, during a representative period, have been engaged in the production of pistachios: Provided, That such majority has, during such representative period, produced for market more than fifty percent of the volume of such pistachios produced for market, but such termination shall be announced at least 90 days before the end of the current fiscal period.
(d) Within six years of the effective date of this part the Secretary shall conduct a referendum to ascertain whether continuance of this part is favored by producers. Subsequent referenda to ascertain continuance shall be conducted every six years thereafter. The Secretary may terminate the provisions of this part at the end of any fiscal period in which the Secretary has found that continuance of this part is not favored by a two thirds (2/3) majority of voting producers, or a two thirds (2/3) majority of volume represented thereby, who, during a representative period determined by the Secretary, have been engaged in the production for market of pistachios in the production area. Such termination shall be announced on or before the end of the production year.
(e) The provisions of this part shall, in any event, terminate whenever the provisions of the Act authorizing them cease.
Upon the termination of this part, the members of the committee then functioning shall continue as joint trustees, for the purpose of liquidating the affairs of the committee. Action by such trustees shall require the concurrence of a majority of said trustees. Such trustees shall continue in such capacity until discharged by the Secretary, and shall account for all receipts and disbursements and deliver all property on hand, together with all books and records of the committee and the joint trustees, to such persons as the Secretary may direct; and shall upon the request of the Secretary, execute such assignments or other instruments necessary or appropriate to vest in such person full title and right to all the funds, properties, and claims vested in the committee or the joint trustees, pursuant to this part. Any person to whom funds, property, or claims have been transferred or delivered by the committee or the joint trustees, pursuant to this section, shall be subject to the same obligations imposed upon the members of said committee and upon said joint trustees.
Unless otherwise expressly provided by the Secretary, the termination of this part or of any regulation issued pursuant thereto, or the issuance of any amendment to either thereof, shall not:
(a) Affect or waive any right, duty, obligation, or liability which shall have arisen or which may thereafter arise, in connection with any provisions of this part or any regulation issued there under,
(b) Release or extinguish any violation of this part or any regulation issued there under, or
(c) Affect or impair any rights or remedies of the Secretary, or of any other persons, with respect to such violation.
Any handler may handle pistachios within the production area free of the requirements in §§ 983.38 through 983.45 and 983.53 if such pistachios are handled in quantities not exceeding 1,000 dried pounds during any marketing year. This subpart may be changed as recommended by the committee and approved by the Secretary.
In conducting committee activities and other objectives under this part, the committee may deliberate, consult, cooperate and exchange information with the California Pistachio Commission. Any sharing of information gathered under this subpart shall be kept confidential in accordance with provisions under section 10(i) of the Act.
Dated: March 25, 2004.
Administrator, Agricultural Marketing Service.
[FR Doc. 04-7414 Filed 4-2-04; 8:45 am]
BILLING CODE 3410-02-P