Securities and Exchange Commission (“Commission”).
Notice of application for an order under (i) section 6(c) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (the “Act”) granting an exemption from sections 18(f) and 21(b) of the Act; (ii) section 12(d)(1)(J) of the Act granting an exemption from section 12(d)(1) of the Act; (iii) sections 6(c) and 17(b) of the Act granting an exemption from sections 17(a)(1) and 17(a)(3) of the Act; and (iv) section 17(d) of the Act and rule 17d-1 under the Act to permit certain joint transactions.
Summary of Application: Applicants request an order that would permit certain registered open-end management investment companies to participate in a joint lending and borrowing facility.
Applicants: Bridgeway Funds Inc. (“Bridgeway”) and Bridgeway Capital Management, Inc. (the “Adviser”).
Filing Dates: The application was filed on August 28, 2003, and amended on April 12, 2006.
Hearing or Notification of Hearing: An order granting the application will be issued unless the Commission orders a hearing. Interested persons may request a hearing by writing to the Commission's Secretary and serving applicants with a copy of the request, personally or by mail. Hearing requests should be received by the Commission by 5:30 p.m. on May 15, 2006 and should be accompanied by proof of service on the applicants, in the form of an affidavit or, for lawyers, a certificate of service. Hearing requests should state the nature of the writer's interest, the Start Printed Page 21050reason for the request, and the issues contested. Persons who wish to be notified of a hearing may request notification by writing to the Commission's Secretary.
Secretary, U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, 100 F Street, NE., Washington, DC 20549-1090; Applicants, 5615 Kirby Drive, Ste 518, Houston, TX 77005-2448.Start Further Info
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:
John Yoder, Senior Counsel, at (202) 551-6878, or Mary Kay Frech, Branch Chief, at (202) 551-6821 (Division of Investment Management, Office of Investment Company Regulation).End Further Info End Preamble Start Supplemental Information
The following is a summary of the application. The complete application may be obtained for a fee at the Public Reference Desk, U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, 100 F Street, NE., Washington DC 20549-0102 (telephone (202) 551-5850).
Bridgeway is organized as a Maryland corporation and is registered under the Act as an open-end management investment company. Bridgeway is comprised of multiple series (each a “Fund”, and together the “Funds”). The Adviser is registered under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 and serves as investment adviser to the Funds.
2. Some Funds may lend money to banks or other entities by entering into repurchase agreements or purchasing other short-term instruments. Other Funds may need to borrow money from the same or similar banks or other entities for temporary purposes to satisfy redemption requests, to cover unanticipated cash shortfalls such as a trade “fail” in which cash payment for a security sold by a Fund has been delayed, or for other temporary purposes.
3. If the Funds were to borrow money from banks, the Funds would pay interest on the borrowed cash at a rate that would be higher than the rate that would be earned by them on repurchase agreements and other short-term instruments of the same maturity as the bank loan. Applicants state that this differential represents the profit the banks would earn for serving as a middleman between a borrower and lender.
4. Applicants request an order that would permit the Funds to enter into interfund lending agreements (“Interfund Lending Agreements”) under which the Funds would lend and borrow money for temporary purposes directly to and from each other through a credit facility (“Interfund Loan”). Applicants believe that the credit facility would reduce the Funds' borrowing costs and enhance their ability to earn higher interest rates on short-term investments. Although the credit facility would reduce the Funds' need to borrow from banks, the Funds would be free to establish new lines of credit or other borrowing arrangements with banks.
5. Applicants anticipate that the credit facility would provide a borrowing Fund with significant savings when the cash position of the Fund is insufficient to meet temporary cash requirements. This situation could arise when redemptions exceed expected volumes and certain Funds have insufficient cash to satisfy such redemptions. When a Fund liquidates portfolio securities to meet redemption requests, it often does not receive payment in settlement for up to three days (or longer for certain foreign transactions). The credit facility would provide a source of immediate, short-term liquidity pending settlement of the sale of portfolio securities.
6. Applicants also propose using the credit facility when a sale of securities fails due to circumstances beyond a Fund's control, such as a delay in the delivery of cash to a Fund's custodian or improper delivery instructions by the broker effecting the transaction. Sales fails may present a cash shortfall if a Fund has undertaken to purchase securities using the proceeds from the securities sold. Under such circumstances, the Fund could fail on its intended purchase due to lack of funds from the previous sale, resulting in additional cost to the Fund, or sell a security on a same day settlement basis, earning a lower return on the investment. Use of the credit facility under these circumstances would enable the Fund to have access to immediate short-term liquidity without incurring custodian overdraft or other charges.
7. While bank borrowings could supply needed cash to cover unanticipated redemptions and sales fails, under the proposed credit facility a borrowing Fund would pay lower interest rates than those offered by banks on short-term loans. In addition, Funds making short-term cash loans directly to other Funds would earn interest at a rate higher than they otherwise could obtain from investing their cash in repurchase agreements. Thus, applicants believe that the proposed credit facility would benefit both borrowing and lending Funds.
8. The interest rate charged to the Funds on any Interfund Loan (“Interfund Loan Rate”) would be the average of the “Repo Rate” and the “Bank Loan Rate,” both as defined below. The Repo Rate for any day would be the highest rate available to the Funds from investing in overnight repurchase agreements. The Bank Loan Rate for any day would be calculated by the Credit Facility Team (as defined below) each day an Interfund Loan is made according to a formula established by a Fund's board of directors (“Board”) designed to approximate the lowest interest rate at which bank short-term loans would be available to the Funds. The formula would be based upon a publicly available rate (e.g., Federal funds plus 25 basis points) and would vary with this rate so as to reflect changing bank loan rates. The Board of each Fund would periodically review the continuing appropriateness of using the publicly available rate, as well as the relationship between the Bank Loan Rate and current bank loan rates that would be available to the Funds. The initial formula and any subsequent modifications to the formula would be subject to the approval of the Board.
9. The credit facility would be administered by a representative of Bridgeway's accounting department, an investment professional within the Adviser (“Portfolio Manager”), and the compliance officer for Bridgeway (collectively, the “Credit Facility Team”). Under the proposed credit facility, the portfolio managers for each participating Fund could provide standing instructions to participate daily as a borrower or lender. On each business day, the Credit Facility Team would collect data on the uninvested cash and borrowing requirements of all participating Funds from the Funds' custodian. Once it determined the aggregate amount of cash available for loans and borrowing demand, the Credit Facility Team would allocate loans among borrowing Funds without any further communication from portfolio managers (other than the Portfolio Manager as a member of the Credit Facility Team). Applicants expect far more available uninvested cash each day than borrowing demand. All Start Printed Page 21051allocations would require approval of at least one member of the Credit Facility Team who is not the Portfolio Manager. After the Credit Facility Team has allocated cash for Interfund Loans, the Credit Facility Team would invest any remaining cash in accordance with the standing instructions of portfolio managers or return remaining amounts to the Funds.
10. The Credit Facility Team would allocate borrowing demand and cash available for lending among the Funds on what the Credit Facility Team believes to be an equitable basis, subject to certain administrative procedures applicable to all Funds, such as the time of filing requests to participate, minimum loan lot sizes, and the need to minimize the number of transactions and associated administrative costs. To reduce transaction costs, each loan normally would be allocated in a manner intended to minimize the number of participants necessary to complete the loan transaction. The method of allocation and related administrative procedures would be approved by each Fund's Board, including a majority of trustees who are not “interested persons” of the Fund, as defined in section 2(a)(19) of the Act (“Independent Directors”), to ensure that both borrowing and lending Funds participate on an equitable basis.
11. The Credit Facility Team would (a) monitor the interest rates charged and other terms and conditions of the Interfund Loans; (b) limit the borrowings and loans entered into by each Fund to ensure that they comply with the Fund's investment policies and limitations; (c) ensure equitable treatment of each Fund; and (d) make quarterly reports to the Board concerning any transactions by the Funds under the credit facility and the Interfund Loan Rate charged.
12. The Adviser, through the Credit Facility Team, would administer the credit facility as a disinterested fiduciary, and would receive no additional fee for its services. The Adviser may collect standard recordkeeping, bookkeeping and accounting fees associated with the transfer of cash and/or securities in connection with repurchase and lending transactions generally, including transactions effected through the credit facility. Fees for these services would be no higher than those applicable for comparable bank loan transactions.
13. No Fund may participate in the credit facility unless: (a) The Fund has obtained shareholder approval for its participation, if such approval is required by law; (b) the Fund has fully disclosed all material information concerning the credit facility in its prospectus and/or statement of additional information (“SAI”); and (c) the Fund's participation in the credit facility is consistent with its investment policies, limitations, and organizational documents.
14. In connection with the credit facility, applicants request an order under (a) section 6(c) of the Act granting relief from sections 18(f) and 21(b) of the Act; (b) section 12(d)(1)(J) of the Act granting relief from section 12(d)(1) of the Act; (c) sections 6(c) and 17(b) of the Act granting relief from sections 17(a)(1) and 17(a)(3) of the Act; and (d) under section 17(d) and rule 17d-1 under the Act to permit certain joint arrangements.
Applicants' Legal Analysis
1. Section 17(a)(3) generally prohibits any affiliated person, or affiliated person of an affiliated person, from borrowing money or other property from a registered investment company. Section 21(b) generally prohibits any registered management company from lending money or other property to any person if that person controls or is under common control with the company. Section 2(a)(3)(C) of the Act defines an “affiliated person” of another person, in part, to be any person directly or indirectly controlling, controlled by, or under common control with, the other person. Applicants state that the Funds may be under common control by virtue of having the Adviser as their common investment advisor and/or by reason of having common officers and/or directors.
2. Section 6(c) provides that an exemptive order may be granted where an exemption is necessary or appropriate in the public interest and consistent with the protection of investors and the purposes fairly intended by the policy and provisions of the Act. Section 17(b) authorizes the Commission to exempt a proposed transaction from section 17(a) provided that the terms of the transaction, including the consideration to be paid or received, are fair and reasonable and do not involve overreaching on the part of any person concerned, and the transaction is consistent with the policy of the investment company as recited in its registration statement and with the general purposes of the Act. Applicants believe that the proposed arrangements satisfy these standards for the reasons discussed below.
3. Applicants submit that sections 17(a)(3) and 21(b) of the Act were intended to prevent a party with strong potential adverse interests to, and some influence over the investment decisions of, a registered investment company from causing or inducing the investment company to engage in lending transactions that unfairly inure to the benefit of such party and that are detrimental to the best interests of the investment company and its shareholders. Applicants assert that the proposed credit facility transactions do not raise these concerns because: (a) The Adviser through the Credit Facility Team would administer the program as a disinterested fiduciary; (b) all Interfund Loans would consist only of uninvested cash reserves that the Funds otherwise would invest in short-term repurchase agreements or other short-term instruments; (c) the Interfund Loans would not involve a greater risk than such other investments; (d) the lending Fund would receive interest at a rate higher than it could obtain through such other investments; and (e) the borrowing Fund would pay interest at a rate lower than otherwise available to it under its bank loan agreements and avoid the up-front commitment fees associated with committed lines of credit. Moreover, applicants believe that the other conditions in the application would effectively preclude the possibility of any Fund obtaining an undue advantage over any other Fund.
4. Section 17(a)(1) generally prohibits an affiliated person of a registered investment company, or an affiliated person of an affiliated person, from selling any securities or other property to the company. Section 12(d)(1) generally makes it unlawful for a registered investment company to purchase or otherwise acquire any security issued by any other investment company except in accordance with the limitations set forth in that section. Applicants state that the obligation of a borrowing Fund to repay an Interfund Loan may constitute a security under sections 17(a)(1) and 12(d)(1). Section 12(d)(1)(J) provides that the Commission may exempt persons or transactions from any provision of section 12(d)(1) if and to the extent such exemption is consistent with the public interest and the protection of investors. Applicants contend that the standards under sections 6(c), 17(b), and 12(d)(1)(J) are satisfied for all the reasons set forth above in support of their request for relief from sections 17(a)(3) and 21(b) and for the reasons discussed below.
5. Applicants state that section 12(d)(1) was intended to prevent the pyramiding of investment companies in order to avoid imposing on investors additional and duplicative costs and fees attendant upon multiple layers of investment companies. Applicants submit that the proposed credit facility does not involve these abuses. Start Printed Page 21052Applicants note that there will be no duplicative costs or fees to the Funds or shareholders, and that the Adviser will receive no additional compensation for its services in administering the credit facility through the Credit Facility Team. Applicants also note that the purpose of the proposed credit facility is to provide economic benefits for all of the participating Funds and their shareholders.
6. Section 18(f)(1) prohibits open-end investment companies from issuing any senior security except that a company is permitted to borrow from any bank, if immediately after the borrowing, there is asset coverage of at least 300 per centum for all borrowings of the company. Under section 18(g) of the Act, the term “senior security” includes any bond, debenture, note or similar obligation or instrument constituting a security and evidencing indebtedness. Applicants request relief from section 18(f)(1) to the limited extent necessary to implement the credit facility (because the lending Funds are not banks).
7. Applicants believe that granting relief under section 6(c) is appropriate because the Funds would remain subject to the requirement of section 18(f)(1) that all borrowings of the Fund, including combined interfund and bank borrowings, have at least 300% asset coverage. Based on the conditions and safeguards described in the application, applicants also submit that to allow the Funds to borrow from other Funds pursuant to the proposed credit facility is consistent with the purposes and policies of section 18(f)(1).
8. Section 17(d) and rule 17d-1 generally prohibit any affiliated person of a registered investment company, or affiliated persons of an affiliated person, when acting as principal, from effecting any joint transactions in which the company participates unless the transaction is approved by the Commission. Rule 17d-1 provides that in passing upon applications filed under the rule, the Commission will consider whether the participation of a registered investment company in a joint enterprise on the basis proposed is consistent with the provisions, policies, and purposes of the Act and the extent to which the company's participation is on a basis different from or less advantageous than that of other participants.
9. Applicants submit that the purpose of section 17(d) is to avoid overreaching by and unfair advantage to investment company insiders. Applicants believe that the credit facility is consistent with the provisions, policies, and purposes of the Act in that it offers both reduced borrowing costs and enhanced returns on loaned funds to all participating Funds and their shareholders. Applicants note that each Fund would have an equal opportunity to borrow and lend on equal terms consistent with its investment policies and fundamental limitations. Applicants therefore believe that each Fund's participation in the credit facility will be on terms that are no different from or less advantageous than that of other participating Funds.
Applicants agree that any order granting the requested relief will be subject to the following conditions:
1. The Interfund Loan Rate to be charged to the Funds under the credit facility will be the average of the Repo Rate and the Bank Loan Rate.
2. On each business day, the Credit Facility Team will compare the Bank Loan Rate with the Repo Rate and will make cash available for Interfund Loans only if the Interfund Loan Rate is (a) more favorable to the lending Fund than the Repo Rate, and, if applicable, the yield of any money market fund in which the lending Fund could otherwise invest and (b) more favorable to the borrowing Fund than the Bank Loan Rate.
3. If a Fund has outstanding borrowings, any Interfund Loans to the Fund (a) will be at an interest rate equal to or lower than any outstanding bank loan; (b) will be secured at least on an equal priority basis with at least an equivalent percentage of collateral to loan value as any outstanding bank loan that requires collateral; (c) will have a maturity no longer than any outstanding bank loan (and in any event not over seven days); and (d) will provide that, if an event of default occurs under any agreement evidencing an outstanding bank loan to the Fund, that event of default will automatically (without need for action or notice by the lending Fund) constitute an immediate event of default under the Interfund Lending Agreement entitling the lending Fund to call the Interfund Loan (and exercise all rights with respect to any collateral) and that such call will be made if the lending bank exercises its right to call its loan under its agreement with the borrowing Fund.
4. A Fund may make an unsecured borrowing through the credit facility if its outstanding borrowing from all sources immediately after the interfund borrowing total 10% or less than its total assets, provided that if the Fund has a secured loan outstanding from any other lender, including but not limited to another Fund, the Fund's interfund borrowing will be secured on at least an equal priority basis with at least an equivalent percentage of collateral to loan value as any outstanding loan that requires collateral. If a Fund's total outstanding borrowings immediately after an interfund borrowing would be greater than 10% of its total assets, the Fund may borrow through the credit facility on a secured basis only. A Fund may not borrow through the credit facility or from any other source if its total borrowings immediately after the interfund borrowing would be more than 331/3% of its total assets or its maximum borrowing limit set forth in the Fund's investment restrictions, whichever is less.
5. Before any Fund that has outstanding interfund borrowings may, through additional borrowings, cause its outstanding borrowings from all sources to exceed 10% of its total assets, the Fund must first secure each outstanding Interfund Loan by the pledge of segregated collateral with a market value at least equal to 102% of the outstanding principal value of the loan. If the total outstanding borrowings of a Fund with outstanding Interfund Loans exceed 10% of its total assets for any other reason (such as a decline in net asset value or because of shareholder redemptions), the Fund will within one business day thereafter (a) repay all its outstanding Interfund Loans; (b) reduce its outstanding indebtedness to 10% or less of its total assets; or (c) secure each outstanding Interfund Loan by the pledge of segregated collateral with a market value at least equal to 102% of the outstanding principal value of the loan until the Fund's total outstanding borrowings cease to exceed 10% of its total assets, at which time the collateral called for by this condition (5) shall no longer be required. Until each Interfund Loan that is outstanding at any time that a Fund's total outstanding borrowings exceeds 10% is repaid or the Fund's total outstanding borrowings cease to exceed 10% of its total assets, the Fund will mark the value of the collateral to market each day and will pledge such additional collateral as is necessary to maintain the market value of the collateral that secures each outstanding Interfund Loan at least equal to 102% of the outstanding principal value of the loan.
6. No Fund may lend to another Fund through the credit facility if the loan would cause its aggregate outstanding loans through the credit facility to exceed 15% of its net assets at the time of the loan.
7. A Fund's Interfund Loans to any one Fund shall not exceed 5% of the lending Fund's net assets.
8. The duration of Interfund Loans will be limited to the time required to Start Printed Page 21053receive payment for securities sold, but in no event more than seven days. Loans effected within seven days of each other will be treated as separate loan transactions for purposes of this condition.
9. Each Interfund Loan may be called on one business day's notice by a lending Fund and may be repaid on any day by a borrowing Fund.
10. A Fund's participation in the credit facility must be consistent with its investment policies and limitations and organizational documents.
11. The Credit Facility Team will calculate total Fund borrowing and lending demand through the credit facility, and allocate Interfund Loans on an equitable basis among the Funds without the intervention of any portfolio manager of the Funds (other than the Portfolio Manager acting in his or her capacity as a member of the Credit Facility Team). All allocations will require approval of at least one member of the Credit Facility Team who is not the Portfolio Manager. The Credit Facility Team will not solicit cash for the credit facility from any Fund or prospectively publish or disseminate loan demand data to portfolio managers (except to the extent that the Portfolio Manager has access to loan demand data in his or her capacity as a member of the Credit Facility Team). The Credit Facility Team will invest any amounts remaining after satisfaction of borrowing demand in accordance with the standing instructions from portfolio managers or return remaining amounts to the Funds.
12. The Credit Facility Team will monitor the Interfund Loan Rate charged and the other terms and conditions of the Interfund Loans and will make a quarterly report to the Board concerning the participation of the Funds in the credit facility and the terms and other conditions of any extensions of credit under the facility.
13. The Board of each Fund, including a majority of the Independent Directors: (a) Will review no less frequently than quarterly the Fund's participation in the credit facility during the preceding quarter for compliance with the conditions of any order permitting the transactions; (b) will establish the Bank Loan Rate formula used to determine the interest rate on Interfund Loans and review no less frequently than annually the continuing appropriateness of the Bank Loan Rate formula; and (c) will review no less frequently than annually the continuing appropriateness of the Fund's participation in the credit facility.
14. In the event an Interfund Loan is not paid according to its terms and the default is not cured within two business days from its maturity or from the time the lending Fund makes a demand for payment under the provisions of the Interfund Lending Agreement, the Credit Facility Team will promptly refer the loan for arbitration to an independent arbitrator selected by the Board of any Fund involved in the loan who will serve as arbitrator of disputes concerning Interfund Loans. The arbitrator will resolve any problems promptly, and the arbitrator's decision will be binding on both Funds. The arbitrator will submit, at least annually, a written report to the Board setting forth a description of the nature of any dispute and the actions taken by the Funds to resolve the dispute.
15. Each Fund will maintain and preserve for a period of not less than six years from the end of the fiscal year in which any transaction under the credit facility occurred, the first two years in an easily accessible place, written records of all such transactions setting forth a description of the terms of the transaction, including the amount, the maturity and rate of interest on the loan, the rate of interest available at the time on short-term repurchase agreements and bank borrowings, the yield on any money market fund in which the lending Fund could otherwise invest and such other information presented to the Fund's Board in connection with the review required by conditions 12 and 13.
16. The Credit Facility Team will prepare and submit to the Board for review an initial report describing the operations of the credit facility and the procedures to be implemented to ensure that all Funds are treated fairly. After the commencement of operations of the credit facility, the Credit Facility Team will report on the operations of the credit facility at the quarterly meetings of each Fund's Board. In addition, for two years following the commencement of the credit facility, the independent public accountant for each Fund shall prepare an annual report that evaluates the Credit Facility Team's assertion that it has established procedures reasonably designed to achieve compliance with the conditions of the order. The report will be prepared in accordance with the Statements on Standards for Attestation Engagements No. 10 and it shall be filed pursuant to Item 77Q3 of Form N-SAR, as such statements or form may be revised, amended, or superseded from time to time. In particular, the report shall address procedures designed to achieve the following objectives: (a) That the Interfund Loan Rate will be higher than the Repo Rate and, if applicable, the yield of the money market funds, but lower than the Bank Loan Rate; (b) compliance with the collateral requirements as set forth in the application; (c) compliance with the percentage limitations on interfund borrowing and lending; (d) allocation of interfund borrowing and lending demand in an equitable manner and in accordance with procedures established by the Board; and (e) that the interest rate on any Interfund Loan does not exceed the interest rate on any third party borrowings of a borrowing Fund at the time of the Interfund Loan. After the final report is filed, the Fund's external auditors, in connection with their Fund audit examinations, will continue to review the operation of the credit facility for compliance with the conditions of the application and their review will form the basis, in part, of the auditor's report on internal accounting controls in Form N-SAR.
17. No Fund will participate in the credit facility upon receipt of requisite regulatory approval unless all material facts about its intended participation are fully disclosed in the Fund's SAI.
18. A Fund's borrowings through the credit facility, as measured on the day when the most recent loan was made, will not exceed the greater of 125% of the Fund's total net cash redemptions or 102% of sales fails for the preceding seven calendar days.
19. The Board of each Fund will satisfy the fund governance standards as defined in rule 0-1(a)(7) under the Act by the compliance date for the rule.Start Signature
For the Commission, by the Division of Investment Management, under delegated authority.
Nancy M. Morris,
1. Applicants request that the relief apply to any other existing or future registered open-end management investment company or series thereof that is advised by the Adviser or any person controlling, controlled by, or under common control with the Adviser or its successors (included in the term “Funds”). The term “successor” is limited to entities that result from a reorganization into another jurisdiction or a change in the type of business organization. All existing Funds that currently intend to rely on the requested order have been named as applicants. Any other existing or future Fund that relies on the order in the future will comply with the terms and conditions of the application.Back to Citation
2. If a dispute involves Funds with separate Boards, the respective Boards will agree on an independent arbitrator that is satisfactory to each Fund.Back to Citation
[FR Doc. E6-6068 Filed 4-21-06; 8:45 am]
BILLING CODE 8010-01-P