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Extension of Import Restrictions Imposed on Pre-Classical and Classical Archaeological Objects and Byzantine Period Ecclesiastical and Ritual Ethnological Material From Cyprus

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U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security; Department of the Treasury.


Final rule.


This document amends U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) regulations to reflect the extension of import restrictions on Pre-Classical and Classical Archaeological Objects and Byzantine Ecclesiastical and Ritual Ethnological Material from Cyprus which were imposed by Treasury Decision (T.D.) 02-37 and CBP Dec. 06-22. The Assistant Secretary for Educational and Cultural Affairs, United States Department of State, has determined that conditions continue to warrant the imposition of import restrictions. Accordingly, the restrictions will remain in effect for an additional 5 years, and the CBP regulations are being amended to indicate this extension. These restrictions are being extended pursuant to determinations of the United States Department of State made under the terms of the Convention on Cultural Property Implementation Act in accordance with the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property. This document also contains the Designated List of Archaeological Objects and Ethnological Material that describes the articles to which the restrictions apply. Note that one subcategory, Coins of Cypriot Types, has been added to the category entitled Metal.


July 16, 2007.

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For legal aspects, George F. McCray, Esq., Chief, Intellectual Property Rights and Restricted Merchandise Branch, (202) 572-8710. For operational aspects, Michael Craig, Chief, Other Government Agencies Branch, (202) 344-1684.

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Pursuant to the provisions of the 1970 United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Convention, codified into U.S. law as the Convention on Cultural Property Implementation Act (Pub. L. 97-446, 19 U.S.C. 2601 et seq.), the United States entered into a bilateral agreement with the Republic of Cyprus on July 16, 2002, concerning the imposition of import restrictions on certain archaeological material of Cyprus representing the Pre-Classical and Classical periods of its cultural heritage. On July 19, 2002, the former United States Customs Service published Treasury Decision (T.D.) 02-37 in the Federal Register (67 FR Start Printed Page 3847147447), which amended 19 CFR 12.104g(a) to reflect the imposition of these restrictions, and included a list designating the types of archaeological materials covered by the restrictions.

Import restrictions listed in 19 CFR 12.104g(a) are “effective for no more than five years beginning on the date on which the agreement enters into force with respect to the United States. This period can be extended for additional periods not to exceed five years if it is determined that the factors which justified the initial agreement still pertain and no cause for suspension of the agreement exists” (19 CFR 12.104g(a)). T.D. 02-37 is set to expire on July 16, 2007.

We note that prior to the issuance of T.D. 02-37, the former United States Customs Service had issued T.D. 99-35 (64 FR 17529, April 12, 1999) imposing “emergency” import restrictions on certain Byzantine Ecclesiastical and Ritual Ethnological Material from Cyprus. Under T.D. 99-35, Sec. 12.104g(b) (19 CFR 12.104g(b)) of the regulations pertaining to emergency import restrictions was amended accordingly. This emergency protection was extended in CBP Dec. 03-25 (68 FR 51903, August 29, 2003). The ethnological material protected by the emergency restrictions was not covered by the 2002 bilateral agreement and the 2002 Treasury Decision.

On August 17, 2006, the Republic of Cyprus and the United States amended the bilateral agreement of July 16, 2002, to include the list of Byzantine Ecclesiastical and Ritual Ethnological Material from Cyprus that was protected pursuant to the emergency action. The amendment of the bilateral agreement to include this material was reflected in CBP Dec. 06-22, which was published in the Federal Register (71 FR 51724) on August 31, 2006. CBP Dec. 06-22 set forth the list of Byzantine Ecclesiastical and Ritual Ethnological Material from Cyprus that was previously protected pursuant to emergency action and announced that import restrictions were now imposed on this cultural property pursuant to the amended bilateral agreement. The amended bilateral agreement is set to expire on July 16, 2007, unless extended by the Parties.

After reviewing the findings and recommendations of the Cultural Property Advisory Committee, the Assistant Secretary for Educational and Cultural Affairs, United States Department of State, concluding that the cultural heritage of Cyprus continues to be in jeopardy from pillage of certain archaeological objects and ethnological materials, made the necessary determination to extend the import restrictions on all the cultural property encompassed by the amended bilateral agreement for an additional five years on May 30, 2007. In addition to all the previously protected cultural material, import restrictions are also being imposed on a new subcategory of objects (Coins). Accordingly, CBP is amending 19 CFR 12.104g(a) to reflect the extension of the import restrictions on the currently protected cultural property as well as the new subcategory.

The Designated List of articles that are protected pursuant to the bilateral agreement, as extended, on Pre-Classical and Classical Archaeological Objects and Byzantine Period Ecclesiastical and Ritual Ethnological Material from Cyprus has been revised and is published below. We note that the subcategory Coins of Cypriot Types has been added to the category entitled Metal, pursuant to 19 U.S.C. 2604. This addition comes in response to a request from the Government of the Republic of Cyprus to amend the Designated List. Coins constitute an inseparable part of the archaeological record of the island, and, like other archaeological objects, they are vulnerable to pillage and illicit export.

List of Archaeological Objects From Cyprus Representing Pre-Classical and Classical Periods Ranging in Date From Approximately the 8th Millennium B.C. to Approximately 330 A.D.

I. Ceramic

A. Vessels

1. Neolithic and Chalcolithic (c. 7500-2300 B.C.)—Bowls and jars, including spouted vessels. Varieties include Combed ware, Black Lustrous ware, Red Lustrous ware, and Red-on-White painted ware. Approximately 10-24 cm in height.

2. Early Bronze Age (c. 2300-1850 B.C.)—Forms are hand-made and include bowls, jugs, juglets, jars, and specialized forms, such as askoi, pyxides, gourd-shape, multiple-body vessels, and vessels with figurines attached. Cut-away spouts, multiple spouts, basket handles, and round bases commonly occur. Incised, punctured, molded, and applied ornament, as well as polishing and slip, are included in the range of decorative techniques. Approximately 13-60 cm in height.

3. Middle Bronze Age (c. 1850-1550 B.C.)—Forms are hand-made and include bowls, jugs, juglets, jars, zoomorphic askoi, bottles, amphorae, and amphoriskoi. Some have multiple spouts and basket or ribbon handles. Decorative techniques include red and brown paint, incised or applied decoration, and polishing. Varieties include Red Polished ware, White Painted ware, Black Slip ware, Red Slip ware, and Red-on-Black ware. Approximately 4-25 cm in height.

4. Late Bronze Age (c. 1550-1050 B.C.)—Forms include bowls, jars, jugs and juglets, tankards, rhyta, bottles, kraters, alabastra, stemmed cups, cups, stirrup jars, amphorae, and amphoriskoi. A wide variety of spouts, handles, and bases are common. Zoomorphic vessels also occur. Decorative techniques include painted design in red or brown, polishing, and punctured or incised decoration. Varieties include White Slip, Base Ring ware, White Shaved ware, Red Lustrous ware, Bichrome Wheel-made ware, and Proto-White Painted ware. Some examples of local or imported Mycenaean Late Helladic III have also been found. Approximately 5-50 cm in height.

5. Cypro-Geometric I-III (c. 1050-750 B.C.)—Forms include bowls, jugs, juglets, jars, cups, skyphoi, amphorae, amphoriskos, and tripods. A variety of spouts, handles and base forms are used. Decorative techniques include paint in dark brown and red, ribbing, polish, and applied projections. Varieties include White Painted I-II wares, Black Slip I-II wares, Bichrome II-III wares, and Black-on-Red ware. Approximately 7-30 cm in height.

6. Cypro-Archaic I-II (c. 750-475 B.C.)—Forms include bowls, plates, jugs and juglets, cups, kraters, amphoriskoi, oinochoe, and amphorae. Many of the forms are painted with bands, lines, concentric circles, and other geometric and floral patterns. Animal designs occur in the Free Field style. Molded decoration in the form of female figurines may also be applied. Red and dark brown paint is used on Bichrome ware. Black paint on a red polished surface is common on Black-on-Red ware. Other varieties include Bichrome Red, Polychrome Red, and Plain White. Approximately 12-45 cm in height.

7. Cypro-Classical I-II (c. 475-325 B.C.)—Forms include bowls, shallow dishes, jugs and juglets, oinochoai, and amphorae. The use of painted decoration in red and brown, as well as blue/green and black continues. Some vessels have molded female figurines applied.

Decorative designs include floral and geometric patterns. Burnishing also occurs. Varieties include Polychrome Red, Black-on-Red, Polychrome Red, Stroke Burnished, and White Painted wares. Approximately 6-40 cm in height.

8. Hellenistic (c. 325 B.C.-50 B.C.)—Forms include bowls, dishes, cups, unguentaria, jugs and juglets, pyxides, Start Printed Page 38472and amphorae. Most of the ceramic vessels of the period are undecorated. Those that are decorated use red, brown, or white paint in simple geometric patterns. Ribbing is also a common decorative technique. Some floral patterns are also used. Varieties include Glazed Painted ware and Glazed ware. Imports include Megarian bowls. Approximately 5-25 cm in height.

9. Roman (c. 50 B.C.-330 A.D.)—Forms include bowls, dishes, cups, jugs and juglets, unguentaria, amphora, and cooking pots. Decorative techniques include incision, embossing, molded decoration, grooved decoration, and paint. Varieties include Terra Sigillata and Glazed and Green Glazed wares. Approximately 5-55 cm in height.

B. Sculpture

1. Terracotta Figurines (small statuettes).

(a) Neolithic to Late Bronze Age (c. 7500-1050 B.C.)—Figurines are small, hand-made, and schematic in form. Most represent female figures, often standing and sometimes seated and giving birth or cradling an infant. Features and attributes are marked with incisions or paint. Figurines occur in Red-on-White ware, Red Polished ware, Red-Drab Polished ware, and Base Ring ware. Approximately 10-25 cm in height.

(b) Cypro-Geometric to Cypro-Archaic (c. 1050-475 B.C.)—Figurines show a greater diversity of form than earlier figurines. Female figurines are still common, but forms also include male horse-and-rider figurines; warrior figures; animals such as birds, bulls and pigs; tubular figurines; boat models; and human masks. In the Cypro-Archaic period, terra cotta models illustrate a variety of daily activities, including the process of making pottery and grinding grain. Other examples include musicians and men in chariots. Approximately 7-19 cm in height.

(c) Cypro-Classical to Roman (c. 475 B.C.-330 A.D.)—Figurines mirror the classical tradition of Greece and Roman. Types include draped women, nude youths, and winged figures. Approximately 9-20 cm in height.

2. Large Scale Terracotta Figurines—Dating to the Cypro-Archaic period (c. 750-475 B.C.), full figures about half life-size, are commonly found in sanctuaries. Illustrated examples include the head of a woman decorated with rosettes and a bearded male with spiral-decorated helmet. Approximately 50-150 cm in height.

3. Funerary Statuettes—Dating to the Cypro-Classical period (c. 475-325 B.C.), these illustrate both male and female figures draped, often seated, as expressions of mourning. Approximately 25-50 cm in height.

C. Inscriptions

Writing on clay is restricted to the Late Bronze Age (c. 1550-1050 B.C.). These occur on clay tablets, weights, and clay balls. Approximately 2-7 cm in height.

II. Stone

A. Vessels

Ground stone vessels occur from the Neolithic to the Hellenistic period (c. 7500-50 B.C.). Early vessels are from local hard stone. Most are bowl-shaped; some are trough-shaped with spouts and handles. Neolithic vessels often have incised or perforated decoration. Late Bronze Age vessels include amphoriskoi and kraters with handles. Sometimes these have incised decoration. Alabaster was also used for stone vessels in the Late Bronze Age and Hellenistic period. In the latter period, stone vessels are produced in the same shapes as ceramic vessels: Amphorae, unguentaria, etc. Approximately 10-30 cm in height.

B. Sculpture

1. Neolithic to Chalcolithic (c. 7500-2300 B.C.)—Forms include small scale human heads, fiddle-shaped human figures, steatopygous female figures, cruciform idols with incised decoration, and animal figures. Andesite and limestone are commonly used in these periods. Approximately 5-30 cm in height.

2. Cypro-Classical (c. 475-325 B.C.)—Small scale to life-size human figures, whole and fragments, in limestone and marble, are similar to the Classical tradition in local styles. Examples include the limestone head of a youth in Neo-Cypriot style, votive female figures in Proto-Cypriot style, a kouros in Archaic Greek style, statues and statuettes representing Classical gods such as Zeus and Aphrodite, as well as portrait heads of the Greek and Roman periods. Approximately 10-200 cm in height.

C. Architectural Elements

Sculpted stone building elements occur from the 5th century B.C. through the 3rd century A.D. These include columns and column capitals, relief decoration, chancel panels, window frames, revetments, offering tables, coats of arms, and gargoyles.

D. Seals

Dating from the Neolithic (7500 B.C.) through 3rd century A.D., conical seals, scarabs, cylinder seals, and bread stamps are incised with geometric decoration, pictoral scenes, and inscriptions. Approximately 2-12 cm in height.

E. Amulets and Pendants

Dating to the Chalcolithic period, these pendants are made of picrolite and are oval or rectangular in form. Approximately 4-5 cm in length.

F. Inscriptions

Inscribed stone materials date from the 6th century B.C. through the 3rd century A.D. During the Cypro-Classical period, funerary stelae, and votive plaques were inscribed. From the 1st to the 3rd century A.D. funerary plaques, mosaic floors, and building plaques were inscribed.

G. Funerary Stelae (Uninscribed)

Funerary stelae date from the 6th century B.C. to the end of the Hellenistic period (c. 50 B.C.). Marble and other stone sculptural monuments have relief decoration of animals or human figures seated or standing. Stone coffins also have relief decoration. Approximately 50-155 cm in height.

H. Floor Mosaics

Floor mosaics date as early as the 4th century B.C. in domestic and public contexts and continue to be produced through the 3rd century A.D. Examples include the mosaics at Nea Paphos, Kourion, and Kouklia.

III. Metal

A. Copper/Bronze

1. Vessels—Dating from the Bronze Age (c. 2300 B.C.) through the 3rd century A.D., bronze vessel forms include bowls, cups, amphorae, jugs, juglets, pyxides, dippers, lamp stands, dishes, and plates. Approximately 4-30 cm in height.

2. Bronze Stands—Dating from the Late Bronze Age (c. 1550 B.C.) through the end of the Classical period (c. 325 B.C.), are bronze stands with animal decoration.

3. Sculpture—Dating from the Late Bronze Age (c. 1550) to the end of the Hellenistic period (c. 50 B.C.), small figural sculpture includes human forms with attached attributes such as spears or goblets, animal figures, animal- and vessel-shaped weights, and Classical representations of gods and mythological figures. Approximately 5-25 cm in height.

4. Personal Objects—Dating from the Early Bronze Age (c. 2300 B.C.) to the end of the Roman period (330 A.D.), forms include toggle pins, straight pins, fibulae, and mirrors. Start Printed Page 38473

B. Silver

1. Vessels—Dating from the Bronze Age (c. 2300 B.C.) through the end of the Roman period (330 A.D.), forms include bowls, dishes, coffee services, and ceremonial objects such as incense burners. These are often decorated with molded or incised geometric motifs or figural scenes.

2. Jewelry—Dating from the Cypro-Geometric period (c. 1050 B.C.) through the end of the Roman period (330 A.D.), forms include fibulae, rings, bracelets, and spoons.

C. Gold Jewelry

Gold jewelry has been found on Cyprus from the Early Bronze Age (c. 2300 B.C.) through the end of the Roman period (330 A.D.). Items include hair ornaments, bands, frontlets, pectorals, earrings, necklaces, rings, pendants, plaques, beads, and bracelets.

D. Coins of Cypriot Types

Coins of Cypriot types made of gold, silver, and bronze including but not limited to:

1. Issues of the ancient kingdoms of Amathus, Kition, Kourion, Idalion, Lapethos, Marion, Paphos, Soli, and Salamis dating from the end of the 6th century B.C. to 332 B.C.

2. Issues of the Hellenistic period, such as those of Paphos, Salamis, and Kition from 332 B.C. to c. 30 B.C.

3. Provincial and local issues of the Roman period from c. 30 B.C. to 235 A.D. Often these have a bust or head on one side and the image of a temple (the Temple of Aphrodite at Palaipaphos) or statue (statue of Zeus Salaminios) on the other.

List of Ecclesiastical and Ritual Ethnological Material From Cyprus Representing the Byzantine Period Dating From Approximately the 4th Century A.D. Through the 15th Century A.D.

I. Metal

A. Bronze

Ceremonial objects include crosses, censers (incense burners), rings, and buckles for ecclesiastical garments. The objects may be decorated with engraved or modeled designs or Greek inscriptions. Crosses, rings and buckles are often set with semi-precious stones.

B. Lead

Lead objects date to the Byzantine period and include ampulla (small bottle-shaped forms) used in religious observance.

C. Silver and Gold

Ceremonial vessels and objects used in ritual and as components of church treasure. Ceremonial objects include censers (incense burners), book covers, liturgical crosses, archbishop's crowns, buckles, and chests. These are often decorated with molded or incised geometric motifs or scenes from the Bible, and encrusted with semi-precious or precious stones. The gems themselves may be engraved with religious figures or inscriptions. Church treasure may include all of the above, as well as rings, earrings, and necklaces (some decorated with ecclesiastical themes) and other implements (e.g., spoons).

II. Wood

Artifacts made of wood are primarily those intended for ritual or ecclesiastical use during the Byzantine period. These include painted icons, painted wood screens (iconstasis), carved doors, crosses, painted wooded beams from churches or monasteries, thrones, chests and musical instruments. Religious figures (Christ, the Apostles, the Virgin, and others) predominate in the painted and carved figural decoration. Ecclesiastical furniture and architectural elements may also be decorated with geometric or floral designs.

III. Ivory and Bone

Ecclesiastical and ritual objects of ivory and bone boxes, plaques, pendants, candelabra, stamp rings, crosses. Carved and engraved decoration includes religious figures, scenes from the Bible, and floral and geometric designs.

IV. Glass

Ecclesiastical objects such as lamps and ritual vessels.

V. Textiles—Ritual Garments

Ecclesiastical garments and other ritual textiles from the Byzantine period. Robes, vestments and altar clothes are often of a fine fabric and richly embroidered in silver and gold. Embroidered designs include religious motifs and floral and geometric designs.

VI. Stone

A. Wall Mosaics

Dating to the Byzantine period, wall mosaics are found in ecclesiastical buildings. These generally portray images of Christ, Archangels, and the Apostles in scenes of Biblical events. Surrounding panels may contain animal, floral, or geometric designs.

B. Floor Mosaics

Floor mosaics from ecclesiastical contexts. Examples include the mosaics at Nea Paphos, Kourion, Kouklia, Chrysopolitissa Basilica and Campanopetra Basilica. Floor mosaics may have animal, floral, geometric designs, or inscriptions.

VII. Frescoes/Wall Paintings

Wall paintings from the Byzantine period religious structures (churches, monasteries, chapels, etc.) Like the mosaics, wall paintings generally portray images of Christ, Archangels, and the Apostles in scenes of Biblical events. Surrounding paintings may contain animal, floral, or geometric designs.

More information on import restrictions can be obtained from the International Cultural Property Protection Web site (​culprop). The restrictions on the importation of these archaeological and ethnological materials from Cyprus are to continue in effect for an additional 5 years. Importation of such materials continues to be restricted unless the conditions set forth in 19 U.S.C. 2606 and 19 CFR 12.104c are met.

Inapplicability of Notice and Delayed Effective Date

This amendment involves a foreign affairs function of the United States and is, therefore, being made without notice or public procedure (5 U.S.C. 553(a)(1)). For the same reason, a delayed effective date is not required.

Regulatory Flexibility Act

Because no notice of proposed rulemaking is required, the provisions of the Regulatory Flexibility Act (5 U.S.C. 601 et seq.) do not apply.

Executive Order 12866

Because this rule involves a foreign affairs function of the United States, it is not subject to Executive Order 12866.

Signing Authority

This regulation is being issued in accordance with 19 CFR 0.1(a)(1).

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List of Subjects in 19 CFR Part 12

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Amendment to CBP Regulations

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For the reasons set forth above, part 12 of Title 19 of the Code of Federal Regulations (

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1. The general authority citation for part 12 and the specific authority citation for § 12.104g continue to read as follows:

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Authority: 5 U.S.C. 301; 19 U.S.C. 66, 1202 (General Note 3(i), Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (HTSUS)), 1624;

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Sections 12.104 through 12.104i also issued under 19 U.S.C. 2612;

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2. In § 12.104g(a), the table of the list of agreements imposing import restrictions on described articles of cultural property of State Parties is amended in the entry for Cyprus by removing the reference to “T.D. 02-37, as amended by CBP Dec. 06-22” and adding in its place “CBP Dec. 07-52” in the column headed “Decision No.”.

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Deborah J. Spero,

Acting Commissioner, Bureau of Customs and Border Protection.

Approved: July 9, 2007.

Timothy E. Skud,

Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Treasury.

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[FR Doc. 07-3425 Filed 7-12-07; 8:45 am]