Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
EPA is issuing regulations applicable only to members of EPA's National Environmental Performance Track Program (Performance Track, or the Program). Today's action includes a revision to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations to allow hazardous waste generators who are members of Performance Track up to 180 days, and in certain cases 270 days, to accumulate their hazardous waste without a RCRA permit or interim status; and simplified reporting requirements for facilities that are members of Performance Track and governed by Maximum Available Control Technology (MACT) provisions of the Clean Air Act (CAA). Today's final rule reflects EPA's response to comments filed by the public, interested stakeholders and associations, the Performance Track Participants Association, and Performance Track members. These provisions are intended to serve as incentives for facility membership in the National Environmental Performance Track Program while ensuring the current level of environmental protection provided by the relevant RCRA and MACT provisions.
This final rule is effective on April 22, 2004.Start Printed Page 21738
EPA has established a docket for this action under Docket ID No. OA-2004-0001. All documents in the docket are listed in the EDOCKET index at http://www.epa.gov/edocket. Although listed in the index, some information is not publicly available, i.e., CBI or other information whose disclosure is restricted by statute. Certain other material, such as copyrighted material, is not placed on the Internet and will be publicly available only in hard copy form. Publicly available docket materials are available either electronically in EDOCKET or in hard copy at the Office of Environmental Information Docket, EPA/DC, EPA West, Room B102, 1301 Constitution Ave., NW., Washington, DC. The Public Reading Room is open from 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., Monday through Friday, excluding legal holidays. The telephone number for the Public Reading Room is (202) 566-1744, and the telephone number for the Office of Environmental Information Docket is (202) 566-1752. In addition to being available in the docket, an electronic copy of this final rule will also be available on the Worldwide Web through the National Environmental Performance Track (Performance Track) Web site at http://www.epa.gov/performancetrack.Start Further Info
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:
Mr. Robert D. Sachs, Performance Incentives Division, Office of Business and Community Innovation, Office of Policy, Economics and Innovation, Office of Administrator, Mail Code 1808T, United States Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington, DC 20460; telephone number 202-566-2884; fax number 202-566-0966; e-mail address: email@example.com, or Mr. Chad Carbone, Performance Incentives Division, Office of Business and Community Innovation, Office of Policy, Economics and Innovation, Office of Administrator, Mail Code 1808T, United States Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington, DC 20460; telephone number 202-566-2178; fax number 202-566-0292; e-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org.End Further Info End Preamble Start Supplemental Information
I. General Information
A. Does This Action Apply to Me?
Categories and entities potentially regulated by this action include all entities regulated by EPA, pursuant to its authority under the various environmental statutes, who voluntarily decide to join the Performance Track Program. Thus, potential respondents may fall under any North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Code. The following table lists the Primary NAICS Codes for all current Performance Track members.
This table is not intended to be exhaustive, but rather provides a guide for readers regarding entities likely to be regulated by this action. This table lists the types of entities that EPA is now aware could potentially be regulated by this action. Other types of entities not listed in the table could also be regulated. To determine whether your facility is eligible to be regulated by this action, you should carefully examine the qualifying criteria for the Performance Track Program at www.epa.gov/performancetrack. If you have questions regarding the applicability of this action to a particular entity, consult the person listed in the preceding FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT section.
|Surgical Appliance and Supplies Manufacturing||339113|
|Laboratory Apparatus and Furniture Manufacturing||339111|
|Pharmaceutical Preparation Manufacturing||325412|
|All Other Miscellaneous Chemical Product and Preparation Manufacturing||325998|
|Fossil Fuel Electric Power Generation||221112|
|Dry Cleaning and Laundry Services (except Coin-Operated)||812320|
|Heating Oil Dealers||454311|
|Paper (except Newsprint) Mills||322121|
|Radio and Television Broadcasting and Wireless Communications Equipment Manufacturing||334220|
|Surgical and Appliance and Supplies Manufacturing||339113|
|Research and Development in the Physical, Engineering, and Life Sciences||541710|
|Plastics Material and Resin Manufacturing||325211|
|All Other Basic Organic Chemical Manufacturing||325199|
|Ball and Roller Bearing Manufacturing||332991|
|Tire Manufacturing (except Retreading)||326211|
|Semiconductor and Related Device Manufacturing||334413|
|All Other Motor Vehicle Parts Manufacturing||336399|
|Fruit and Vegetable Canning||311421|
|Commercial Screen Printing||323113|
|Unlaminated Plastics Film and Sheet (except Packaging) Manufacturing||326113|
|Electronic Computer Manufacturing||334111|
|Other Motor Vehicle Electrical and Electronic Equipment Manufacturing||336322|
|Surgical and Medical Instrument Manufacturing||339112|
|Ophthalmic Goods Manufacturing||339115|
|All Other Miscellaneous Manufacturing||339999|
|Hydroelectric Power Generation||221111|
|Electric Bulk Power Transmission and Control||221121|
|Electric Power Distribution||221122|
|Medicinal and Botanical Manufacturing||325411|
|All Other Miscellaneous Nonmetallic Mineral Product Manufacturing||327999|
|Printed Circuit Assembly (Electronic Assembly) Manufacturing||334418|
|Motor Vehicle Body Manufacturing||336211|
|Dry, Condensed, and Evaporated Dairy Product Manufacturing||311514|
|Start Printed Page 21739|
|Carpet and Rug Mills||314110|
|Cut Stock, Re-sawing Lumber, and Planing||321912|
|All Other Basic Inorganic Chemical Manufacturing||325188|
|Soap and Other Detergent Manufacturing||325611|
|Custom Compounding of Purchased Resins||325991|
|All Other Plastics Product Manufacturing||326199|
|Concrete Block and Brick Manufacturing||327331|
|Iron and Steel Mills||331111|
|Aluminum Die-Casting Foundries||331521|
|Metal Coating, Engraving (except Jewelry and Silverware), and Allied Services to Manufacturers||332812|
|Farm Machinery and Equipment Manufacturing||333111|
|Office Machinery Manufacturing||333313|
|Pump and Pumping Equipment Manufacturing||333911|
|Electron Tube Manufacturing||334411|
|Search, Detection, Navigation, Guidance, Aeronautical, and Nautical System and Instrument Manufacturing||334511|
|Instrument Manufacturing for Measuring and Testing Electricity and Electrical Signals||334515|
|Prerecorded Compact Disc (except Software), Tape, and Record Reproducing||334612|
|Magnetic and Optical Recording Media Manufacturing||334613|
|Motor and Generator Manufacturing||335312|
|Motor Vehicle Transmission and Power Train Parts Manufacturing||336350|
|Guided Missile and Space Vehicle Manufacturing||336414|
|Sporting and Athletic Goods Manufacturing||339920|
|Solid Waste Combustors and Incinerators||562213|
|Potash, Soda, and Borate Mineral Mining||212391|
|Canvas and Related Product Mills||314912|
|Reconstituted Wood Product Manufacturing||321219|
|Wood Window and Door Manufacturing||321911|
|Nonfolding Sanitary Food Container Manufacturing||322215|
|Synthetic Organic Dye and Pigment Manufacturing||325132|
|Synthetic Rubber Manufacturing||325212|
|Noncellulosic Organic Fiber Manufacturing||325222|
|In-Vitro Diagnostic Substance Manufacturing||325413|
|Polish and Other Sanitation Good Manufacturing||325612|
|Surface Active Agent Manufacturing||325613|
|Printing Ink Manufacturing||325910|
|Rubber Product Manufacturing for Mechanical Use||326291|
|All Other Rubber Product Manufacturing||326299|
|Plate Work Manufacturing||332313|
|Metal Can Manufacturing||332431|
|Other Ordnance and Accessories Manufacturing||332995|
|Printing Machinery and Equipment Manufacturing||333293|
|Food Product Machinery Manufacturing||333294|
|Optical Instrument and Lens Manufacturing||333314|
|Photographic and Photocopying Equipment Manufacturing||333315|
|Turbine and Turbine Generator Set Units Manufacturing||333611|
|Bare Printed Circuit Board Manufacturing||334412|
|Electronic Capacitor Manufacturing||334414|
|Automatic Environmental Control Manufacturing for Residential, Commercial, and Appliance Use||334512|
|Instruments and Related Products Manufacturing for Measuring, Displaying, and Controlling Industrial Process Variables||334513|
|Other Communication and Energy Wire Manufacturing||335929|
|Current-Carrying Wiring Device Manufacturing||335931|
|Truck Trailer Manufacturing||336212|
|Gasoline Engine and Engine Parts Manufacturing||336312|
|Motor Vehicle Air Conditioning Manufacturing||336391|
|Dental Equipment and Supplies Manufacturing||339114|
|Musical Instrument Manufacturing||339992|
|Other Nonhazardous Waste Treatment and Disposal||562219|
|Regulation and Administration of Transportation Programs||926120|
|Space Research and Technology||927110|
Entities potentially affected by this final action also include state, local, and Tribal governments that have been authorized to implement these regulations.
Outline. The information presented in this preamble is organized as follows.
I. General Information
A. Does this action apply to me?
A. What is the history of this action?
B. How have stakeholders been involved?
C. What incentives for members are envisioned?
D. What is EPA's rationale for this rule?
1. What environmental benefits will the Performance Track Program bring to society?
2. How will these incentives maximize the benefits of the Performance Track Program?
3. Will these incentives undercut existing environmental protections?
4. How does the Performance Track Program design limit membership to a uniquely appropriate set of facilities?
III. Final Rulemaking Changes
A. Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT)
1. Definition of Pollution Prevention
2. Reduced frequency of required MACT reporting for all eligible Performance Track facilities
3. Reporting reductions for Performance Track facilities that achieve MACT or better emission levels through pollution prevention methods such as process changes
B. 180-Day accumulation time for Performance Track hazardous waste generators
2. What are the current requirements for large quantity generator accumulation?
3. What is in today's final rule?
4. How will today's final rule affect applicability of RCRA rules in authorized States?
IV. Summary of Environmental, Energy and Economic Impacts
A. What are the cost and economic impacts?
B. What are the health, environmental, and energy impacts?
V. Effective Date for Today's Requirements
VI. Administrative Requirements
A. Executive Order 12866, Regulatory Planning and Review
B. Paperwork Reduction Act
C. Regulatory Flexibility Act
D. Unfunded Mandates Reform Act
E. Executive Order 13132: Federalism
F. Executive Order 13175: Consultation and Coordination with Indian Tribal Governments
G. Executive Order 13045: Protection of Children from Environmental Health & Safety Risks
H. Executive Order 13211: Actions that Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use
I. National Technology Transfer Advancement Act
J. Congressional Review Act
VII. Statutory Authority
VIII. Judicial Review
A. What Is the History of This Action?
EPA announced the National Environmental Performance Track Program on June 26, 2000. The Program is designed to recognize and encourage top environmental performers—those who go beyond compliance with regulatory requirements to attain levels of environmental performance and management that provide greater benefit to people, communities, and the environment. The Program is based upon the experiences of EPA, states, businesses, and community and environmental groups with new approaches that achieve high levels of environmental protection with greater efficiency. This experience includes: EPA's Common Sense Initiative, designed to improve environmental results by tailoring strategies for six industry sectors; the national Environmental Leadership Program and EPA Region I's Star Track Program, designed as new ways to encourage businesses to do better than required; and many performance track-type programs in states such as Texas, Oregon, Wisconsin, New Jersey, and Virginia.
EPA currently is implementing the Performance Track Program, formerly known as the Achievement Track Program. The Program is designed to recognize facilities that consistently meet their legal requirements, that have implemented management systems to monitor and improve performance, that have voluntarily achieved environmental improvements beyond compliance, and that publicly commit to specific environmental improvements and to report on their progress in doing so. A complete description of the Performance Track Program, its requirements, and other program materials are available on EPA's Web site (www.epa.gov/performancetrack) or by calling the Performance Track Information Center toll free at 1-888-339-PTRK (7875).
Performance Track is a voluntary program. Decisions to accept and remove facilities are wholly discretionary to EPA, and applicants or potential applicants have no legal right to challenge EPA's decision. EPA has held seven Performance Track application periods—between August 2000 and October 2000; between February 2001 and April 2001; between August 2001 and October 2001; between February 2002 and April 2002; between August 2002 and October 2002; between February 2003 and April 2003; and between August 2003 and October 2003. In the future, EPA plans to continue holding two application periods each year. There have been 508 facility applicants to Performance Track since its inception. A total of 409 facilities have been accepted into the Program as members. There are currently 344 members in the Program. Generally, facilities that are no longer members (65) have either closed, experienced a change in ownership, or have been dropped from membership in Performance Track for failing to continue to meet program standards.
Today's final rule establishes several regulatory incentives that are enforceable legal requirements for facilities that are members of the Performance Track Program and have taken all other steps required for the applicability or implementation of the individual regulatory incentives. Full eligibility and other Program requirements can be found at the Performance Track Web site (www.epa.gov/performancetrack). The Agency believes that, because of the stringency of the Program criteria, facilities in Performance Track should receive the non-regulatory and regulatory benefits outlined in the Program Description (and summarized below). Specifically, for acceptance in Performance Track, facilities must:
- Have adopted and implemented an environmental management system (EMS) that includes specific elements;
- Be able to demonstrate environmental achievements and commit to continued improvement in particular environmental categories;
- Engage the public and report on their environmental performance; and
- Have a record of sustained compliance with environmental requirements.
In addition, Performance Track is designed so that EPA and other stakeholders can monitor and track the implementation of the benefits currently being offered to Program members, as well as those being considered. Member facilities commit to providing annual reports on the status of their efforts to achieve their commitments to improvements in specific environmental categories.
This reporting commitment and other activities to engage the public result in a high level of scrutiny that will aid in monitoring the activities of the Performance Track Program. EPA analyzes these data and publishes a program report annually. This report can be found at www.epa.gov/performancetrack. Last, facilities are accepted into Performance Track for a Start Printed Page 21741period of three years. To continue receiving the benefits associated with the Program, facilities must renew their membership, which requires developing additional, continuing commitments to environmental performance improvements.
In its efforts to promote improved environmental performance through the National Environmental Performance Track, EPA is evaluating additional regulatory incentives that could be applied to qualifying facilities. Today's rule is one step among several in developing incentives that will promote participation in the Program and the associated environmental benefits. These incentives will include both those that will be implemented through rulemaking (such as the regulatory changes issued today) and those that may be accomplished through policy, guidance, or administrative action by EPA or the states.
EPA proposed today's rule on August 13, 2002 (67 FR 52674), and the public comment period remained open until November 12, 2002. EPA received comments from 26 different groups. These included 10 Government entities and States; one public sector association; three nongovernmental organizations; seven industry trade associations; and five industry representatives. The majority of comments were supportive and made positive suggestions to improve the Program. Responses to comments are included throughout this preamble where EPA describes the content of the rule (see Section III. A. and B.).
B. How Have Stakeholders Been Involved?
During the development of the Performance Track Program and subsequent to its announcement in June 2000, EPA held many meetings with a wide array of stakeholders. Stakeholders included companies, non-governmental organizations, states, associations, and others. Over the course of these meetings, EPA has discussed a broad range of issues, including any incentives that would reward Performance Track members, as well as incentives that would motivate non-Performance Track facilities to implement environmental improvements that would qualify them for membership in the Program.
This rule grew out of the stakeholders' collective interest in promoting incentives for participating facilities. Since the inception of the Program, EPA has held four meetings with state regulators: May 2000 in Denver, February 2001 in Chicago, November 2001 in Charleston, and January 2003 in Denver. At each of these meetings, break-out sessions were held to solicit feedback from state personnel on potential incentives to be offered to Performance Track members.
On December 12, 2000, EPA held a “Charter Event” for the first round of Performance Track members. At this meeting EPA held a series of breakout discussions. During these sessions, ideas about incentives that could become part of the regulatory framework were discussed.
Similarly, on October 30, 2001 EPA met with a variety of stakeholders including associations, non-governmental organizations, and states to discuss EPA's “Innovations Strategy.” During this meeting EPA held a specific breakout session on incentives that could be made available for Performance Track members.
In addition, EPA has had discussions regularly with individual Performance Track participants and the Performance Track Participants Association (PTPA), which comprises 165 members. The PTPA is a nonprofit organization that provides a forum for corporations, trade associations, and public entities dedicated to improving their environmental performance through the vehicle of the Performance Track Program. The PTPA meets regularly for member events, and convenes a member conference annually. The PTPA also has an Incentives Workgroup that focuses on identifying and advocating incentives for Performance Track members.
EPA is also working with 23 trade organizations through the Performance Track network to further enhance participation in the Program. Performance Track Network Partners join in a partnership to educate top environmental performers about the value of participating in Performance Track. This partnership increases information available to top environmental performers and provides greater opportunities to them. Network Partners include the following organizations: Academy of Certified Hazardous Waste Managers, American Chemistry Council, American Furniture Manufacturers Association, American Textile Manufactures Institute, Associated General Contractors (AGC) of America, the Auditing Roundtable, Cement Kiln Recycling Coalition, Global Environment & Technology Foundation Public Entity EMS Resource (PEER) Center, Greening of Industry Network (GIN), International Carwash Association, National Association of Chemical Distributors, National Paint and Coatings Association, National Defense Industrial Association, National Pollution Prevention Roundtable, National Ready Mixed Concrete Association, National Stone, Sand and Gravel Association, NORA (an Association of Responsible Recyclers), North American Die Casting Association, Screenprinting and Graphic Imaging Association International, Steel Manufacturers Association (SMA), Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturers Association (SOCMA), Voluntary Protection Programs Participants' Association, and Wildlife Habitat Council.
C. What Incentives for Members Are Envisioned?
The Performance Track Program Description at http://www.epa.gov/performancetrack/, (publication number EPA-240-F-01-002) provides a list of incentives the Agency originally intended to make available to member facilities. EPA currently offers several incentives that are available to members when they enter the Program (e.g., recognition, networking opportunities, low priority for routine inspection). EPA is also in the process of developing other incentives in areas of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Clean Water Act (CWA), and the Clean Air Act (CAA). These incentives include policy, guidance, and regulatory approaches. In some cases, other actions also must be completed before a facility may take advantage of an incentive. For example, states are responsible for implementing parts of many federal environmental programs. In such cases, states may need to revise regulations, seek EPA approval of a revised program, re-issue permits, or take other actions. EPA has made funds available to approximately 20 states to identify where existing state laws may need to be revised to support the National Environmental Performance Track. EPA maintains ongoing contact with State regulators to keep them apprised of new developments, and learn about their approaches. Further information is available at epa.gov/performancetrack/benefits/index.htm.
In the Program Description, EPA also committed to propose specific regulatory changes as incentives for membership in the Performance Track. The changes in today's final rule fulfill one aspect of EPA's follow up on this commitment.
EPA is issuing today's regulatory changes to encourage membership in the Program and to acknowledge and further promote realization of the environmental and other benefits resulting from the actions of member facilities. EPA excluded incentives that would involve a relaxation of substantive standards of performance or Start Printed Page 21742that would require statutory change. EPA identified incentives that would apply broadly to different types of facilities, that reduce the reporting and other operating costs of the current system, and that can be implemented nationally.
EPA believes it is important to offer the kinds of incentives described here for several reasons. First, the achievements of these facilities deserve public recognition. Second, some of the reporting and other administrative requirements that apply to the broader regulated community may not be needed for Performance Track facility members because they have implemented appropriate environmental management systems, have consistently met their regulatory commitments, and have agreed to make information regarding their performance publicly available. Third, these incentives may offer the opportunity for member facilities to apply their resources to achieving even better environmental performance. And finally, the availability of these incentives should encourage other facilities to make environmental improvements that will enable them to qualify for membership.
In this final rule, EPA is changing certain regulatory provisions of the CAA and RCRA. These incentives provisions are applicable exclusively to members of Performance Track. They include:
- Reducing the frequency of reports required under the CAA, and in some circumstances submitting an annual certification in lieu of an annual report. In this incentive, first EPA reduces the frequency of required MACT reporting for all eligible Performance Track facilities to an interval that is twice the length of the regular reporting period. This incentive does not apply to major air sources, but it does apply to area air sources if they are not required to hold CAA Title V permits. The second part of this air incentive provides Performance Track facilities with three options to submit an annual certification that all required monitoring and recordkeeping requirements have been met in lieu of the periodic report. For major air sources and area sources required to hold CAA Title V permits however, reports must still be submitted at least semi-annually in order to meet CAA Title V statutory requirements.
- Allowing large quantity hazardous waste generators who are members of the Performance Track up to 180 days (and 270 days if the waste must be transported 200 miles or more) to accumulate hazardous waste without a RCRA permit or interim status, provided that these generators meet certain conditions. This incentive will result in fewer loads of hazardous waste being transported.
EPA also proposed changes to certain Clean Water Act regulations (CWA) in August 2002. The incentives proposed streamlined reporting requirements for Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTWs). EPA has decided not to adopt the changes proposed in this rulemaking. This decision is based primarily on public comments that such changes should be offered to all POTWs, not only Performance Track members. The agency will continue to consider this matter.
EPA acknowledges comments received on another potential regulatory incentive—the opportunity for Performance Track Facilities to consolidate reporting under various environmental statutes into a single report. Comments included recommendations for a pilot program with a cross-section of facilities, facility sizes, and states and the need to ensure compliance and include performance metrics in exchange for any consolidated reporting incentive. EPA will continue to explore the potential for this incentive with EPA's Office of Environmental Information.
The incentives in today's final rule are part of a broad series of incentives that EPA is currently developing and intends to provide for Performance Track members in the future. That is, EPA continues to seek, analyze, develop, and implement new incentives that apply only to its Performance Track members. As an example, on May 15, 2003, EPA proposed a MACT rule (68 FR 26249) that would further promote improved environmental performance through incentives that are only available to facilities participating in the Performance Track program. Also, on October 29 2003, EPA published a Notice of Data Availability (NODA) in RCRA (69 FR 61662) as part of EPA's burden reduction initiative. The NODA supplemented EPA's January 17, 2002 proposal entitled “Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Burden Reduction Initiative” at 67 FR 2518. This provision proposes to decrease the frequency of facility self-inspections for certain types of storage units for Performance Track member facilities.
D. What Is EPA's Rationale for This Rule?
EPA believes that facilities who demonstrate top environmental performance through membership in the Performance Track Program should be provided with incentives, recognition and rewards for such behavior. By providing regulatory incentives only available to members of Performance Track, EPA believes membership in the Program will increase over time. As membership increases, so will the number of environmental commitments members make, and therefore the quantity of improvements to the environment. Each facility member of Performance Track commits to quantified, measurable environmental goals that are identified as significant in their environmental management system. Members also commit to report to EPA on an annual basis with the quantified results of progress towards their commitments. As these goals are achieved, and in some cases exceeded, impacts to the environment are reduced, notably in some cases in areas that are not regulated by EPA or States. These quantified, incremental environmental improvements and required reporting are the core of EPA's Performance Track Program.
It is critically important to EPA that members of Performance Track are truly top environmental performers. Regulatory incentives of the nature envisioned by EPA for Performance Track members should be available only to top environmental performers. To ensure that members of Performance Track fit this general criterion, EPA developed specific criteria for applicants to meet in order to be accepted. These are described in moderate detail below.
Facilities must satisfy the four entry criteria to be accepted into the Performance Track:
(1) Facilities must be in compliance with applicable Federal, State, Local, and Tribal environmental regulations.
(2) Facilities must operate a well-designed environmental management system (EMS) as part of their overall management system.
(3) Facilities must demonstrate a record of environmental improvements for the previous two years beyond the minimums required of them. Facilities also must take additional future actions and commit to further improvements in the succeeding three years.
(4) Facilities must engage the public, and each year must report publicly on their progress toward meeting the goals that they have chosen, as well as summarize their compliance and the performance of their EMS. EPA makes the applications and annual performance reports of each facility member available to the public.
These criteria are the key to generating environmental improvements; they were designed to work as an integrated approach. No single criterion, standing alone, would provide EPA with the necessary Start Printed Page 21743assurance that the changes finalized here will lead to increased compliance or performance. However, the Agency believes that these criteria in combination ensure that facilities eligible for regulatory incentives are both capable of and committed to maintaining beyond-compliance environmental performance and that any lapses will be rare and quickly corrected by facility management. Further, the Agency and the public will continue to receive information on facility compliance and performance. Nothing in this final rule will compromise the ability of the Agency to investigate and take action on suspected environmental violations.
History of Sustained Compliance With Environmental Regulations: EPA believes that a strong compliance history is a critical factor in defining performance in the Performance Track. EPA, in cooperation with State, local, and Tribal authorities to the extent possible, reviews the compliance history of all applicants. Performance Track members must have a record of compliance with environmental laws and be in compliance with all applicable environmental requirements. They also commit to maintaining the level of compliance needed to qualify for the Program.
EPA screens all applications consistent with EPA's Compliance Screening for EPA Partnership Programs: Policy Overview (located at http://www.epa.gov/performancetrack/program/guidance.pdf). In evaluating an applicant's compliance record, EPA, along with its state partners, consults available databases and enforcement information sources. EPA encourages applicants to assess their own compliance record as they make decisions regarding participation in this program. Applicants can check their compliance record with EPA's Enforcement and Compliance History Online (ECHO) database located at (http://www.epa.gov/echo).
Participation in the Performance Track is denied if the compliance screen identifies any of the following criminal or civil activity issues under Federal or State law:
- Corporate criminal conviction or plea for environmentally-related violations of criminal laws involving the corporation or a corporate officer within the past 5 years.
- Criminal conviction or plea of employee at the same facility for environmentally-related violations of criminal laws within the past 5 years.
- Ongoing criminal investigation/prosecution of corporation, corporate officer, or employee at the same facility for violations of environmental law.
- Three or more significant violations at the facility in the past 3 years.
- Unresolved, unaddressed Significant Non-Compliance (SNC) or Significant Violations (SV) at the facility.
- Planned but not yet filed judicial or administrative action at the facility.
- Ongoing EPA- or state-initiated litigation at the facility.
- Situation where a facility is not in compliance with the schedule and terms of an order or decree.
Environmental Management Systems: To satisfy the second program criterion, a Performance Track member facility must have a mature environmental management system. These systems integrate environmental considerations into routine decision-making at facilities, establish work practices that consistently reduce environmental risks and releases, evaluate environmental performance, and set management priorities based on the environmental impacts of individual facilities. Because they organize and consolidate information on a facility's environmental obligations and potential weaknesses for management, an EMS often improves the facility's compliance record and reduces accidents. However, many EMS frameworks address unregulated environmental impacts as well as regulated impacts. Thus, an EMS provides a facility with the ability to assess and mitigate impacts that are most significant for the facility or that pose the most risk to the ecosystem and community surrounding the facility. An EMS allows a facility to take additional environmental mitigation actions that are highly effective and appropriate, providing better environmental results as well as more flexibility than the existing regulatory structure alone.
The EMS provisions in Performance Track are designed to ensure that member facilities will continue not only to meet their regulatory obligations, but also to perform better than required by regulation. The Performance Track criterion specifies that a qualifying facility must have an EMS that includes detailed elements in the following categories: Environmental policy (including compliance with both legal requirements and voluntary commitments), planning, implementation and operation, checking and corrective action, and management review. Additionally, qualifying EMSs must have been in full operation for at least one review cycle (generally one year) and must have been audited. The EMS requirements are described in more detail in EPA's National Environmental Performance Track Program description at www.epa.gov/PerformanceTrack.
Past and future environmental improvements: Facilities must demonstrate their commitment to continuous environmental improvement. To do this, facilities must identify accomplishments in specific categories. The categories are: energy use, water use, materials use, air emissions (including greenhouse gases), waste, discharges to water, accidental releases, habitat preservation/restoration, and product performance. Past improvements must have been beyond regulatory requirements. In addition, Performance Track facilities must make use of their EMSs to set and commit to achieving environmental performance goals that go beyond regulatory requirements and that mitigate some facility-selected significant environmental impacts. These performance goals must be chosen among the specific categories identified above, including both regulated and unregulated environmental impacts.
Because these performance goals and accomplishments go beyond regulatory requirements and, in some cases, well beyond areas covered by existing environmental regulations, EPA believes that facilities that qualify for Performance Track have demonstrated a serious commitment to real environmental improvement. By virtue of their willingness to undertake greater environmental responsibilities, these facilities have earned the confidence that they will maintain compliance with regulatory requirements under the streamlined procedures outlined in this final rule.
Public commitments: To satisfy the fourth Program criterion, Performance Track facilities publicly disclose progress toward their commitments and other performance information each year in an annual progress report, including summary information regarding their EMS and compliance with legal requirements. Because these commitments and the performance reporting go beyond those required by current regulation, communities have access to more information about the performance of local facilities. This public scrutiny also provides an incentive for firms to make meaningful commitments and achieve them.
EPA believes that facilities that make the choice to apply and to demonstrate their commitments to environmental Start Printed Page 21744improvements in the public spotlight impose upon themselves a unique and particularly strong set of pressures to deliver this heightened level of performance.
In time, EPA expects the Performance Track Program to produce additional environmental gains as a result of the more efficient use of the resources of federal, state, and local environmental authorities. Because EPA expects the entry criteria to result in member facilities that are carrying out their environmental obligations in a manner beyond what is required of them, EPA believes that other authorities will be able to shift enforcement and compliance resources to other facilities in the regulated community. EPA believes this resource reallocation may bring further environmental improvements, as limited compliance resources are applied more effectively.
The regulatory changes EPA is issuing today will enable eligible Performance Track members to reduce their reporting or other compliance costs.
1. What Environmental Benefits Will the Performance Track Program Bring to Society?
Over the past three years the Performance Track program has already produced substantial environmental benefits beyond its member facilities' legal requirements. Some of these environmental benefits include reducing: energy use by 1.1 million mmBtus, water use by 475 million gallons, hazardous materials use by 908 tons, emissions of volatile organic compounds by 329 tons, emissions of air toxics by 57 tons, emissions of nitrogen oxides by 152 tons, discharges to water of biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, and total suspended solids by 1,327 tons, toxic discharges to water by 5,543 tons, solid waste by 150,000 tons, and hazardous waste by 692 tons. Member facilities in the Program have also increased their use of reused and recycled materials by 10,823 tons and have preserved or restored 2,698 acres of wildlife habitat. In addition to these benefits, which should continue to increase, with additional membership into the Program, EPA believes that the refocusing of resources made possible by the Program may lead to additional environmental benefits as well as increased compliance by non-member facilities. The public recognition and administrative burden relief offered by Performance Track, to the extent that they affect company's bottom lines, may also influence company decisions to undertake additional non-regulatory projects that go beyond regulatory requirements. The public will be able to judge the nature and magnitude of these environmental benefits by examining the annual reports that Performance Track facilities are required to prepare and make public.
2. How Will These Incentives Maximize the Benefits of the Performance Track Program?
Incentives play a crucial role in maximizing the environmental benefits of any voluntary program. Facilities must perceive a benefit to themselves that is at least equal to their perceived costs of membership in a voluntary program. These costs include the administrative burden of membership, as well as any costs incurred in meeting the substantive requirements of the Program. Facility members of the Performance Track Program also face the additional risk of adverse public reaction if they fail to meet their environmental goals or if their audits of compliance or EMS performance reveal problems. These public risks are unique to Performance Track facilities. Facilities participating in other EPA voluntary programs, as well as facilities that do not participate in any voluntary program, may and do keep audit information confidential. Improved public information about the environmental performance of facilities is an important component and public benefit of the Performance Track Program and it significantly raises the costs perceived by facility managers for internal oversights or lapses.
As more benefits to facility members in the Performance Track Program become available and increase, more facilities will be encouraged to apply. Increased program incentives may also generate environmental benefits from non-members. If facilities that do not currently meet the Performance Track Program criteria believe that membership would benefit them, they may work to improve their management systems and environmental performance to become eligible.
3. Will These Incentives Undercut Existing Environmental Protections?
The incentives in today's rule do not undercut existing environmental protections. EPA believes the 180-day accumulation period for hazardous waste and the reporting changes for MACT standards will have no direct deleterious effects on the environmental performance of Performance Track facilities. EPA and other regulatory bodies will receive compliance information from Performance Track facilities less frequently; however, all recordkeeping requirements remain in effect. As a safeguard, EPA and the other governmental authorities retain their ability to take enforcement actions against any facility that fails to comply with permits or other obligations. The risk of a public removal from this Program for failure to comply adds an extra incentive to comply with Program requirements. EPA believes that this, and the fact that facilities may be perceived by the public and by governmental offices as better environmental performers than their competitors, reduces the risk that any environmental damages will result from this program or the regulatory changes EPA is adopting.
4. How Does the Performance Track Program Design Limit Membership to a Uniquely Appropriate Set of Facilities?
EPA designed the Performance Track Program to generate improvements in environmental performance of facilities. EPA believes that the entry criteria and ongoing obligations for continued membership in Performance Track (as summarized in the introduction to section D) will bring about benefits to the environment such as decreased releases of pollutants to the air, water, and land; greater efficiency in energy and raw material usage; and decreased risks of accidental releases of hazardous substances. These incremental environmental benefits will stem from the facilities' activities that are tied to their membership in Performance Track, which justifies making available to this category of facilities the benefits of the modified requirements issued today.
Further, EPA believes that there are controls and safeguards built into the Performance Track Program that reduce the possibility a facility will receive the benefits of today's modified requirements without the facility delivering improved environmental performance.
EPA's announcement of this Program (www.epa.gov/PerformanceTrack) describes how applications are reviewed and facilities that meet the entry criteria are selected. It also summarizes other steps EPA takes in running the Program, including conducting site visits at up to 20 percent of the member facilities each year, and the removal of facilities found not to be meeting the commitments they have made. EPA believes this approach is capable of identifying the set of facilities that belong in the Program and differentiating them from tens of thousands of other facilities in the United States. EPA also believes that the combination of the administrative controls of the Performance Track Program and the public reporting voluntarily accepted by program Start Printed Page 21745members will, as a rule, be effective in limiting membership to only such facilities that deliver improved environmental performance.
III. Final Rulemaking Changes
A. Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT)
1. Definition of Pollution Prevention
As part of the MACT provision in today's rule, EPA is defining the term “Pollution Prevention.” The Pollution Prevention Act (42 U.S.C. 13102) defines “source reduction.” EPA equates Pollution Prevention with source reduction. In today's rule, the statutory definition of source reduction is adopted as the definition of Pollution Prevention. Thus, EPA defines Pollution Prevention to mean source reduction.
In its August 13, 2002 proposal (67 FR 52674), EPA included a definition of Pollution Prevention (P2). The proposed regulatory definition was taken from EPA's guidance from May 1992, and later elaborated upon by then Administrator Carol Browner in “P2 Policy Statement: New Directions for Environmental Protection” issued on June 14, 1993 (found at http://www.epa.gov/p2/p2policy/definitions.htm). EPA's Policy Statement definition of P2 is not identical to the statutory definition of P2. The Policy Statement of P2 adds a few clauses to the statutory definition of P2, and removes another.
Consistent with EPA's Policy Statement definition of P2, the 2002 proposal did not include the following clause from the statutory definition: “The term ‘source reduction’ does not include any practice which alters the physical, chemical, or biological characteristics or the volume of a hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant through a process or activity which itself is not integral to and necessary for the production of a product or the providing of a service.” Although this clause from the statute was not included in the 2002 proposal, it was still applicable since EPA cited the statute.
In addition, the language in the 2002 proposal included an additional clause that is not part of the statute, again taken from EPA's Policy Statement definition of P2: “and other practices that reduce or eliminate the creation of pollutants through: Increased efficiency in the use of raw materials, energy, water, or other resources, or protection of natural resources by conservation.”
Subsequently, EPA changed its approach in a proposed rule on May 15, 2003. In that action, EPA proposed the statutory definition of P2 verbatim (68 FR 26249). This change stemmed from EPA's conclusion that the statutory definition of P2 was more appropriate for this rule than the Policy Statement definition.
The May 2003 proposed rule was intended primarily to provide alternative compliance options for major sources who reduce their Hazardous Air Pollutants. Also in that proposal were two provisions applicable only to Performance Track members. Since the 2003 proposal included provisions for Performance Track members, EPA provided the public with the opportunity to comment on the interface between the 2003 proposed definition of P2 and Performance Track.
EPA received public comments on the 2002 proposal, but no commenters suggested changes to the P2 definition language. Public comments discussed how the P2 provision was used in this rule. One commenter suggested that all regulated entities that achieve MACT or better through pollution prevention measures be eligible for reporting reductions. Another commenter supported the proposed reporting reductions based on pollution prevention activities. One commenter suggested that EPA reduce or eliminate MACT if a source exceeded its performance goal, or if a major source lowered emissions to below major thresholds through pollution prevention or operational changes.
EPA also received comments on the 2003 proposal, and like the 2002 proposal, there were no comments that directly addressed the definition of P2 as it relates to Performance Track. There were, however, many comments that discussed how the definition of P2 is used in the 2003 proposal. EPA will address these comments when it takes final action on that proposed rule in the future since none of those comments had any relevance to today's rule.
Therefore, today EPA is adopting the definition of P2 that was proposed on May 15, 2003, without modification because it is the most appropriate definition for today's regulatory action.
2. Reduced Frequency of Required Mact Reporting for All Eligible Performance Track Facilities
Facilities covered by the MACT provisions of the Clean Air Act must meet a variety of record-keeping, monitoring, and reporting requirements as specified in 40 CFR Part 63—National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories.
For facility members in the Performance Track, EPA is reducing reporting frequency while assuring the continued availability of information required for assessing compliance with MACT standards.
Because of the high-level environmental performance of Performance Track facilities, EPA believes it is appropriate to provide these facilities the opportunity to reduce their reporting frequency under part 63. Since the underlying data required from these facilities will still be gathered, the Agency can still receive the information needed to identify any lapses in compliance.
Current MACT reporting requirements differentiate between facilities, based on facility performance, with respect to reporting frequency. For example, reporting frequency may be increased from semi-annually to quarterly for some reports based on the frequency of excursions outside of required performance parameters. The approach the Agency is adopting today applies a similar concept by reducing reporting frequency for top environmental performers.
Today's rule reduces the frequency of certain required periodic MACT reports for eligible Performance Track facilities. Periodic reports include a range of reports that are required to be sent in to the Permit Authority at intervals that range from quarterly, or more frequently if required by special circumstances, to semi-annually. The reports are different from records, which must be kept on site and incorporated into the periodic reports and other reports. There are general reporting requirements in 40 CFR part 63, subpart A, and additional reporting requirements under other subparts applying to specific categories of stationary sources that emit (or have the potential to emit) one or more hazardous air pollutants. Performance Track facilities that choose to take advantage of this incentive should notify their State Authority that the facility will submit reports on an annual, rather than semi-annual, basis.
Today's rule doubles the reporting intervals for these reports by amending 40 CFR 63.2 and 63.10, and adding a new 40 CFR 63.16. For major sources and area sources required to hold Title V permits, however, reports must still be submitted at least semi-annually to meet Title V permitting requirements specified in section 504(a) of the Clean Air Act. Public comments expressed concern about the applicability of this incentive, noting specifically that the six-month statutory reporting frequency floor for such air sources may limit the incentive to minor (or synthetic minor) air sources. EPA acknowledges these concerns. EPA is issuing this incentive provision as proposed because of its potential value to any current and future Start Printed Page 21746Performance Track facilities that are regulated as minor sources and not required to hold Title V permits. This final rule does not revise other requirements concerning event reporting, record keeping, and monitoring. EPA also recognizes that because membership in Performance Track is for three years and Clean Air Act permits are for five years, coordination between these event cycles will be required.
3. Reporting Reductions for Performance Track Facilities That Achieve Mact or Better Emission Levels Through Pollution Prevention Methods Such as Process Changes
Today's rule also reduces the level of detail of the required reporting, under some circumstances, for those facilities that reduce emissions below 25 tons per year of aggregate hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions and 10 tons per year of any individual HAP, and that have reduced emissions to a level that is fully in compliance with the applicable MACT standard.
For those Performance Track facilities that are below the thresholds for major sources of HAPs (25 tons per year aggregate and 10 tons per year for an individual HAP), and that have reduced the levels of all HAP emissions to at least the level required by full compliance with the applicable standard, additional reductions in reporting requirements are available, depending on the nature of the requirement and the means the facility is using to meet the requirement. As above, however, for major sources, reports must still be submitted at least semi-annually to meet Title V permitting requirements.
For those facilities using pollution prevention technologies or techniques to meet MACT standards, reductions in reporting burden depend on the requirements of the part 63 standard, as well as facility performance.
(1) If the standard calls for control technology and the facility complies using control technology:
The facility can substitute a simplified annual report to meet all required reporting elements in the applicable part 63 periodic report, certifying that they are continuing to use the control technology to meet the emission standard, and are running it properly. The facility must still fulfill all monitoring and recordkeeping requirements.
(2) If the emission standard is based on performance of a particular control technology and the facility complies using P2:
The facility can substitute a simplified annual report to meet all required reporting elements in the applicable part 63 periodic report, certifying that they are continuing to use P2 to reduce HAP emissions to levels at or below the MACT standard requirements. The facility must still maintain records demonstrating the veracity of the certification.
(3) If the standard calls for pollution prevention and the facility complies by using pollution prevention and the facility reduces emissions by an additional 50% or greater than required by the standard:
The facility can substitute a simplified annual report, to meet all required reporting elements in the applicable Part 63 periodic report, certifying that they are continuing to use P2 to reduce HAP emissions to levels below the MACT standard. The facility must still maintain records demonstrating the veracity of the certification.
Performance Track facilities that choose to take advantage of this incentive should notify their State Authority that the facility will submit a simplified annual report to meet all required reporting elements covered by today's rule.
For each of the above alternatives, if the facility no longer meets the criteria for continued membership in the Program, the incentive will no longer apply.
B. 180-Day Accumulation Time for Performance Track Hazardous Waste Generators
Today EPA is adopting provisions, with certain modifications in response to numerous public comments as discussed below, that allow large quantity hazardous waste generators who are members of the Performance Track Program up to 180 days (or up to 270 days in certain cases) to accumulate hazardous waste without a RCRA permit or without having interim status. This regulatory flexibility is intended to provide a benefit to current members of Performance Track, and an incentive for potential members to join the Program. EPA believes the regulatory flexibility provided in this rule will not compromise protection of human health and the environment at Performance Track facilities because of the strict nature of the requirements to become and remain a member of Performance Track. These requirements were described in Section I. D. of this document.
The RCRA incentives in today's rule are consistent with the general objectives of Performance Track, as discussed in Section I of this preamble. In addition, this aspect of the final rule may assist EPA in learning more about how accumulation times for hazardous waste generators may affect the ultimate disposition of hazardous wastes (e.g., recycling vs. disposal), the economics of hazardous waste generation and accumulation, and the overall environmental performance of hazardous waste generator facilities. More specifically, EPA believes that additional accumulation time will allow generators to accumulate enough waste to make transportation to waste management facilities more cost-effective and efficient for the generator. EPA also believes that additional accumulation time may result in environmental benefits related to the reduction in the movement and handling of hazardous waste on-site, as well as fewer off-site shipments. This additional accumulation time for Performance Track members is consistent with the rationale used for the F006 (metal finishing) hazardous waste rule (65 FR 12377, March 8, 2000).
2. What Are the Current Requirements for Large Quantity Generator Accumulation?
The current standards under 40 CFR part 262 for generators of hazardous waste who generate greater than 1,000 kilograms of hazardous waste per month (or one kilogram or more of acute hazardous waste), known as large quantity generators (LQGs), limit the amount of time hazardous waste can be accumulated at the generator's facility without a RCRA permit. Under § 262.34, LQGs may accumulate hazardous waste on-site for up to 90 days without having to obtain a RCRA permit. The generator must comply with certain unit-specific standards (e.g., tank, container, containment building, and drip pad standards) for accumulation units, and certain general facility requirements such as those for marking and labeling of containers, preparedness and prevention, and emergency response procedures. Generators may also petition the EPA Regional Administrator to grant an extension of up to 30 days to the 90-day accumulation time limit due to unforeseen, temporary, and uncontrollable circumstances, on a case-by-case basis (see § 262.34(b)).
Today's final rule does not make any changes to the existing regulations that apply generally to 90-day accumulation by LQGs; EPA did not solicit comment in its proposed rule on those provisions Start Printed Page 21747or any other existing provision of § 262.34. This includes the provisions for extended accumulation times for F006 wastes, which are specified at § 262.34(g). Those provisions, which apply only to generators who accumulate F006 wastes, allow for extended accumulation times that are similar in many respects (including the time limits) to those in today's rule for Performance Track members. It is therefore possible that when today's rule is implemented a generator of F006 waste who is also a member in Performance Track could take advantage of extended accumulation times under either regulatory provision (i.e., under § 262.34(g), (h) and (i), or under § 262.34(j), (k) and (l)).
3. What Is in Today's Final Rule?
Today's final rule allows LQGs of hazardous waste that are members of the Performance Track Program to accumulate hazardous waste at their facilities for longer than the 90 days currently specified in § 262.34, subject to certain limitations and conditions. The rule does not affect other existing generator requirements; for example, Performance Track members are required to manifest their hazardous waste shipments (see subpart B of part 262) and to comply with other generator requirements in part 262 (e.g., packaging and labeling of waste shipments).
The requirements for Performance Track facility extended accumulation times are added as new paragraphs (j), (k) and (l) to § 262.34. The following is a discussion of each provision.
Time Limits. Section 262.34(j)(1) specifies that hazardous waste generators who are Performance Track members may accumulate hazardous wastes for an extended period of time—up to 180 days, or up to 270 days if the generator must transport waste, or offer waste for transportation, over a distance of 200 miles or more. Such generators do not need to have RCRA permits or to have interim status if they stay within these limits. Note that these extended accumulation time limits are consistent with the current limits for generators of F006 wastes (see § 262.34(g)).
Initial Notice. Under § 262.34(j)(2), Performance Track generators need to give prior notice to EPA or the authorized state agency of their intent to accumulate hazardous waste in excess of 90 days in accordance with this rule. These notices will assist EPA and state agencies in monitoring implementation of this incentive. Public comments to the proposal expressed concern that such notifications may place additional burden on facilities with dynamic waste streams if re-notifications are required for each new waste stream. EPA acknowledges this concern, clarifies that notifications are generally one-time events, and estimates that this burden will be of minimal impact to member facilities.
Notices filed under § 262.34(j)(2) must identify the generator and facility, specify when extended accumulation at the facility will begin, and include a description of the wastes that will be accumulated for extended time periods and the units that will be used for that purpose.
The initial notice must also include a statement that the facility has made all changes to its operations, procedures, and equipment necessary to accommodate extended time periods for accumulating hazardous wastes (§ 262.34(j)(2)(iii)). This addresses situations in which longer accumulation times may involve, for example, changing the design, location, or capacity of the unit(s) in which the wastes are accumulated. Such changes could affect how the facility addresses other generator requirements, such as those for personnel training or emergency response procedures. Including this statement in the notice helps ensure in advance that Performance Track members are aware of and have implemented any changes at the facility that may be needed to accommodate extended accumulation times.
For generators who intend to accumulate hazardous waste for up to 270 days because the waste must be transported, or offered for transport, more than 200 miles from the generating facility, the notice submitted by the generator must contain a certification that an off-site permitted or interim status hazardous waste treatment, storage, or disposal facility (TSD) capable of accepting the waste is not located within 200 miles of the generator. In response to comments received on this issue, EPA has clarified in this final rule the situations under which Performance Track generators may accumulate hazardous waste for up to 270 days without a permit. The provision for accumulation up to 270 days is intended to address situations where wastes must be transported for considerable distances to off-site facilities because a permitted or interim status TSD is not located within 200 miles, and where extended accumulation time may thereby enable the facility to more efficiently ship fewer, larger loads of wastes to those facilities.
Section 3001(d)(6) of RCRA allows small quantity generators to accumulate hazardous waste on-site without a permit or interim status for up to 270 days if the generator must transport the waste (or offer the waste for transport) more than 200 miles from the generating facility. While EPA does not necessarily consider the 200 mile exception under RCRA 3001(d)(6) for small quantity generators as an outer boundary on what would be permissible under today's rule, it does suggest that Congress was not comfortable with providing more flexibility for small quantity generators. Accordingly, EPA believes that the 200 mile exception is a reasonable boundary to maintain for large and small quantity generators under the Performance Track program. At least one commenter has stated that a 200 mile exception would encourage generators under the Performance Track program to utilize the closest treatment, storage or disposal facility, rather than the best facility. In response, EPA would like to note that any facility receiving hazardous waste from a generator under the Performance Track program must be a federally permitted or interim status facility and therefore should be able to handle the waste responsibly.
EPA also received one comment questioning the necessity of the certification requirement related to 270 day accumulation. Currently small quantity generators and generators of F006 wastes are able to accumulate wastes for up to 270 days without certifying to the absence, within 200 miles of the generator, of an off-site permitted or interim status hazardous waste treatment, storage, or disposal facility capable of accepting the waste. EPA has included the certification requirement in this incentive because this rule will allow significantly larger quantities of all hazardous wastes to be accumulated for up to 270 days than is authorized by current rules. The certification requirement is minimally burdensome and constitutes a reasonable trade-off in light of the breadth of operational flexibility that this rule affords to Performance Track members.
Standards for Accumulation Units. Another condition (§ 262.34(j)(3)) in today's rule requires Performance Track generators to accumulate hazardous wastes in storage units (such as containers, tanks, drip pads, and containment buildings) that meet the standards for storing hazardous wastes at RCRA interim status facilities (see subparts I, J, W, and DD of 40 CFR part 265, respectively). These are standard requirements for large quantity generators.
If Performance Track facilities use containers for extended accumulation of hazardous wastes, today's rule Start Printed Page 21748additionally requires secondary containment systems for containers to prevent releases into the environment that might be caused by handling accidents, deterioration, or other circumstances. Secondary containment is a standard requirement for RCRA-permitted facilities that use containers to store hazardous wastes containing free liquids and certain listed hazardous wastes (i.e., F020, F021, F023, F026, and F027). It is not, however, typically required for hazardous waste generators or interim status facilities. Public comments on the secondary containment requirement included support for the proposal, concerns about the costs of secondary containment, and recommendations for more stringent requirements. EPA believes that requiring secondary containment in the context of this rule is a reasonable, common-sense precaution to take in exchange for extending accumulation time limits and increasing the volume limit.
Volume Limit. Under § 262.34(j)(4), Performance Track member generators are allowed to accumulate no more than 30,000 kilograms of hazardous waste at the facility at any one time. The Agency has information that the typical capacity for a hazardous waste truck transport vehicle ranges from an average of approximately 16,400 kg to a maximum of approximately 27,300 kg. In addition, generators shipping hazardous waste by rail may have capacities of approximately 50,000 kg. While one public comment asked EPA to consider a significantly higher waste stream-specific accumulation limit, comments on balance did not support modifications to the proposal. EPA believes that a 30,000 kg waste accumulation limit is reasonable and appropriate in ensuring economical shipments of wastes in a wide range of transport vehicle sizes.
Recordkeeping, Labeling, and Marking. Section 262.34(j)(5) specifies the types of records that program members must maintain at their facilities as a condition for extended accumulation times. These records are primarily intended to document that the accumulation time limits are not exceeded. Retaining these records is a standard requirement for all LQGs of hazardous waste.
Similarly, § 262.24(j)(6) requires that tanks and container units used for extended accumulation be marked or labeled with the words “Hazardous Waste,” and that containers be marked to indicate when the accumulation period begins. These are also standard conditions for hazardous waste generators, and are specified in this rule mainly for the sake of clarity.
General Facility Standards. Under current regulations, all hazardous waste generators are subject to certain general facility standards relating to personnel training, preparedness and prevention, and contingency plans and emergency procedures. These general facility requirements also apply to Performance Track generators, and have been included in this rule for the sake of clarity.
Pollution Prevention. The Agency sought comment on whether it is appropriate to require Performance Track facilities to implement pollution prevention practices as a condition for using extended accumulation times in § 262.34(j)(8). A public comment suggested this provision duplicates requirements at § 262.41(a)(6-7). EPA acknowledges the provisions in these two sections are similar. However, the existing provision § 262.41(a)(6-7) is intended for one purpose and today's § 262.34(j)(7) for another.
Final § 262.41(a)(6 and 7) state: “(6) A description of the efforts undertaken during the year to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated. (7) A description of the changes in volume and toxicity of waste actually achieved during the year in comparison to previous years to the extent such information is available for years prior to 1984.” This provision is required as part of the Biennial report that RCRA generators must submit to the Agency or State.
Final § 262.34 (8) states: “The generator has implemented pollution prevention practices that reduce the amount of any hazardous substances, pollutants, or contaminants released to the environment prior to its recycling, treatment, or disposal; and” This new provision is required for RCRA generators who are members of Performance Track. The information must be submitted annually along with the Performance Track member's annual report to the Agency. Requiring this information as part of the annual report is consistent with the core provisions of the Performance Track program. Further, EPA believes any burden associated with this requirement is negligible.
Annual Report. Under final § 262.34(j), Performance Track generators accumulating their hazardous waste for more than 90 days are required to provide information regarding the impact of the additional accumulation time. This information will be submitted as part of the Annual Performance Report, currently required of all Performance Track members (see www.epa.gov/PerformanceTrack, or the document entitled “National Environmental Performance Track Program Guide,” EPA 240-F-01-002). Specifically, the report must include, for the previous year, information on the quantity of each hazardous waste that was accumulated for extended time periods, the number of off-site waste shipments, identification of destination facilities and how the wastes were managed at those facilities, information on the impact of extended accumulation time limits on the facility's operations (including any cost savings that may have occurred), and information on any on-site or off-site spills or other environmental problems associated with handling these wastes. Certain public comments expressed concern about the burden imposed by the proposed additional reporting requirements. EPA does not believe that the additional reporting elements constitute an unreasonable burden upon Performance Track members. The information submitted in these reports will assist the Agency in evaluating the success of this Performance Track Program incentive, and may inform future Agency decisions pertaining to hazardous waste accumulation. The provisions of this rule are supplementary to the existing recordkeeping and reporting requirements applicable to Generators, such as those found at 40 CFR part 262, subpart D.
Accumulation Time Extensions. Today's final rule also adds a new paragraph (k) to § 262.34, to address extensions of accumulation time limits in certain situations. This provision is consistent with the current regulations that apply generally to LQGs (see § 262.34(b)), and has been included in today's rule for the sake of clarity. Specifically, it allows the overseeing agency the option of granting a Performance Track generator an additional 30 days of accumulation time, if such extra time is needed due to unforseen, temporary, and uncontrollable circumstances. Requests for such time extensions will be reviewed and approved (or disapproved) in the same manner as they currently are for non-Performance Track LQGs.Start Printed Page 21749
Withdrawal/Termination From Program. Final § 262.34(l) addresses situations in which a Performance Track facility that has been accumulating hazardous wastes for extended periods of time under this rule decides to withdraw from the Program, or when EPA has for some reason decided to terminate the generator's membership in the Program. In such cases, the generator will need to comply with the previously applicable regulations as soon as possible (the standard requirement for less-than-90-day accumulation by large quantity generators), but no later than six months after withdrawal or termination.
4. How Will Today's Rule Affect Applicability of RCRA Rules in Authorized States?
Under section 3006 of RCRA, EPA may authorize a qualified State to administer and enforce a hazardous waste program within the State in lieu of the federal program, and to issue and enforce permits in the State. (See 40 CFR part 271 for the standards and requirements for authorization.) Following authorization, a State continues to have enforcement responsibilities under its law to pursue violations of its hazardous waste program. EPA continues to have independent authority under RCRA sections 3007, 3008, 3013, and 7003.
After authorization, Federal rules written under RCRA provisions that predate the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 (HSWA) no longer apply in the authorized state. New Federal requirements imposed by those rules that predate HSWA do not take effect in an authorized State until the State adopts the requirements as State law.
In contrast, under section 3006(g) of RCRA, new requirements and prohibitions imposed by HSWA take effect in authorized States at the same time they take effect in non-authorized States. EPA is directed to carry out HSWA requirements and prohibitions in authorized States until the State is granted authorization to do so.
Today's final rule is not promulgated under HSWA authorities. Consequently, it does not amend the authorized program for states upon promulgation, as EPA does not implement the rule. The authorized RCRA program will change when EPA approves a State's application for a revision to its RCRA program.
For today's Performance Track rule, EPA encourages States to expeditiously adopt Performance Track regulations and begin program implementation. To revise the federally-authorized RCRA program, States need to seek formal authorization for the Performance Track rule after program implementation. EPA encourages States to begin implementing this incentive as soon as it is allowable under State law, while the RCRA authorization process proceeds.
IV. Summary of Environmental, Energy, and Economic Impacts
A. What Are the Cost and Economic Impacts?
Today's final action will reduce costs for the facilities eligible to take advantage of the rule. Most of these cost reductions result from reduced reporting hours burden for facilities, or reduced waste management costs.
EPA has completed seven enrollment periods for the Performance Track Program. There are currently a total of 344  facilities in the Program (mostly industrial facilities, but also a number of facilities in the service sector, several federal facilities and a POTW). The economic estimates for today's rule are based on the most recent data that EPA has obtained, and reflects Program membership through round six. EPA intends to solicit and to accept additional facilities into the Program generally, so therefore it is not possible to project cost and burden hour reductions with complete accuracy. Another factor that hinders such projections is that, just as membership in Performance Track is voluntary, it is up to the facilities themselves to decide which incentives apply to them and of which to avail themselves.
Maximum Achievable Control Technology: A total of 309  facilities have been accepted into the Performance Track program during the first six open enrollment periods. Of those facilities, EPA estimates that 93 facilities are likely to be eligible for the MACT incentive in today's rule. Performance Track facilities likely to be eligible for the MACT incentive include those members permitted as minor or synthetic minor air sources and in a NAICS sector likely to be to be subject to a MACT requirement. An analysis of EPA's IDEA database yielded 106 potential minor or synthetic minor air sources (See http://www.epa.gov/compliance/planning/data/multimedia/idea/index.html). EPA then screened out 13 Performance Track members in sectors unlikely to be subject to MACT requirements (i.e., nine members in the Public Facilities and Institutions sector; two members in the Mining and Construction sector; and two members in the Wholesale Retail and Shipping sector). This analysis resulted in 93 eligible facilities in the current membership. EPA estimates the annual increase in Performance Track members likely to be eligible for the MACT incentive by applying the percentage eligible among the current membership (i.e., 30 percent) to subsequent years.
Extended Accumulation Time for Hazardous Waste Generators: EPA estimates that 125 facilities are likely to be eligible for the RCRA incentives in today's rule. The number of Performance Track facilities that could potentially be affected by the RCRA portion of the rule was assembled from the list of all Performance Track facilities that identified themselves as hazardous waste generators. EPA then relied on the RCRA 2001 Hazardous Waste Data (i.e., Biennial Reporting System) to determine the quantity of waste generated by each facility per year (See http://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/hazwaste/data/index.htm). The next step involved excluding Performance Track facilities that are small quantity generators (SQGs), since SQGs may already accumulate hazardous waste for up to 180 days, and thus would not benefit from today's final rule. Again, EPA estimates the annual increase in Performance Track members likely to be eligible for the RCRA incentive by applying the percentage of the current membership to subsequent years.
Total Estimated Impact of Final Rule on Costs and Labor Hours
The estimated cost and hour burden for respondents for today's rule in total is negative 7,954 hours over the three years of the Information Collection Request, equating to a cost savings of $706,846. The estimated cost and hour burden for respondents for today's rule, disaggregated, is negative 16.6 hours per facility per year, that is, a reduction of 16.6 hours from current requirements. The costs are negative $1,350.80 per facility per year, that is, cost reductions/savings of $1350.80.Start Printed Page 21750
B. What Are the Health, Environmental, and Energy Impacts?
EPA expects there to be no adverse effects on the environment from the direct impacts of today's rule changes. As discussed above, most of the changes relate to reporting or waste management, and do not in any way loosen the underlying environmental obligations of the Performance Track facilities. EPA expects that the reporting changes will not result in any of these facilities becoming more lax in their diligence.
EPA believes that its refocus of resources may lead to additional environmental compliance. Public recognition and relief from regulatory requirements, to the extent that they affect each company's bottom line, may influence company decisions to undertake regulatory projects that go beyond regulatory requirements. The public will be able to judge the nature and magnitude of these environmental benefits by examining the annual reports that Performance Track facilities are required to prepare and make public.
V. Effective Date for Today's Requirements
The changes contained in this final rule will take effect in the Federal MACT and RCRA programs on April 22, 2004. This rule cannot apply to sources complying with alternative requirements approved through the approval options in subpart E of the section, unless the source reapplies for and demonstrates that the equivalency demonstration for that source shows that this source would be eligible for this program (see 64 CFR 55810-55846, September 14, 2000).
This also means that these RCRA rules will apply on April 22, 2004, in any State without an authorized RCRA program, but will not apply in any State with an authorized RCRA program until EPA approves a State's application for a revision to its RCRA program. These rule changes apply only to members of the Performance Track, which is a voluntary program. The changes are intended to provide regulatory relief and do not impose new requirements. Because regulated entities will not need time to come into compliance, the rule changes made today will be effective upon publication.
VI. Administrative Requirements
A. Executive Order 12866, Regulatory Planning and Review
The estimated cost and hour burden for respondents for today's rule in total is negative 7,954 hours over the three years of the Information Collection Request, equating to a cost savings of $706,846. The estimated cost and hour burden for respondents for today's rule, disaggregated, is negative 16.6 hours per facility per year, that is, a reduction of 16.6 hours from current requirements. The costs are negative $1,350.80 per facility per year, that is, cost reductions/savings of $1350.80.
It has been determined that this rule is not a “significant regulatory action” under the terms of Executive Order 12866 and is therefore not subject to OMB review.
B. Paperwork Reduction Act
The information collection requirements in this rule have been submitted for approval to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) under the Paperwork Reduction Act, 44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq. The information collection requirements are not enforceable until OMB approves them.
The information collected pursuant to today's rule is a combination of new information, and a reduction of other information the Agency currently collects. This information will be used so that the Agency will know that facilities eligible for today's provisions are properly implementing them, and also that States have implemented them, if they so choose. This information will enable the Agency to assess compliance with today's final provisions. Responses to the information request are required by respondents to retain provided in today's rule under the Authority: 42 U.S.C. 7401, et seq., and Authority: 42 U.S.C. 6906, 6912, 6922-6925, 6937, and 6938. Responses by States for today's provisions are voluntary.
The estimated cost and hour burden for respondents for today's rule in total is negative 7,954 hours over the three years of the Information Collection Request equating to a cost savings of $706,846. The estimated cost and hour burden for respondents for today's rule, disaggregated, is negative 16.6 hours per facility per year, that is, a reduction of 16.6 hours from current requirements. The costs are negative $1,350.80 per facility per year, that is, cost reductions/savings of $1350.80. The frequency of the responses are a combination of one-time and annual, that is, there are different types of responses required. For instance, if a Performance Track facility seeks to extend its storage time under today's provisions, a one time notification is required. In addition, the facility must provide certain information on an annual basis to the authorized State. The estimated mean number of annual respondents between 2004 and 2006 is 277. The Paperwork Reduction Act requires that the Agency report to the Office of Management and Budget only positive burden hours for Industry and States via its “83-I” reporting form. Therefore, the total burden hours reported to OMB is 8950. Burden means the total time, effort, or financial resources expended by persons to generate, maintain, retain, or disclose or provide information to or for a Federal agency. This includes the time needed to review instructions; develop, acquire, install, and utilize technology and systems for the purposes of collecting, validating, and verifying information, processing and maintaining information, and disclosing and providing information; adjust the existing ways to comply with any previously applicable instructions and requirements; train personnel to be able to respond to a collection of information; search data sources; complete and review the collection of information; and transmit or otherwise disclose the information.
An agency may not conduct or sponsor, and a person is not required to respond to a collection of information unless it displays a currently valid OMB control number. The OMB control numbers for EPA's regulations in 40 CFR are listed in 40 CFR part 9. When this ICR is approved by OMB, the Agency will publish a technical amendment to 40 CFR part 9 in the Federal Register to display the OMB control number for the approved information collection requirements contained in this final rule.
C. Regulatory Flexibility Act
The Regulatory Flexibility Act generally requires an agency to prepare a regulatory flexibility analysis of any rule subject to notice and comment rule requirements under the Administrative Procedure Act or any other statute unless the agency certifies that the rule will not have a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities. Small entities include small businesses, small organizations, and small governmental jurisdictions.
For purposes of assessing the impacts of today's final rule on small entities, small entity is defined as: (1) A small business according to the Small Business Administration definition for the business's NAICS code; (2) a small governmental jurisdiction that is a government of a city, county, town, school district or special district with a population of less than 50,000; and (3) a small organization that is any not-for-profit enterprise which is independently owned and operated and is not dominant in its field.Start Printed Page 21751
After considering the economic impacts of today's final rule on small entities, I certify that this action will not have a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities.
In determining whether a rule has a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities, the impact of concern is any significant adverse economic impact on small entities, since the primary purpose of the regulatory flexibility analyses is to identify and address regulatory alternatives “which minimize any significant economic impact of the proposed rule on small entities.” 5 U.S.C. Sections 603 and 604. Thus, an agency may certify that a rule will not have a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities if the rule relieves regulatory burden, or otherwise has a positive economic effect on all of the small entities subject to the rule. Today's rule will relieve regulatory burden and result in cost savings to entities, including any small entities, that are members of the Performance Track Program. Many small entities (both businesses and governments) and their association representatives were invited to, and attended, the public hearings EPA conducted early in 2000 on the design of the Performance Track Program. EPA has therefore concluded that today's final rule will relieve regulatory burden for small entities.
D. Unfunded Mandates Reform Act
Title II of the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995 (UMRA), Public Law 04-4, establishes requirements for Federal agencies to assess the effects of their regulatory actions on State, local, and Tribal governments and the private sector. Under section 202 of the UMRA, EPA generally must prepare a written Statement, including a cost-benefit analysis, for proposed and final rules with “Federal mandates” that may result in expenditures to State, local, and Tribal governments, in the aggregate, or to the private sector, of $100 million or more in any one year. Before promulgating an EPA rule for which a written Statement is needed, section 205 of the UMRA generally requires EPA to identify and consider a reasonable number of regulatory alternatives and adopt the least costly, most cost-effective or least burdensome alternative that achieves the objectives of the rule. The provisions of section 205 do not apply when they are inconsistent with applicable law. Moreover, section 205 allows EPA to adopt an alternative other than the least costly, most cost-effective or least burdensome alternative if the Administrator publishes with the final rule an explanation why that alternative was not adopted. Before EPA establishes any regulatory requirements that may significantly or uniquely affect small governments, including Tribal governments, it must have developed under section 203 of the UMRA a small government agency plan. The plan must provide for notifying potentially affected small governments, enabling officials of affected small governments to have meaningful and timely input in the development of EPA regulatory proposals with significant Federal intergovernmental mandates, and informing, educating, and advising small governments on compliance with the regulatory requirements.
EPA has determined that this rule does not contain a Federal mandate that may result in expenditures of $100 million or more for State, local, and Tribal governments, in the aggregate, or the private sector in any one year. Participation by facilities in the Performance Track is voluntary, and so is participation by State or local government agencies. There are no significant or unique effects on State, local, or Tribal governments, however there may be some minor effects incurred by these entities. EPA projects these costs to be very low. Thus, today's rule is not subject to the requirements of sections 202 and 205 of the UMRA. Nevertheless, as discussed in section I B and elsewhere, EPA did engage these stakeholders in the process of developing the National Environmental Performance Track Program.
E. Executive Order 13132: Federalism
Executive Order 13132, entitled “Federalism” (64 FR 43255, August 10, 1999), requires EPA to develop an accountable process to ensure “meaningful and timely input by State and local officials in the development of regulatory policies that have federalism implications.” “Policies that have federalism implications” is defined in the Executive Order to include regulations that have “substantial direct effects on the States, on the relationship between the national government and the States, or on the distribution of power and responsibilities among the various levels of government.”
This final rule does not have federalism implications. It will not have substantial direct effects on the States, on the relationship between the national government and the States, or on the distribution of power and responsibilities among the various levels of government, as specified in Executive Order 13132. This rule provides incentives that States can adopt to provide benefits to their State member facilities in the National Performance Track Program. As a voluntary program, Performance Track allows States the option to adopt the provisions in this rule. Thus, Executive Order 13132 does not apply to this rule.
Stakeholders, including many States, were consulted during the development of the Performance Track Program. Many suggestions and ideas generated by States and other stakeholders provided the basis for some of the provisions in this rule. The stakeholder involvement process undertaken is fully discussed in Section I B of this document. In the spirit of Executive Order 13132, and consistent with EPA policy to promote communications between EPA and State and local governments, EPA specifically sought comment on the proposed rule from State and local officials.
F. Executive Order 13175: Consultation and Coordination With Indian Tribal Governments
Executive Order 13175, entitled “Consultation and Coordination with Indian Tribal Governments” (65 FR 67249, November 6, 2000), requires EPA to develop an accountable process to ensure “meaningful and timely input by Tribal officials in the development of regulatory policies that have Tribal implications.” “Policies that have Tribal implications” is defined in the Executive Order to include regulations that have “substantial direct effects on one or more Indian tribes, on the relationship between the Federal government and the Indian tribes, or on the distribution of power and responsibilities between the Federal government and Indian tribes.”
This final rule does not have Tribal implications. It will not have substantial direct effects on Tribal governments, on the relationship between the Federal government and Indian tribes, or on the distribution of power and responsibilities between the Federal government and Indian tribes, as specified in Executive Order 13175. Any effects that Tribes may accrue from this rule will result in cost savings. Thus, Executive Order 13175 does not apply to this rule. Stakeholder involvement is discussed in Section I. B. of this document. In the spirit of Executive Order 13175, and consistent with EPA policy to promote communications between EPA and Tribal governments, EPA specifically sought additional comment on the proposed rule from Tribal officials.Start Printed Page 21752
G. Executive Order 13045: Protection of Children From Environmental Health Safety Risks
Executive Order 13045: “Protection of Children from Environmental Health Safety Risks” (62 FR 19885, April 23, 1997) applies to any rule that: (1) Is determined to be “economically significant” as defined under Executive Order 12866, and (2) concerns an environmental health or safety risk that EPA has reason to believe may have a disproportionate effect on children. If the regulatory action meets both criteria, the Agency must evaluate the environmental health or safety effects of the planned rule on children, and explain why the planned regulation is preferable to other potentially effective and reasonably feasible alternatives considered by the Agency.
This final rule is not subject to the Executive Order because it is not economically significant as defined in Executive Order 12866, and because the Agency does not have reason to believe the environmental health or safety risks addressed by this action present a disproportionate risk to children. In the proposed rule, EPA invited the public to submit or identify peer-reviewed studies and data, of which the agency may not be aware, that assessed results of early life exposure to the provisions of this rule. No such studies or data were identified.
H. Executive Order 13211: Actions That Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use
This rule is not a “significant energy action” as defined in Executive Order 13211, “Actions Concerning Regulations That Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use” (66 FR 28355 (May 22, 2001)) because it is not likely to have a significant adverse effect on the supply, distribution, or use of energy. Further, EPA has concluded that this rule is not likely to have any adverse energy effects.
I. National Technology Transfer Advancement Act
Section 12(d) of the National Technology Transfer Advancement Act of 1995 (NTTAA), Public Law 104-113, section 12(d) (15 U.S.C. 272 note), directs all Federal agencies to use voluntary consensus standards instead of government-unique standards in their regulatory and procurement activities, unless to do so would be inconsistent with applicable law or otherwise impractical. Voluntary consensus standards are technical standards (such as materials specifications, test methods, sampling procedures, business practices) that are developed or adopted by one or more voluntary consensus standards bodies. Examples of organizations generally regarded as voluntary consensus standards bodies include the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), and the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE). The NTTAA directs EPA to provide Congress, through annual reports to OMB, with explanations when an Agency does not use available and applicable voluntary consensus standards.
This final rule does not involve technical standards. Thus, the provisions of NTTAA do not apply to this rule and EPA is not considering the use of any voluntary consensus standards.
J. Congressional Review Act
The Congressional Review Act, 5 U.S.C. 801 et seq., as added by the Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act of 1996, generally provides that before a rule may take effect, the agency promulgating the rule must submit a rule report, which includes a copy of the rule, to each House of the Congress and to the Comptroller General of the United States. EPA will submit a report containing this rule and other required information to the U.S. Senate, the U.S. House of Representatives, and the Comptroller General of the United States prior to publication of the rule in the Federal Register. A Major rule cannot take effect until 60 days after it is published in the Federal Register. This action is not a “major rule” as defined by 5 U.S.C. 804(2). This final rule is effective on April 22, 2004.
VII. Statutory Authority
The statutory authority for the MACT portion of this action is provided by sections 101, 112, 114, 116, and 301 of the Clean Air Act as amended (42 U.S.C. 7401, 7412, 7414, 7416, and 7601). The statutory authority for the RCRA portion of this action is provided by sections 2002 and 3002 of the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976, as amended by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 (42 U.S.C. 6912 and 6922).
VIII. Judicial Review
Under section 307(b)(1) of the Clean Air Act, judicial review of the MACT portion of this final rule is available only by the filing of a petition for review in the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit by June 21, 2004. Any such judicial review is limited to only those objections that are raised with reasonable specificity in timely comments. Under section 307(b)(2) of the Clean Air Act, the requirements that are the subject of this final rule may not be challenged later in civil or criminal proceedings brought by us to enforce these requirements. Under section 6976(a) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, judicial review of the RCRA portion of this final rule is available only by the filing of a petition for review in the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit by June 21, 2004. Under this same section 6976(a) of RCRA, the requirements that are the subject of this final rule may not be challenged later in civil or criminal proceedings brought by us to enforce these requirements.Start List of Subjects
List of Subjects
- Administrative practice and procedure
- Air pollution control
- Hazardous substances
- Intergovernmental relations
- Reporting and recordkeeping requirements
- Hazardous materials transportation
- Hazardous waste
- Packaging and containers
- Reporting and recordkeeping requirements
Dated: April 14, 2004.
Michael O. Leavitt,
For the reasons stated in the preamble, we amend parts 63 and 262 of title 40, chapter I of the Code of the Federal Regulations as follows:End Amendment Part Start Part
PART 63—[AMENDED]End Part Start Amendment Part
1. The authority citation for part 63 continues to read as follows:End Amendment Part
Subpart A—[Amended]Start Amendment Part
2. Section 63.2 is amended by adding, in alphabetical order, definitions for the termsEnd Amendment Part
Pollution Prevention means source reduction as defined under the Pollution Prevention Act (42 U.S.C. 13101-13109). The definition is as follows:
(1) Source reduction is any practice that:
(i) Reduces the amount of any hazardous substance, pollutant, or Start Printed Page 21753contaminant entering any waste stream or otherwise released into the environment (including fugitive emissions) prior to recycling, treatment, or disposal; and
(ii) Reduces the hazards to public health and the environment associated with the release of such substances, pollutants, or contaminants.
(2) The term source reduction includes equipment or technology modifications, process or procedure modifications, reformulation or redesign of products, substitution of raw materials, and improvements in housekeeping, maintenance, training, or inventory control.
(3) The term source reduction does not include any practice that alters the physical, chemical, or biological characteristics or the volume of a hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant through a process or activity which itself is not integral to and necessary for the production of a product or the providing of a service.
Source at a Performance Track member facility means a major or area source located at a facility which has been accepted by EPA for membership in the Performance Track Program (as described at www.epa.gov/PerformanceTrack) and is still a member of the Program. The Performance Track Program is a voluntary program that encourages continuous environmental improvement through the use of environmental management systems, local community outreach, and measurable results.
3. Section 63.10 is amended by:End Amendment Part
a. Revising paragraph (d)(1); and
b. Adding paragraph (e)(3)(i)(D).
The revision and addition read as follows:
(d) * * * (1) Notwithstanding the requirements in this paragraph or paragraph (e) of this section, and except as provided in § 63.16, the owner or operator of an affected source subject to reporting requirements under this part shall submit reports to the Administrator in accordance with the reporting requirements in the relevant standard(s).
(e) * * *
(3) * * *
(i) * * *
(D) The affected source is complying with the Performance Track Provisions of § 63.16, which allows less frequent reporting.
4. Section 63.16 is added to subpart A and reads as follows:End Amendment Part
(a) Notwithstanding any other requirements in this part, an affected source at any major source or any area source at a Performance Track member facility, which is subject to regular periodic reporting under any subpart of this part, may submit such periodic reports at an interval that is twice the length of the regular period specified in the applicable subparts; provided, that for sources subject to permits under 40 CFR part 70 or 71 no interval so calculated for any report of the results of any required monitoring may be less frequent than once in every six months.
(b) Notwithstanding any other requirements in this part, the modifications of reporting requirements in paragraph (c) of this section apply to any major source at a Performance Track member facility which is subject to requirements under any of the subparts of this part and which has:
(1) Reduced its total HAP emissions to less than 25 tons per year;
(2) Reduced its emissions of each individual HAP to less than 10 tons per year; and
(3) Reduced emissions of all HAPs covered by each MACT standard to at least the level required for full compliance with the applicable emission standard.
(c) For affected sources at any area source at a Performance Track member facility and which meet the requirements of paragraph (b)(3) of this section, or for affected sources at any major source that meet the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section:
(1) If the emission standard to which the affected source is subject is based on add-on control technology, and the affected source complies by using add-on control technology, then all required reporting elements in the periodic report may be met through an annual certification that the affected source is meeting the emission standard by continuing to use that control technology. The affected source must continue to meet all relevant monitoring and recordkeeping requirements. The compliance certification must meet the requirements delineated in Clean Air Act section 114(a)(3).
(2) If the emission standard to which the affected source is subject is based on add-on control technology, and the affected source complies by using pollution prevention, then all required reporting elements in the periodic report may be met through an annual certification that the affected source is continuing to use pollution prevention to reduce HAP emissions to levels at or below those required by the applicable emission standard. The affected source must maintain records of all calculations that demonstrate the level of HAP emissions required by the emission standard as well as the level of HAP emissions achieved by the affected source. The affected source must continue to meet all relevant monitoring and recordkeeping requirements. The compliance certification must meet the requirements delineated in Clean Air Act section 114(a)(3).
(3) If the emission standard to which the affected source is subject is based on pollution prevention, and the affected source complies by using pollution prevention and reduces emissions by an additional 50 percent or greater than required by the applicable emission standard, then all required reporting elements in the periodic report may be met through an annual certification that the affected source is continuing to use pollution prevention to reduce HAP emissions by an additional 50 percent or greater than required by the applicable emission standard. The affected source must maintain records of all calculations that demonstrate the level of HAP emissions required by the emission standard as well as the level of HAP emissions achieved by the affected source. The affected source must continue to meet all relevant monitoring and recordkeeping requirements. The compliance certification must meet the requirements delineated in Clean Air Act section 114(a)(3).
(4) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs (c)(1) through (3), of this section, for sources subject to permits under 40 CFR part 70 or 71, the results of any required monitoring and recordkeeping must be reported not less frequently than once in every six months.
PART 262—STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTEEnd Part Start Amendment Part
5. The authority citation for part 262 continues to read as follows:End Amendment Part Start Amendment Part
6. Section 262.34 is amended by adding paragraphs (j), (k), and (l) to read as follows:End Amendment Part
(j) A member of the Performance Track Program who generates 1000 kg or Start Printed Page 21754greater of hazardous waste per month (or one kilogram or more of acute hazardous waste) may accumulate hazardous waste on-site without a permit or interim status for an extended period of time, provided that:
(1) The generator accumulates the hazardous waste for no more than 180 days, or for no more than 270 days if the generator must transport the waste (or offer the waste for transport) more than 200 miles from the generating facility; and
(2) The generator first notifies the Regional Administrator and the Director of the authorized State in writing of its intent to begin accumulation of hazardous waste for extended time periods under the provisions of this section. Such advance notice must include:
(i) Name and EPA ID number of the facility, and specification of when the facility will begin accumulation of hazardous wastes for extended periods of time in accordance with this section; and
(ii) A description of the types of hazardous wastes that will be accumulated for extended periods of time, and the units that will be used for such extended accumulation; and
(iii) A Statement that the facility has made all changes to its operations, procedures, including emergency preparedness procedures, and equipment, including equipment needed for emergency preparedness, that will be necessary to accommodate extended time periods for accumulating hazardous wastes; and
(iv) If the generator intends to accumulate hazardous wastes on-site for up to 270 days, a certification that a facility that is permitted (or operating under interim status) under part 270 of this chapter to receive these wastes is not available within 200 miles of the generating facility; and
(3) The waste is managed in:
(i) Containers, in accordance with the applicable requirements of 40 CFR part 265 subpart I; or
(ii) Tanks, in accordance with the requirements of 40 CFR part 265, subpart J, and § 265.200; or
(iii) Drip pads, in accordance with subpart W of 40 CFR part 265; or
(iv) Containment buildings, in accordance with subpart DD of 40 CFR part 265; and
(4) The quantity of hazardous waste that is accumulated for extended time periods at the facility does not exceed 30,000 kg; and
(5) The generator maintains the following records at the facility for each unit used for extended accumulation times:
(i) A written description of procedures to ensure that each waste volume remains in the unit for no more than 180 days (or 270 days, as applicable), a description of the waste generation and management practices at the facility showing that they are consistent with the extended accumulation time limit, and documentation that the procedures are complied with; or
(ii) Documentation that the unit is emptied at least once every 180 days (or 270 days, if applicable); and
(6) Each container or tank that is used for extended accumulation time periods is labeled or marked clearly with the words “Hazardous Waste,” and for each container the date upon which each period of accumulation begins is clearly marked and visible for inspection; and
(7) The generator complies with the requirements for owners and operators in 40 CFR part 265, with § 265.16, and with § 268.7(a)(5). In addition, such a generator is exempt from all the requirements in subparts G and H of part 265, except for §§ 265.111 and 265.114; and
(8) The generator has implemented pollution prevention practices that reduce the amount of any hazardous substances, pollutants, or contaminants released to the environment prior to its recycling, treatment, or disposal; and
(9) The generator includes the following with its Performance Track Annual Performance Report, which must be submitted to the Regional Administrator and the Director of the authorized State:
(i) Information on the total quantity of each hazardous waste generated at the facility that has been managed in the previous year according to extended accumulation time periods; and
(ii) Information for the previous year on the number of off-site shipments of hazardous wastes generated at the facility, the types and locations of destination facilities, how the wastes were managed at the destination facilities (e.g., recycling, treatment, storage, or disposal), and what changes in on-site or off-site waste management practices have occurred as a result of extended accumulation times or other pollution prevention provisions of this section; and
(iii) Information for the previous year on any hazardous waste spills or accidents occurring at extended accumulation units at the facility, or during off-site transport of accumulated wastes; and
(iv) If the generator intends to accumulate hazardous wastes on-site for up to 270 days, a certification that a facility that is permitted (or operating under interim status) under part 270 of this chapter to receive these wastes is not available within 200 miles of the generating facility; and
(k) If hazardous wastes must remain on-site at a Performance Track member facility for longer than 180 days (or 270 days, if applicable) due to unforseen, temporary, and uncontrollable circumstances, an extension to the extended accumulation time period of up to 30 days may be granted at the discretion of the Regional Administrator on a case-by-case basis.
(1) If a generator who is a member of the Performance Track Program withdraws from the Performance Track Program, or if the Regional Administrator terminates a generator's membership, the generator must return to compliance with all otherwise applicable hazardous waste regulations as soon as possible, but no later than six months after the date of withdrawal or termination.
1. Unit Cost Compendium, prepared by DPRA Incorporated, for USEPA, Office of Solid Waste, September 30, 2000 and personal communication with DPRA.Back to Citation
2. Rail car capacities vary depending on whether the transport unit is a mail box car (from 160 cubic yards to 370 cubic yards), a rail gondola (from 15 cubic yards to 262 cubic yards), or a rail tanker (22,000 gallons), R.S. Means, Environmental Remediation Estimating Methods, 1997. In general, one cubic yard of solid equals 1.5 tons and one cubic yard of liquid equals 1 ton.Back to Citation
3. EPA encourages States to take this approach for less stringent federal requirements where rapid implementation is important. For example, EPA encouraged States to implement State Corrective Action Management Unit Regulations, once adopted as a matter of State law, prior to authorization (see 58 FR 8677, February 16, 1993).Back to Citation
4. The economic estimates for today's rule are based on the most recent data that EPA has obtained, and reflects Program membership through round six.Back to Citation
5. 5 The economic estimates for today's rule are based on the most recent data that EPA has obtained, and reflects Program membership through round six.Back to Citation
6. Memorandum dated December 5, 2003, from Industrial Economics, Incorporated (IEc) to EPA's Office of Policy, Economics, and Innovation.Back to Citation
[FR Doc. 04-9042 Filed 4-21-04; 8:45 am]
BILLING CODE 6560-50-P