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Proposed Rule

Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans and Designation of Areas for Air Quality Planning Purposes; Illinois; Redesignation of the Illinois Portion of the St. Louis, MO-IL Area to Attainment for the 1997 8-Hour Ozone Standard

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Start Preamble Start Printed Page 79579

AGENCY:

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

ACTION:

Proposed rule.

SUMMARY:

EPA is proposing to approve a request from Illinois to redesignate the Illinois portion of the St. Louis, MO-IL nonattainment area, “the St. Louis area,” to attainment for the 1997 8-hour ozone standard because the request meets the statutory requirements for redesignation under the Clean Air Act (CAA). The St. Louis area includes Jersey, Madison, Monroe, and St. Clair Counties in Illinois and St. Louis City and Franklin, Jefferson, St. Charles and St. Louis Counties in Missouri. The Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA) submitted this request on May 26, 2010 and supplemented it on September 16, 2011. (EPA will address the Missouri portion of the St. Louis area in a separate rulemaking action.) This proposed approval also involves several related actions. EPA is proposing to approve, as a revision to the Illinois State Implementation Plan (SIP), the State's plan for maintaining the 1997 8-hour ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) through 2025 in the area. EPA is proposing to approve the 2002 emissions inventory, submitted by IEPA on June 21, 2006, and supplemented on September 16, 2011, as meeting the comprehensive emissions inventory requirement of the CAA for the Illinois portion of the St. Louis area. Finally, EPA finds adequate and is proposing to approve the State's 2008 and 2025 Motor Vehicle Emission Budgets (MVEBs) for the Illinois portion of the St. Louis area.

DATES:

Comments must be received on or before January 23, 2012.

ADDRESSES:

Submit your comments, identified by Docket ID No. EPA-R05-OAR-2010-0523, by one of the following methods:

1. http://www.regulations.gov: Follow the on-line instructions for submitting comments.

2. Email: Aburano.Douglas@epa.gov.

3. Fax: (312) 353-6960.

4. Mail: Doug Aburano, Chief, Attainment Planning and Maintenance Section, Air Programs Branch (AR-18J), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 77 West Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, Illinois 60604.

5. Hand delivery: Doug Aburano, Chief, Attainment Planning and Maintenance Section, Air Programs Branch (AR-18J), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 77 West Jackson Boulevard, 18th floor, Chicago, Illinois 60604. Such deliveries are only accepted during the Regional Office normal hours of operation, and special arrangements should be made for deliveries of boxed information. The Regional Office official hours of business are Monday through Friday, 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., excluding Federal holidays.

Instructions: Direct your comments to Docket ID No. EPA-R05-OAR-2010-0523. EPA's policy is that all comments received will be included in the public docket without change and may be made available online at www.regulations.gov, including any personal information provided, unless the comment includes information claimed to be Confidential Business Information (CBI) or other information whose disclosure is restricted by statute. Do not submit information that you consider to be CBI or otherwise protected through www.regulations.gov or email. The www.regulations.gov Web site is an “anonymous access” system, which means EPA will not know your identity or contact information unless you provide it in the body of your comment. If you send an email comment directly to EPA without going through www.regulations.gov, your email address will be automatically captured and included as part of the comment that is placed in the public docket and made available on the Internet. If you submit an electronic comment, EPA recommends that you include your name and other contact information in the body of your comment and with any disk or CD-ROM you submit. If EPA cannot read your comment due to technical difficulties and cannot contact you for clarification, EPA may not be able to consider your comment. Electronic files should avoid the use of special characters, any form of encryption, and be free of any defects or viruses. For additional instructions on submitting comments, go to section I of this document, “What Should I Consider as I Prepare My Comments for EPA?”

Docket: All documents in the docket are listed in the www.regulations.gov index. Although listed in the index, some information is not publicly available, e.g., CBI or other information whose disclosure is restricted by statute. Certain other material, such as copyrighted material, will be publicly available only in hard copy. Publicly available docket materials are available either electronically in www.regulations.gov or in hard copy at the Environmental Protection Agency, Region 5, Air and Radiation Division, 77 West Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, Illinois 60604. This facility is open from 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., Monday through Friday, excluding Federal holidays. We recommend that you telephone Kathleen D'Agostino, Environmental Engineer, at (312) 886-1767 before visiting the Region 5 office.

Start Further Info

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:

Kathleen D'Agostino, Environmental Engineer, Attainment Planning and Maintenance Section, Air Programs Branch (AR-18J), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 5, 77 West Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, Illinois 60604, (312) 886-1767, dagostino.kathleen@epa.gov.

End Further Info End Preamble Start Supplemental Information

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:

Throughout this document whenever “we,” “us,” or “our” is used, we mean EPA. This supplementary information section is arranged as follows:

Table of Contents

I. What should I consider as I prepare my comments for EPA?

II. What actions is EPA proposing to take?

III. What is the Background for these actions?

A. What is the general background information?

B. What are the impacts of the December 22, 2006, and June 8, 2007, United States Court of Appeals decisions regarding EPA's Phase 1 Implementation Rule?

1. Summary of Court Decision

2. Requirements Under the 8-Hour Standard

3. Requirements Under the 1-Hour Standard

IV. What are the criteria for redesignation to attainment?

V. What is EPA's analysis of the state's request?

A. Redesignation

1. The Area Has Attained the 8-Hour Ozone NAAQS (Section 107(d)(3)(E)(i))

2. The Area Has Met All Applicable Requirements Under Section 110 and Part D; and the Area Has a Fully Approved SIP under Section 110(k) (Sections 107(d)(3)(E)(v) and 107(d)(3)(E)(ii))

3. The Improvement in Air Quality Is Due to Permanent and Enforceable Reductions in Emissions Resulting From Implementation of the SIP and Applicable Federal Air Pollution Control Regulations and Other Permanent and Enforceable Reductions (Section 107(d)(3)(E)(iii))

4. The Area Has a Fully Approved Maintenance Plan Pursuant to Section Start Printed Page 79580175A of the CAA (Section 107(d)(3)(E)(iv))

B. Adequacy of the MVEBs

C. 2002 Comprehensive Emissions Inventory

VI. Summary of Actions

VII. Statutory and Executive Order Reviews

I. What should I consider as I prepare my comments for EPA?

When submitting comments, remember to:

1. Identify the rulemaking by docket number and other identifying information (subject heading, Federal Register date and page number).

2. Follow directions—EPA may ask you to respond to specific questions or organize comments by referencing a Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) part or section number.

3. Explain why you agree or disagree; suggest alternatives and substitute language for your requested changes.

4. Describe any assumptions and provide any technical information and/or data that you used.

5. If you estimate potential costs or burdens, explain how you arrived at your estimate in sufficient detail to allow for it to be reproduced.

6. Provide specific examples to illustrate your concerns, and suggest alternatives.

7. Explain your views as clearly as possible, avoiding the use of profanity or personal threats.

8. Make sure to submit your comments by the comment period deadline identified.

II. What actions is EPA proposing to take?

EPA is proposing to determine that the Illinois portion of the St. Louis area has met the requirements for redesignation under section 107(d)(3)(E) of the CAA. EPA is thus proposing to approve the request from IEPA to change the legal designation of the Illinois portion of the St. Louis area from nonattainment to attainment for the 1997 8-hour ozone NAAQS. EPA is also taking several additional actions related to the State's redesignation request, as discussed below.

EPA is proposing to approve, as a revision to the Illinois SIP, the State's maintenance plan (such approval being one of the CAA criteria for redesignation to attainment status). The maintenance plan is designed to keep the St. Louis area in attainment of the ozone NAAQS through 2025.

EPA is proposing to approve the 2002 volatile organic compound (VOC) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions inventories for the Illinois portion of the St. Louis area, documented in IEPA's May 26, 2010, and September 16, 2011 submittals. These emissions inventories satisfy the requirement in section 182(a)(1) of the CAA for a comprehensive emission inventory.

Finally, EPA finds adequate and is proposing to approve the newly-established 2008 and 2025 MVEBs for the Illinois portion of the St. Louis area. The adequacy comment period for the MVEBs began on September 26, 2011, with EPA's posting of the availability of the submittal on EPA's Adequacy Web site (at http://www.epa.gov/​otaq/​stateresources/​transconf/​adequacy.htm). The adequacy comment period for these MVEBs ended on October 26, 2011. EPA did not receive any requests for this submittal, or comments on this submittal during the adequacy comment period. Please see section V.B. of this rulemaking, “Adequacy of the MVEBs,” for further explanation of this process. Therefore, EPA finds adequate, and is proposing to approve, the State's 2008 and 2025 MVEBs for the Illinois portion of the St. Louis area. These MVEBs will be used in future transportation conformity analyses for the area.

III. What is the background for these actions?

A. What is the general background information?

Ground-level ozone is not emitted directly by sources. Rather, emissions of NOX and VOCs react in the presence of sunlight to form ground-level ozone. NOX and VOCs are referred to as precursors of ozone.

The CAA establishes a process for air quality management through the NAAQS. Before promulgation of the 8-hour standard, the ozone NAAQS was based on a 1-hour standard. On November 6, 1991 (56 FR 56693, 56751 and 56813), the St. Louis area was designated as a moderate nonattainment area under the 1-hour ozone NAAQS. Jersey County, Illinois, was not included as part of the St. Louis area, and was designated as a marginal nonattainment area under the 1-hour standard (56 FR 56693 and 56751). The Illinois portion of the St. Louis area was subsequently redesignated to attainment of the 1-hour standard effective May 12, 2003. (See 68 FR 25442, published May 12, 2003.) Jersey County was redesignated to attainment of the 1-hour standard effective April 13, 1995. (See 60 FR 13631, published March 14, 1995.) These attainment designations were thus in effect at the time EPA revoked the 1-hour ozone NAAQS, on June 15, 2005.

On July 18, 1997 (62 FR 38856), EPA promulgated an 8-hour ozone standard of 0.08 parts per million parts (ppm). On April 30, 2004 (69 FR 23857), EPA published a final rule designating and classifying areas under the 8-hour ozone NAAQS. These designations and classifications became effective June 15, 2004. EPA designated as nonattainment any area that was violating the 8-hour ozone NAAQS based on the three most recent years of air quality data, 2001-2003.

The CAA contains two sets of provisions, subpart 1 and subpart 2, that address planning and control requirements for nonattainment areas. (Both are found in title I, part D, of the CAA; 42 U.S.C. 7501-7509a and 7511-7511f, respectively.) Subpart 1 contains general requirements for nonattainment areas for any pollutant, including ozone, governed by a NAAQS. Subpart 2 provides more specific requirements for ozone nonattainment areas.

Under EPA's implementation rule for the 1997 8-hour ozone standard, (69 FR 23951, published April 30, 2004), an area was classified under subpart 2 based on its 8-hour ozone design value (i.e. the three-year average annual fourth-highest daily maximum 8-hour average ozone concentration), if it had a 1-hour design value at the time of designation at or above 0.121 ppm (the lowest 1-hour design value in Table 1 of subpart 2) (69 FR 23954). All other areas were covered under subpart 1, based upon their 8-hour design values (69 FR 23958). The St. Louis area was designated as a subpart 2, 8-hour ozone moderate nonattainment area by EPA on April 30, 2004 (69 FR 23857, 23898, and 23915), based on air quality monitoring data from 2001-2003 (69 FR 23860).

40 CFR 50.10 and 40 CFR part 50, appendix I provide that the 8-hour ozone standard is attained when the three-year average of the annual fourth-highest daily maximum 8-hour average ozone concentration is less than or equal to 0.08 ppm, when rounded. The data completeness requirement is met when the average percent of days with valid ambient monitoring data is greater than 90%, and no single year has less than 75% data completeness. See 40 CFR part 50, appendix I, 2.3(d).

IEPA submitted a request to redesignate the Illinois portion of the St. Louis area to attainment for the 8-hour ozone standard on May 26, 2010 and supplemented the request on September 16, 2011. Complete, quality-assured and certified data for 2008-2010 indicate that the 8-hour NAAQS for ozone, as promulgated in 1997, has been attained for the St. Louis area. In addition, available preliminary monitoring data for 2011 continue to show the area in attainment of the standard. Under the CAA, nonattainment areas may be Start Printed Page 79581redesignated to attainment if sufficient complete, quality-assured data are available for the Administrator to determine that the area has attained the standard, and the area meets the other CAA redesignation requirements in section 107(d)(3)(E).

On March 27, 2008 (73 FR 16436), EPA promulgated a revised 8-hour ozone standard of 0.075 ppm. EPA has not yet designated areas under the 2008 standard. The actions addressed in today's proposed rulemaking relate only to the 1997 8-hour ozone standard.

B. What are the impacts of the December 22, 2006, and June 8, 2007, United States Court of Appeals decisions regarding EPA's Phase 1 Implementation Rule?

1. Summary of Court Decision

On December 22, 2006, in South Coast Air Quality Management Dist. v. EPA, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit vacated EPA's Phase 1 Implementation Rule for the 8-hour Ozone Standard (69 FR 23951, April 30, 2004). 472 F.3d 882 (DC Cir. 2006). On June 8, 2007, in response to several petitions for rehearing, the D.C. Circuit Court (Court) clarified that the Phase 1 Rule was vacated only with regard to those parts of the rule that had been successfully challenged. Id., Docket No. 04 1201. Therefore, several provisions of the Phase 1 Rule remain effective: Provisions related to classifications for areas currently classified under subpart 2 of title I, part D, of the CAA as 8-hour ozone nonattainment areas; the 8-hour ozone attainment dates; and the timing for emissions reductions needed for attainment of the 8-hour ozone NAAQS. The June 8, 2007, decision also left intact the Court's rejection of EPA's reasons for implementing the 8-hour standard in certain nonattainment areas under subpart 1 in lieu of subpart 2. By limiting the vacatur, the Court let stand EPA's revocation of the 1-hour standard and those anti-backsliding provisions of the Phase 1 Rule that had not been successfully challenged.

The June 8, 2007, decision reaffirmed the December 22, 2006, decision that EPA had improperly failed to retain four measures required for 1-hour nonattainment areas under the anti-backsliding provisions of the regulations: (1) Nonattainment area New Source Review (NSR) requirements based on an area's 1-hour nonattainment classification; (2) section 185 penalty fees for 1-hour severe or extreme nonattainment areas; (3) measures to be implemented pursuant to section 172(c)(9) or 182(c)(9) of the CAA, on the contingency of an area not making reasonable further progress toward attainment of the 1-hour NAAQS, or for failure to attain that NAAQS; and (4) certain transportation conformity requirements for certain types of Federal actions. The June 8, 2007, decision clarified that the Court's reference to conformity requirements was limited to requiring the continued use of 1-hour motor vehicle emissions budgets until 8-hour budgets were available for 8-hour conformity determinations.

This section sets forth EPA's views on the potential effect of the Court's rulings on this proposed redesignation action. For the reasons set forth below in sections B.2. and B.3., EPA does not believe that the Court's rulings alter any requirements relevant to this redesignation action so as to preclude redesignation or prevent EPA from proposing or ultimately finalizing this redesignation. EPA concludes that the Court's December 22, 2006, and June 8, 2007, decisions impose no impediment to moving forward with redesignation of this area to attainment, because even in light of the Court's decisions, redesignation is appropriate under the relevant redesignation provisions of the CAA and longstanding policies regarding redesignation requests.

2. Requirements Under the 8-Hour Standard

With respect to the 8-hour standard, the St. Louis area is classified under subpart 2. The June 8, 2007, opinion clarifies that the Court did not vacate the Phase 1 Rule's provisions with respect to classifications for areas under subpart 2. The Court's decision therefore upholds EPA's classifications for those areas classified under subpart 2 for the 1997 8-hour ozone standard.

3. Requirements Under the 1-Hour Standard

With respect to the 1-hour standard requirements, the St. Louis area and Jersey County area were attainment areas subject to a CAA section 175A maintenance plan under the 1-hour standard. The DC Circuit's decisions with respect to 1-hour nonattainment anti-backsliding requirements do not impact redesignation requests for these types of areas, except to the extent that the Court, in its June 8, 2007, decision, clarified that for those areas with 1-hour motor vehicle emissions budgets in their maintenance plans, anti-backsliding requires that those 1-hour budgets must be used for 8-hour conformity determinations until replaced by 8-hour budgets. All conformity determinations must comply with the applicable requirements of EPA's conformity regulations at 40 CFR part 93.

The three other anti-backsliding provisions for the 1-hour standard that the Court found were not properly retained, the nonattainment NSR requirements, contingency measures (pursuant to section 172(c)(9) or 182(c)(9)), and penalty fee provisions, do not apply to the St. Louis area and Jersey County area because these areas are attainment areas subject to a maintenance plan for the 1-hour standard, and have been redesignated to attainment for the 1-hour standard.

Thus, the decision in South Coast Air Quality Management Dist. would not preclude EPA from finalizing the redesignation of the St. Louis area.

IV. What are the criteria for redesignation to attainment?

The CAA provides the requirements for redesignating a nonattainment area to attainment. Specifically, section 107(d)(3)(E) allows for redesignation provided that: (1) The Administrator determines that the area has attained the applicable NAAQS; (2) the Administrator has fully approved the applicable implementation plan for the area under section 110(k); (3) the Administrator determines that the improvement in air quality is due to permanent and enforceable reductions in emissions resulting from implementation of the applicable SIP and applicable Federal air pollutant control regulations and other permanent and enforceable reductions; (4) the Administrator has fully approved a maintenance plan for the area as meeting the requirements of section 175A; and, (5) the state containing such area has met all requirements applicable to the area under section 110 and part D. Illinois' request for redesignation of the Illinois portion of the St. Louis area is evaluated for each of these requirements in section V.A. below.

EPA provided guidance on redesignation in the General Preamble for the Implementation of Title I of the CAA Amendments of 1990 on April 16, 1992 (57 FR 13498), and supplemented this guidance on April 28, 1992 (57 FR 18070). EPA has provided further guidance on processing redesignation requests in the following documents:

“Ozone and Carbon Monoxide Design Value Calculations,” Memorandum from William G. Laxton, Director Technical Support Division, June 18, 1990;

“Maintenance Plans for Redesignation of Ozone and Carbon Monoxide Nonattainment Areas,” Memorandum from G.T. Helms, Start Printed Page 79582Chief, Ozone/Carbon Monoxide Programs Branch, April 30, 1992;

“Contingency Measures for Ozone and Carbon Monoxide (CO) Redesignations,” Memorandum from G.T. Helms, Chief, Ozone/Carbon Monoxide Programs Branch, June 1, 1992;

“Procedures for Processing Requests to Redesignate Areas to Attainment,” Memorandum from John Calcagni, Director, Air Quality Management Division, September 4, 1992;

“State Implementation Plan (SIP) Actions Submitted in Response to Clean Air Act (ACT) Deadlines,” Memorandum from John Calcagni, Director, Air Quality Management Division, October 28, 1992;

“Technical Support Documents (TSD's) for Redesignation Ozone and Carbon Monoxide (CO) Nonattainment Areas,” Memorandum from G.T. Helms, Chief, Ozone/Carbon Monoxide Programs Branch, August 17, 1993;

“State Implementation Plan (SIP) Requirements for Areas Submitting Requests for Redesignation to Attainment of the Ozone and Carbon Monoxide (CO) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) On or After November 15, 1992,” Memorandum from Michael H. Shapiro, Acting Assistant Administrator for Air and Radiation, September 17, 1993;

“Use of Actual Emissions in Maintenance Demonstrations for Ozone and CO Nonattainment Areas,” Memorandum from D. Kent Berry, Acting Director, Air Quality Management Division, to Air Division Directors, Regions 1-10, November 30, 1993.

“Part D New Source Review (part D NSR) Requirements for Areas Requesting Redesignation to Attainment,” Memorandum from Mary D. Nichols, Assistant Administrator for Air and Radiation, October 14, 1994; and

“Reasonable Further Progress, Attainment Demonstration, and Related Requirements for Ozone Nonattainment Areas Meeting the Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard,” Memorandum from John S. Seitz, Director, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, May 10, 1995.

V. What is EPA's analysis of the state's request?

A. Redesignation

EPA is proposing to determine that the Illinois portion of the St. Louis area has met all applicable redesignation criteria under CAA section 107(d)(3)(E). The basis for EPA's proposed approval of the redesignation request is as follows:

1. The Area Has Attained the 8-Hour Ozone NAAQS (Section 107(d)(3)(E)(i))

On June 9, 2011 (76 FR 33647) EPA made a determination that the St. Louis area attained the 1997 8-hour ozone NAAQS based on monitoring data for the 2008-2010 time period. An area may be considered to be attaining the 8-hour ozone NAAQS if there are no violations, as determined in accordance with 40 CFR 50.10 and part 50, appendix I, based on three complete, consecutive calendar years of quality-assured air quality monitoring data. To attain this standard, the three-year average of the fourth-highest daily maximum 8-hour average ozone concentration measured at each monitor within an area over each year must not exceed 0.08 ppm. Based on the rounding convention described in 40 CFR part 50, appendix I, the standard is attained if the design value [1] is 0.084 ppm or below. The data must be collected and quality-assured in accordance with 40 CFR part 58, and recorded in the EPA's Air Quality System (AQS). The monitors generally should have remained at the same location for the duration of the monitoring period required for demonstrating attainment.

All 2008-2010 monitoring data have been quality-assured in accordance with 40 CFR 58.10, recorded in the AQS database, and certified. The data meet the completeness criteria in 40 CFR part 50, appendix I, which requires a minimum completeness of 75 percent annually and 90 percent over each three-year period. Monitoring data are presented in Table 1 below. In addition, available preliminary monitoring data for 2011 continue to show the area in attainment of the standard.

Table 1—Annual 4th High Daily Maximum 8-Hour Ozone Concentration and Three Year Averages of 4th High Daily Maximum 8-Hour Ozone Concentrations

StateCountyMonitor2008 4th high (ppm)2009 4th high (ppm)2010 4th high (ppm)2008-2010 average (ppm)
IllinoisJerseyJerseyville 17-083-10010.0690.0680.0720.069
MadisonAlton 17-119-00080.0680.0670.0800.071
Maryville 17-119-10090.0700.0740.0740.072
Wood River 17-119-30070.0670.0660.0700.067
St. ClairEast St. Louis 17-163-00100.0640.0690.0720.068
MissouriJeffersonArnold 29-099-000190.0700.0700.0770.072
St. CharlesOrchard Farm 29-183-10040.0720.0730.0770.074
West Alton 29-183-10020.0760.0710.0840.077
St. LouisMaryland Heights 29-189-00140.0690.0700.0760.071
Pacific 29-189-00050.0640.0640.0690.065
St. Louis CityBlair Street 29-510-00850.0730.0650.0710.069
Start Printed Page 79583

As discussed in section V.A.4. below with respect to the maintenance plan, IEPA has committed to continue to operate an EPA-approved monitoring network as necessary to demonstrate maintenance of the NAAQS. Should changes in the location of an ozone monitor become necessary, IEPA has committed to work with EPA to ensure the adequacy of the monitoring network. Illinois and Missouri remain obligated to continue to quality assure monitoring data in accordance with 40 CFR part 58 and enter all data into AQS in accordance with Federal guidelines.

2. The Area Has Met All Applicable Requirements Under Section 110 and Part D; and the Area Has a Fully Approved SIP Under Section 110(k) (Sections 107(d)(3)(E)(v) and 107(d)(3)(E)(ii))

We have determined that Illinois has met all currently applicable SIP requirements for purposes of redesignation for the Illinois portion of the St. Louis area under section 110 of the CAA (general SIP requirements). We have also determined that the Illinois SIP meets all SIP requirements currently applicable for purposes of redesignation under part D of title I of the CAA (requirements specific to moderate nonattainment areas), in accordance with section 107(d)(3)(E)(v). In addition, with the exception of the comprehensive emissions inventory and certain VOC reasonably available control technology (RACT) regulations, we have determined that the Illinois SIP is fully approved with respect to all applicable requirements for purposes of redesignation, in accordance with section 107(d)(3)(E)(ii). As discussed below, in this action EPA is proposing to approve IEPA's 2002 emissions inventory as meeting the comprehensive emissions inventory requirement. EPA is taking action on the Illinois VOC RACT regulations in a separate rule.

In proposing these determinations, we have ascertained which SIP requirements are applicable to the Illinois portion of the St. Louis area for purposes of redesignation, and have determined that there are SIP measures meeting those requirements and that these measures have been fully approved or will be fully approved under section 110(k) of the CAA by the time EPA takes final action on the redesignation request. See discussions in sections a. and b. below.

In the context of redesignations, EPA has interpreted requirements related to attainment as not applicable for purposes of redesignation. For example, in the General Preamble EPA stated that:

[t]he section 172(c)(9) requirements are directed at ensuring RFP and attainment by the applicable date. These requirements no longer apply when an area has attained the standard and is eligible for redesignation. Furthermore, section 175A for maintenance plans * * * provides specific requirements for contingency measures that effectively supersede the requirements of section 172(c)(9) for these areas. “General Preamble for the Interpretation of Title I of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990,” (General Preamble) 57 FR 13498, 13564 (April 16, 1992).

See also the September 4, 1992, Calcagni memorandum (“Procedures for Processing Requests to Redesignate Areas to Attainment,” Memorandum from John Calcagni, Director, Air Quality Management Division, September 4, 1992) at 6 (“The requirements for reasonable further progress and other measures needed for attainment will not apply for redesignations because they only have meaning for areas not attaining the standard.”).

a. The Illinois Portion of the St. Louis Area Has Met All Applicable Requirements for Purposes of Redesignation Under Section 110 and Part D of the CAA

i. Section 110 General SIP requirements

Section 110(a) of title I of the CAA contains the general requirements for a SIP. Section 110(a)(2) provides that the implementation plan submitted by a state must have been adopted by the state after reasonable public notice and hearing, and that, among other things, it includes enforceable emission limitations and other control measures, means or techniques necessary to meet the requirements of the CAA; provides for establishment and operation of appropriate devices, methods, systems and procedures necessary to monitor ambient air quality; provides for implementation of a source permit program to regulate the modification and construction of any stationary source within the areas covered by the plan; includes provisions for the implementation of part C, Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) and part D, NSR permit programs; includes criteria for stationary source emission control measures, monitoring, and reporting; includes provisions for air quality modeling; and provides for public and local agency participation in planning and emission control rule development.

Section 110(a)(2)(D) of the CAA requires that SIPs contain measures to prevent sources in a state from significantly contributing to air quality problems in another state. To implement this provision, EPA has required certain states to establish programs to address transport of air pollutants (NOX SIP Call,[2] Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) (70 FR 25162, May 12, 2005), and Cross-State Air Pollution Rule (CSAPR) (75 FR 48208, August 8, 2011), which replaces CAIR). However, the section 110(a)(2)(D) requirements for a state are not linked with a particular nonattainment area's designation and classification. EPA concludes that the requirements linked with a particular nonattainment area's designation and classification are the relevant measures to evaluate in reviewing a redesignation request. The section 110(a)(2)(D) requirements, where applicable, continue to apply to a state regardless of the designation of any one particular area in the state. Thus, we conclude that these requirements should not be construed to be applicable requirements for purposes of redesignation.

Further, we conclude that the other section 110 elements described above that are not connected with nonattainment plan submissions and not linked with an area's attainment status are also not applicable requirements for purposes of redesignation. A state remains subject to these requirements after an area is redesignated to attainment. We conclude that only the section 110 and part D requirements which are linked with a particular area's designation and classification are the relevant measures which we may consider in evaluating a redesignation request. This approach is consistent with EPA's existing policy on applicability of conformity and oxygenated fuels requirements for redesignation purposes, as well as with section 184 ozone transport requirements. See Reading, Pennsylvania, proposed and final rulemakings (61 FR 53174-53176, October 10, 1996), (62 FR 24826, May 7, 1997); Cleveland-Akron-Lorain, Ohio, final rulemaking (61 FR 20458, May 7, 1996); and Tampa, Florida, final rulemaking (60 FR 62748, December 7, 1995). See also the discussion on this issue in the Cincinnati, Ohio 1-hour Start Printed Page 79584ozone redesignation (65 FR 37890, June 19, 2000), and in the Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 1-hour ozone redesignation (66 FR 50399, October 19, 2001).

We have reviewed the Illinois SIP and have concluded that it meets the general SIP requirements under section 110 of the CAA applicable to the State's request for redesignation. EPA has previously approved provisions of the Illinois SIP addressing section 110 elements under the 1-hour ozone standard (40 CFR 52.1870). Further in a submittal dated December 12, 2007, Illinois confirmed that the State continues to meet the section 110(a)(2) infrastructure requirements for the 8-hour ozone standard. EPA approved some elements of this Illinois submittal on July 13, 2011, at 76 FR 41075. The requirements of section 110(a)(2), however, are statewide requirements that are not linked to the 8-hour ozone nonattainment status of the St. Louis area. Therefore, EPA concludes that these infrastructure SIP elements are not applicable requirements for purposes of review of the State's 8-hour ozone redesignation request.

ii. Part D Requirements

EPA has determined that, if EPA finalizes the approval of the 2002 comprehensive emissions inventory, discussed in section V.C. of this rulemaking, and the VOC RACT submittal, discussed below under the heading “Subpart 2 Section 182(a) and (b) Requirements,” the Illinois SIP will meet the SIP requirements applicable for purposes of redesignation under part D of the CAA for the Illinois portion of the St. Louis area. Subpart 1 of part D, found in sections 172-176 of the CAA, sets forth the basic nonattainment requirements applicable to all nonattainment areas. Subpart 2 of part D, which includes section 182 of the CAA, establishes additional specific requirements depending on the area's nonattainment classification.

The St. Louis area was classified as a moderate nonattainment area under subpart 2, therefore the state must meet the applicable requirements of both subpart 1 and subpart 2 of part D. The applicable subpart 1 requirements are contained in sections 172(c)(1)-(9) and in section 176. The applicable subpart 2 requirements are contained in sections 182(a) and (b) (marginal and moderate nonattainment area requirements).

Subpart 1 Section 172 Requirements.

For purposes of evaluating this redesignation request, the applicable section 172 SIP requirements for the St. Louis area are contained in sections 172(c)(1)-(9). A thorough discussion of the requirements contained in section 172 can be found in the General Preamble for Implementation of Title I (57 FR 13498, April 16, 1992).

Section 172(c)(1) requires the plans for all nonattainment areas to provide for the implementation of all reasonably available control measures as expeditiously as practicable and to provide for attainment of the national primary ambient air quality standards. EPA interprets this requirement to impose a duty on all states containing nonattainment areas to consider all available control measures and to adopt and implement such measures as are reasonably available for implementation in each area as components of the area's attainment demonstration. Because attainment has been reached in the St. Louis area, no additional measures are needed to provide for attainment, and section 172(c)(1) requirements are no longer considered to be applicable as long as the area continues to attain the standard until redesignation. See 40 CFR 51.918.

The reasonable further progress (RFP) requirement under section 172(c)(2) is defined as progress that must be made toward attainment. This requirement is not relevant for purposes of redesignation because the St. Louis area has monitored attainment of the ozone NAAQS. (General Preamble, 57 FR 13564). See also 40 CFR 51.918. In addition, because the St. Louis area has attained the ozone NAAQS and is no longer subject to an RFP requirement, the requirement to submit the section 172(c)(9) contingency measures is not applicable for purposes of redesignation. Id.

Section 172(c)(3) requires submission and approval of a comprehensive, accurate and current inventory of actual emissions. This requirement is superseded by the emission inventory requirement in section 182(a)(1).

Section 172(c)(4) requires the identification and quantification of allowable emissions for major new and modified stationary sources to be allowed in an area, and section 172(c)(5) requires source permits for the construction and operation of new and modified major stationary sources anywhere in the nonattainment area. EPA approved the Illinois nonattainment NSR program on December 17, 1992 (57 FR 59928), September 27, 1995 (60 FR 49780) and May 13, 2003 (68 FR 25504). Further, EPA has determined that, since PSD requirements will apply after redesignation, areas being redesignated need not comply with the requirement that a part D NSR program be approved prior to redesignation, provided that the area demonstrates maintenance of the NAAQS without a part D NSR program. A more detailed rationale for this view is described in a memorandum from Mary Nichols, Assistant Administrator for Air and Radiation, dated October 14, 1994, entitled, “Part D New Source Review Requirements for Areas Requesting Redesignation to Attainment.” Illinois has demonstrated that the St. Louis area will be able to maintain the 1997 8-hour ozone standard without a part D NSR program in effect; therefore, EPA concludes that the State need not have a fully approved part D NSR program prior to approval of the redesignation request. The State's PSD program will become effective in the St. Louis area upon redesignation to attainment. See rulemakings for Detroit, Michigan (60 FR 12467-12468, March 7, 1995); Cleveland-Akron-Lorain, Ohio (61 FR 20458, 20469-20470, May 7, 1996); Louisville, Kentucky (66 FR 53665, October 23, 2001); and Grand Rapids, Michigan (61 FR 31834-31837, June 21, 1996).

Section 172(c)(6) requires the SIP to contain control measures necessary to provide for attainment of the standard. Because attainment has been reached, no additional measures are needed to provide for attainment.

Section 172(c)(7) requires the SIP to meet the applicable provisions of section 110(a)(2). As noted above in section i, we conclude the Illinois SIP meets the requirements of section 110(a)(2) applicable for purposes of redesignation.

Subpart 1 Section 176 Conformity Requirements.

Section 176(c) of the CAA requires states to establish criteria and procedures to ensure that federally supported or funded activities, including highway projects, conform to the air quality planning goals in the applicable SIPs. The requirement to determine conformity applies to transportation plans, programs and projects developed, funded or approved under title 23 of the U.S. Code and the Federal Transit Act (transportation conformity) as well as to all other Federally supported or funded projects (general conformity). State conformity revisions must be consistent with Federal conformity regulations relating to consultation, enforcement, and enforceability, which EPA promulgated pursuant to CAA requirements.

EPA thinks that it is reasonable to interpret the conformity SIP requirements as not applying for purposes of evaluating the redesignation request under section 107(d) for two reasons. First, the requirement to submit SIP revisions to comply with the Start Printed Page 79585conformity provisions of the CAA continues to apply to areas after redesignation to attainment since such areas would be subject to a section 175A maintenance plan. Second, EPA's Federal conformity rules require the performance of conformity analyses in the absence of Federally approved state rules. Therefore, because areas are subject to the conformity requirements regardless of whether they are redesignated to attainment and, because they must implement conformity under Federal rules if state rules are not yet approved, EPA concludes it is reasonable to view these requirements as not applying for purposes of evaluating a redesignation request. See Wall v. EPA, 265 F.3d 426 (6th Cir. 2001), upholding this interpretation. See also 60 FR 62748, 62749-62750 (Dec. 7, 1995) (Tampa, Florida).

EPA approved Illinois's general conformity SIP on December 23, 1997 (62 FR 67000). Illinois does not have a federally approved transportation conformity SIP. However, Illinois performs conformity analyses pursuant to EPA's Federal conformity rules. Illinois has submitted on-road MVEBs for the Illinois portion of the St. Louis area of 17.27 and 5.68 tons per day (tpd) VOC and 52.57 and 15.22 tpd NOX for the years 2008 and 2025, respectively. Illinois must use these MVEBs in any conformity determination that is effective on or after the effective date of the maintenance plan approval.

Subpart 2 Section 182(a) and (b) Requirements.

Comprehensive Emissions Inventory. Section 182(a)(1) requires the submission of a comprehensive emissions inventory. IEPA submitted a 2002 emissions inventory on June 21, 2006. On September 16, 2011, IEPA supplemented this inventory with on-road mobile emissions estimates based on the MOVES model. As discussed below in section V.C., EPA is proposing to approve the 2002 inventory as meeting the section 182(a)(1) comprehensive emissions inventory requirement.

Emissions Statements. EPA approved the Illinois emission statement SIP required by section 182(a)(3)(B), on September 9, 1993 (58 FR 47379) and May 15, 2002 (67 FR 34614).

Reasonable Further Progress and Attainment Demonstration. On July 2, 2007, IEPA submitted an attainment demonstration and reasonable further progress plan for the Illinois portion of the St. Louis area as required by section 182(b)(1) of the CAA. Because attainment has been reached, section 182(b)(1) requirements are no longer considered to be applicable as long as the area continues to attain the standard. If EPA finalizes approval of the redesignation of the Illinois portion of the St. Louis area, EPA will take no further action on the attainment demonstration submitted by Illinois for the area.

VOC RACT. Section 182(b)(2) requires states with moderate nonattainment areas to implement RACT under section 172(c)(1) with respect to each of the following: (1) All sources covered by a Control Technology Guideline (CTG) document issued between November 15, 1990, and the date of attainment; (2) all sources covered by a CTG issued prior to November 15, 1990; and, (3) all other major non-CTG stationary sources. As required under the 1-hour ozone standard, Illinois submitted VOC RACT rules covering the second and third categories. EPA approved these VOC RACT rules on February 21, 1980(45 FR 11472), November 21, 1987 (52 FR 45333), and September 9, 1994 (59 FR 46562). With respect to the first category, EPA issued CTGs for five source categories in September 2006, three source categories in September 2007, and five additional source categories in September 2008. Areas classified as moderate and above were required to submit VOC RACT for the source categories covered by these CTGs, by September 2007, September 2008, and September 2009, respectively. IEPA submitted a SIP revision to address these CTGs on July 29, 2010, September 16, 2011, and September 29, 2011. EPA is taking action on these revisions in a separate rulemaking action. Full approval of IEPA's VOC RACT submittal is a prerequisite for approval of the redesignation of the Illinois portion of the St. Louis area to attainment.

NOXRACT. Section 182(f) establishes NOX requirements for ozone nonattainment areas. However, it provides that these requirements do not apply to an area if the Administrator determines that NOX reductions would not contribute to attainment. On February 22, 2011 (76 FR 9655), EPA approved a request from IEPA to exempt sources of NOX in the Illinois portion of the St Louis area from section 182(f) NOX RACT requirements. Therefore, the State of Illinois need not have fully approved NOX control measures under section 182(f) for the Illinois portion of the St. Louis area to be redesignated to attainment.

Stage II Vapor Recovery. Section 182(b)(3) of the CAA requires states with moderate nonattainment areas to submit Stage II vapor recovery rules. EPA approved Illinois's Stage II vapor recovery regulations on January 12, 1993 (58 FR 3841). Further, section 202(a)(6) of the CAA provides that Stage II vapor recovery regulations are not required if EPA promulgates on-board vapor recovery regulations for vehicles. EPA promulgated such regulations on April 6, 1994 (59 FR 16262), which became effective on May 6, 1994. Therefore, pursuant to section 202(a)(6) of the CAA, Stage II regulations are no longer required in the area. EPA approved the removal of Stage II vapor recovery regulations from the Illinois SIP on December 16, 1994 (59 FR 64853).

Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M). Section 182(b)(4) and EPA's final I/M regulations in 40 CFR part 85 require the States to submit a fully adopted I/M program. EPA approved the Illinois enhanced I/M program on February 22, 1999 (64 FR 8517).

Thus, as discussed above, with approval of the comprehensive emissions inventory and the Illinois VOC RACT submittal, the Illinois portion of the St. Louis area will satisfy the requirements applicable for purposes of redesignation under section 110 and part D of the CAA.

b. The Illinois Portion of the St. Louis Area Has a Fully Approved Applicable SIP Under Section 110(k) of the CAA

If EPA issues a final approval of the comprehensive emissions inventory and the Illinois VOC RACT submittal, EPA will have fully approved the State's SIP for the Illinois portion of the St. Louis area under section 110(k) of the CAA for all requirements applicable for purposes of redesignation. EPA may rely on prior SIP approvals in approving a redesignation request (See page 3 of the September 4, 1992, John Calcagni memorandum; Southwestern Pennsylvania Growth Alliance v. Browner, 144 F.3d 984, 989-990 (6th Cir. 1998); Wall v. EPA, 265 F.3d 426 (6th Cir. 2001)) plus any additional measures it may approve in conjunction with a redesignation action. See 68 FR 25413, 25426 (May 12, 2003). Since the passage of the CAA of 1970, Illinois has adopted and submitted, and EPA has fully approved, provisions addressing various required SIP elements under the 1-hour ozone standard. In this action, EPA is proposing to approve the comprehensive 2002 emissions inventory for the Illinois portion of the St. Louis area as meeting the requirement of section 182(a)(1) of the CAA. In a separate rule, EPA will take action on the Illinois VOC RACT submission. No SIP provisions for the Illinois portion of the St. Louis area are currently disapproved, conditionally approved, or partially approved.Start Printed Page 79586

3. The Improvement in Air Quality Is Due to Permanent and Enforceable Reductions in Emissions Resulting From Implementation of the SIP and Applicable Federal Air Pollution Control Regulations and Other Permanent and Enforceable Reductions (Section 107(d)(3)(E)(iii))

EPA finds that Illinois has demonstrated that the observed air quality improvement in the St. Louis area is due to permanent and enforceable reductions in emissions resulting from implementation of the SIP, Federal measures, and other state-adopted measures discussed below.

In making this demonstration, IEPA has calculated the change in emissions between 2002 and 2008. For the nonattainment inventory, Illinois is using the 2002 emissions inventory developed to meet the comprehensive emissions inventory requirement of section 182(a)(1) of the CAA. Illinois developed an attainment inventory for 2008, one of the years the St. Louis area monitored attainment of the standard. The reduction in emissions and the corresponding improvement in air quality over this time period can be attributed to a number of regulatory control measures that St. Louis and upwind areas have implemented in recent years.

a. Permanent and Enforceable Controls Implemented

The following is a discussion of permanent and enforceable measures that have been implemented in the area:

i. Stationary Source NOX Rules

IEPA has developed rules governing the control of NOX emissions from Electric Generating Units (EGUs), major non-EGU industrial boilers, major cement kilns, and internal combustion engines. EPA approved the Illinois rules as fulfilling Phase I of the NOX SIP Call on June 28, 2001 (66 FR 34382) and November 21, 2001 (66 FR 56454), and as meeting Phase II of the NOX SIP Call on June 26, 2009 (74 FR 30466). Illinois began complying with Phase I of this rule in 2004. Compliance with Phase II of the SIP Call requires the control of NOX emissions from large stationary internal combustion engines. Implementation of Phase II began in 2007 and was projected to result in an 82 percent NOX reduction from 1995 levels.

ii. Consumer Products and Architectural and Industrial Maintenance Coatings (AIM) Rules

Illinois adopted consumer products and AIM rules on May 7, 2009. Compliance with these rules was required by July 1, 2009. EPA is acting on these rules in a separate rulemaking.

iii. Reformulated Gasoline (RFG)

Illinois requested that EPA extend the requirement for sale of RFG to Jersey, Madison, Monroe, and St. Clair counties. EPA granted this request on April 24, 2007, with compliance required by July 1, 2007.

iv. Consent Decrees—Dynegy Midwest Generation and ConocoPhillips

Dynegy Midwest Generation and ConocoPhillips entered separate settlement agreements with EPA in 2005. The settlement reached with Dynegy Midwest Generation for alleged violations at the Baldwin Generating Station included the requirements to “commence operation of the SCRs installed at Baldwin Unit 1, Unit 2 * * * so as to achieve and maintain a 30-day rolling average emission rate from each such unit of not greater than 0.100 lb/mmbtu NOX” and “maintain a 30-day rolling average emission rate of not greater than 0.120 lb/mmbtu NOX at Baldwin Unit 3.” Low NOX burners and overfire air technology are required on Dynegy Midwest Generation's Wood River Units #4 and #5. At the Dynegy Midwest Generation's Baldwin Generating station, ozone season emissions were reduced from 13,204 tons in 2001 to 1,696 tons in 2009. The ConocoPhillips settlement provided for near-term installation of low-NOX burners and ultra low-NOX burners on combustion units at its “Distilling West” operations. Other NOX emission reduction requirements are set forth in the consent decree, as are provisions for carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and particulate matter reductions.

v. Federal Emission Control Measures

Reductions in VOC and NOX emissions have occurred statewide and in upwind areas as a result of Federal emission control measures, with additional emission reductions expected to occur in the future. Federal emission control measures include the following.

Tier 2 Emission Standards for Vehicles and Gasoline Sulfur Standards. These emission control requirements result in lower VOC and NOX emissions from new cars and light duty trucks, including sport utility vehicles. The Federal rules were phased in between 2004 and 2009. The EPA has estimated that, by the end of the phase-in period, the following vehicle NOx emission reductions will occur nationwide: passenger cars (light duty vehicles) (77 percent); light duty trucks, minivans, and sports utility vehicles (86 percent); and, larger sports utility vehicles, vans, and heavier trucks (69 to 95 percent). VOC emission reductions are expected to range from 12 to 18 percent, depending on vehicle class, over the same period. Some of these emission reductions occurred by the attainment years (2007-2009) and additional emission reductions will occur throughout the maintenance period.

Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Rule. EPA issued this rule in July 2000. This rule includes standards limiting the sulfur content of diesel fuel, which went into effect in 2004. A second phase took effect in 2007 which further reduced the highway diesel fuel sulfur content to 15 parts per million, leading to additional reductions in combustion NOX and VOC emissions. This rule is expected to achieve a 95 percent reduction in NOX emissions from diesel trucks and busses.

Non-Road Diesel Rule. EPA issued this rule in 2004. This rule applies to diesel engines used in industries, such as construction, agriculture, and mining. It is estimated that compliance with this rule will cut NOX emissions from non-road diesel engines by up to 90 percent. Some of these emission reductions occurred by the attainment years (2007-2009) and additional emission reductions will occur throughout the maintenance period.

New Source Performance Standards (NSPS), National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPS) and Maximum Achievable Control Technology Standards (MACT). A broad range of emission sectors are subject to Federal NSPS, NESHAP, and MACT standards with compliance requirements which take effect post-2002 and prior to 2009.

vi. Control Measures in Upwind Areas

On October 27, 1998 (63 FR 57356), EPA issued a NOX SIP Call requiring the District of Columbia and 22 states (including Illinois) to reduce emissions of NOX. Affected states were required to comply with Phase I of the SIP Call beginning in 2004, and Phase II beginning in 2007. The reduction in NOX emissions has resulted in lower concentrations of transported ozone entering the St. Louis area. Emission reductions resulting from regulations developed in response to the NOX SIP Call are permanent and enforceable.

b. Emission Reductions

Illinois is using the 2002 comprehensive emissions inventory developed to meet the requirement of section 182(a)(1) of the CAA as the nonattainment inventory. This inventory is discussed in more detail in section V.C., below. In summary, IEPA developed the point source inventory Start Printed Page 79587using source reported actual 2002 emissions data from annual emissions reports. The area source inventory was developed using various methodologies to estimate area source activity levels and emissions including applying local activity levels, apportioning national or statewide activity levels to the local level, using per capita emission factors, using per employee emission factors, and using data from inventories complied by others. The documentation supplied in the submittal shows how the county-specific emissions were calculated for each area source category. Non-road mobile source emissions were generated using the NONROAD model version 2.20a. In addition, emissions estimates were developed for commercial marine vessels, aircraft, and railroads, three non-road categories not included in the NONROAD model. On-road mobile emissions were prepared by the IEPA using the MOVES emissions model and daily vehicle miles traveled (VMT) data provided by the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT).

Illinois prepared a comprehensive 2008 emissions inventory to use as the attainment year inventory. Point source information was compiled from the 2008 annual emissions reports submitted to IEPA by sources and EPA's Clean Air Markets Division database for electric utilities. Area source emissions were calculated using the most recently available methodologies and emissions factors from EPA along with activity data (population, employment, fuel use, etc.) specific to 2008. Non-road mobile source emissions were calculated using EPA's NONROAD emissions model. In addition, emissions estimates were calculated for commercial marine vessels, aircraft, and railroads, three non-road categories not included in the NONROAD model. On-road mobile source emissions were calculated using EPA's MOVES emissions model with 2008 VMT data provided by IDOT.

Using the inventories described above, as well as emissions inventories provided by Missouri, Illinois has documented changes in VOC and NOX emissions from 2002 to 2008 for the St. Louis area. Emissions data are shown in Tables 2 through 5 below.

Table 2—St. Louis Area VOC and NOX Emissions for Nonattainment Year 2002

[tpd]

VOCNOX
IllinoisMissouriArea totalIllinoisMissouriArea total
Point17.4132.7050.1153.24127.20180.44
Area29.8671.30101.161.4019.4020.80
On-road25.9079.57105.4776.82226.03302.85
Non-road12.0447.0059.0436.7960.7097.49
Total85.21230.57315.78168.25433.33601.58

Table 3—St. Louis Area VOC and NOX Emissions for Attainment Year 2008

[tpd]

VOCNOX
IllinoisMissouriArea totalIllinoisMissouriArea total
Point11.9218.0029.9239.8688.80128.66
Area23.2198.70121.911.506.508.00
On-road17.2758.5075.7752.57160.40212.97
Non-road12.6646.4059.0639.2560.90100.15
Total65.06221.60286.66133.18316.60449.78

Table 4—Comparison of 2002 and 2008 VOC and NOX Emissions for the Illinois Portion of the St. Louis Area

[tpd]

VOCNOX
20022008Net change (2002-2008)20022008Net change (2002-2008)
Point17.4111.92−5.4953.2439.86-13.38
Area29.8623.21−6.651.401.500.10
On-road25.9017.27−8.6376.8252.57−24.25
Non-road12.0412.660.6236.7939.252.46
Total85.2165.06−20.15168.25133.18-35.07
Start Printed Page 79588

Table 5—Comparison of 2002 and 2008 VOC and NOX Emissions for the Entire St. Louis Area

[tpd]

VOCNOX
20022008Net change (2002-2008)20022008Net change (2002-2008)
Point50.1129.92−20.19180.44128.66−51.78
Area101.16121.9120.7520.808.00−12.80
On-road105.4775.77−29.70302.85212.97−89.88
Non-road59.0459.060.0297.49100.152.66
Total315.78286.66−29.12601.58449.78−151.80

Table 4 shows that the Illinois portion of the St. Louis area reduced VOC emissions by 20.15 tpd and NOX emissions by 35.07 tpd between 2002 and 2008. As shown in Table 5, the entire St. Louis area reduced VOC emissions by 29.12 tpd and NOX emissions by 151.80 tpd between 2002 and 2008. Based on the information summarized above, Illinois has adequately demonstrated that the improvement in air quality is due to permanent and enforceable emissions reductions.

4. The Area Has a Fully Approved Maintenance Plan Pursuant to Section 175A of the CAA. (Section 107(d)(3)(E)(iv))

In conjunction with its request to redesignate the Illinois portion of the St. Louis nonattainment area to attainment status, IEPA submitted a SIP revision to provide for maintenance of the 1997 8-hour ozone NAAQS in the area through 2025.

a. Maintenance Plan Requirements

Section 175A of the CAA sets forth the required elements of a maintenance plan for areas seeking redesignation from nonattainment to attainment. Under section 175A, the plan must demonstrate continued attainment of the applicable NAAQS for at least ten years after the Administrator approves a redesignation to attainment. Eight years after the redesignation, the state must submit a revised maintenance plan which demonstrates that attainment will continue to be maintained for ten years following the initial ten-year maintenance period. To address the possibility of future NAAQS violations, the maintenance plan must contain contingency measures with a schedule for implementation as EPA deems necessary to assure prompt correction of any future 8-hour ozone violations.

The September 4, 1992, John Calcagni memorandum provides additional guidance on the content of a maintenance plan. The memorandum clarifies that an ozone maintenance plan should address the following items: The attainment VOC and NOX emissions inventories, a maintenance demonstration showing maintenance for the ten years of the maintenance period, a commitment to maintain the existing monitoring network, factors and procedures to be used for verification of continued attainment of the NAAQS, and a contingency plan to prevent or correct future violations of the NAAQS.

b. Attainment Inventory

IEPA developed an emissions inventory for 2008, one of the years used to demonstrate monitored attainment of the 8-hour NAAQS, as described above. The attainment level of emissions is summarized in Table 3, above.

c. Demonstration of Maintenance

Along with the redesignation request, IEPA submitted a revision to the Illinois 8-hour ozone SIP that includes a maintenance plan for the Illinois portion of the St. Louis area, in compliance with section 175A of the CAA. This demonstration shows maintenance of the 1997 8-hour ozone standard through 2025 by showing that current and future emissions of VOC and NOX for the St. Louis area remain at or below attainment year emission levels. A maintenance demonstration need not be based on modeling. See Wall v. EPA, 265 F.3d 426 (6th Cir. 2001), Sierra Club v. EPA, 375 F. 3d 537 (7th Cir. 2004). See also 66 FR 53094, 53099-53100 (October 19, 2001), 68 FR 25413, 25430-25432 (May 12, 2003).

Illinois is using emissions inventory projections for the years 2015, 2020 and 2025 to demonstrate maintenance. Point and area source emissions for 2015, 2020 and 2025 were estimated using the 2008 attainment inventory and growth factors appropriate for each source category. Non-road emissions projections were developed using the growth factors contained in EPA's NONROAD model. On-road motor vehicle emissions were estimated using the EPA's MOVES motor vehicle emissions model.

As discussed in section V.a.3.a.v. (Permanent and Enforceable Controls Implemented) above, many of the control programs that helped to bring the area into attainment of the standard will continue to achieve additional emission reductions over the maintenance period. These control programs include Tier 2 emission standards for vehicles and gasoline sulfur standards, the heavy-duty diesel engine rule, and the non-road diesel rule. Emissions data are shown in Tables 6-10, below.

Table 6—St. Louis Area Projected VOC and NOX Emissions for Interim Year 2015

[tpd]

VOCNOX
IllinoisMissouriArea totalIllinoisMissouriArea total
Point13.7021.7335.4331.8686.37118.23
Area23.76109.52133.281.556.648.19
On-road9.1133.9843.0927.8583.79111.64
Non-road9.2737.3346.6036.4152.6189.02
Start Printed Page 79589
Total55.84202.56258.4097.67229.41327.08

Table 7—St. Louis Area Projected VOC and NOX Emissions for Interim Year 2020

[tpd]

VOCNOX
IllinoisMissouriArea totalIllinoisMissouriArea total
Point14.7324.5939.3230.7186.63117.34
Area25.04117.75142.791.566.738.29
On-road4.9923.5128.5016.3251.5167.83
Non-road7.7330.8138.5433.5646.7280.28
Total52.49196.66249.1582.15191.59273.74

Table 8—St. Louis Area VOC and NOX Emissions for Maintenance Year 2025

[tpd]

VOCNOX
IllinoisMissouriArea totalIllinoisMissouriArea total
Point15.7827.5943.3732.1288.24120.36
Area26.32126.34152.661.586.828.40
On-road5.6817.7423.4215.2234.1749.39
Non-road7.3124.3031.6132.3340.8473.17
Total55.09195.97251.0681.25170.07251.32

Table 9—Comparison of 2008, 2015, 2020 and 2025 VOC and NOX Emissions for the Illinois Portion of the St. Louis Area

[tpd]

VOCNOX
2008201520202025Net change (2008-2025)2008201520202025Net change (2008-2025)
Point11.9213.7014.7315.783.8639.8631.8630.7132.12−7.74
Area23.2123.7625.0426.323.111.501.551.561.580.08
On-road17.279.114.995.68−11.5952.5727.8516.3215.22−37.35
Non-road12.669.277.737.31−5.3539.2536.4133.5632.33−6.92
Total65.0655.8452.4955.09−9.97133.1897.6782.1581.25−51.93

Table 10—Comparison of 2008, 2015, 2020, and 2025 VOC and NOX Emissions for the Entire St. Louis Area

[tpd]

VOCNOX
2008201520202025Net change (2008-2025)2008201320202025Net change (2008-2025)
Point29.9235.4339.3243.3713.45128.66118.23117.34120.36−8.30
Area121.91133.28142.79152.6630.758.008.198.298.400.40
On-road75.7743.0928.5023.42−52.35212.97111.6467.8349.39−163.58
Non-road59.0646.6038.5431.61−27.45100.1589.0280.2873.17−26.98
Total286.66258.40249.15251.06−35.60449.78327.08273.74251.32−198.46
Start Printed Page 79590

The emission projections show that Illinois and Missouri do not expect emissions in the St. Louis area to exceed the level of the 2008 attainment year inventory during the maintenance period. As shown in Table 9, VOC and NOX emissions in the Illinois portion of the St. Louis area are projected to decrease by 9.97 tpd and 51.93 tpd, respectively, between 2008 and 2025. As shown in Table 10, VOC and NOX emissions in the entire St. Louis area are projected to decrease by 35.60 tpd and 198.46 tpd, respectively, between 2008 and 2025.

Because the St. Louis area is affected by the transport of ozone and its precursors, the reduction of NOX emissions in upwind areas will help to ensure that the area will maintain the 1997 8-hour ozone standard in the future. On August 8, 2011, at 76 FR 48208, EPA promulgated the CSAPR to address interstate transport of emissions. The CSAPR requires substantial reductions of NOX emissions from EGUs across most of Eastern United States, with implementation beginning on January 1, 2012. Compared to 2005 emissions, EPA estimates that by 2014 this rule and other Federal rules will lower NOX ozone season emissions from power plants by 340,000 tons.

Further, ozone modeling performed by the Lake Michigan Air Directors Consortium supports the conclusion that the St. Louis area will maintain the 1997 8-hour ozone standard throughout the maintenance period. Peak modeled ozone levels in the area for 2012 and 2018 are 0.084 ppm, and 0.080 ppm, respectively. These projected ozone levels were modeled applying only legally enforceable controls; e.g., consent decrees, rules, the NOX SIP Call, Federal motor vehicle control programs, etc. The modeling runs did not include emission reductions for implementation of the CSAPR. With the implementation of the CSAPR, actual 2018 ozone levels would be expected to be lower.

As part of its maintenance plan, Illinois elected to include a “safety margin” for the area. A “safety margin” is the difference between the attainment level of emissions (from all sources) and the projected level of emissions (from all sources) in the maintenance plan which continues to demonstrate attainment of the standard. The attainment level of emissions is the level of emissions during one of the years in which the area met the NAAQS. The St. Louis area attained the 1997 8-hour ozone NAAQS during the 2007-2009 time period. Illinois used 2008 as the attainment level of emissions for the area. For the Illinois portion of the St. Louis area, the emissions from point, area, non-road, and mobile sources in 2008 equaled 65.06 tpd of VOC. In the maintenance plan, IEPA projected VOC emissions for the year 2025 to be 55.09 tpd of VOC. The SIP submissions demonstrate that the St. Louis area will continue to maintain the standard with emissions at this level. The safety margin for VOC is calculated to be the difference between these amounts or, in this case, 9.97 tpd of VOC for 2025. By this same method, 51.93 tpd (i.e., 133.18 tpd less 81.25 tpd) is the safety margin for NOX for 2025. The safety margin, or a portion thereof, can be allocated to any of the source categories, as long as the total attainment level of emissions is maintained.

d. Monitoring Network

Illinois currently operates five ozone monitors and Missouri operates six monitors in the St. Louis area. In its redesignation request, IEPA has committed to continue to monitor ozone levels according to an EPA approved monitoring plan. Should changes in the location of an ozone monitor become necessary, IEPA commits to work with EPA to ensure the adequacy of the monitoring network. Illinois remains obligated to continue to quality assure monitoring data in accordance with 40 CFR part 58 and enter all data into the AQS in accordance with Federal guidelines.

e. Verification of Continued Attainment.

Continued attainment of the ozone NAAQS in the St. Louis area depends, in part, on the State's efforts toward tracking indicators of continued attainment during the maintenance period. IEPA's plan for verifying continued attainment of the 8-hour standard in the St. Louis area consists of plans to continue ambient ozone monitoring in accordance with the requirements of 40 CFR part 58. In addition IEPA commits to compiling VOC and NOX emissions inventories every three years to facilitate emissions trends analyses. The State is required to develop and submit periodic emission inventories as specified in the Federal Consolidated Emissions Reporting Rule (67 FR 39602, June 10, 2002).

f. Contingency Plan

The contingency plan provisions are designed to promptly correct or prevent a violation of the NAAQS that might occur after redesignation of an area to attainment. Section 175A of the CAA requires that a maintenance plan include such contingency measures as EPA deems necessary to assure that the state will promptly correct a violation of the NAAQS that occurs after redesignation. The maintenance plan should identify the contingency measures to be adopted, a schedule and procedure for adoption and implementation of the contingency measures, and a time limit for action by the state. The state should also identify specific indicators to be used to determine when the contingency measures need to be adopted and implemented. The maintenance plan must include a requirement that the state will implement all measures with respect to control of the pollutant(s) that were contained in the SIP before redesignation of the area to attainment. See section 175A(d) of the CAA.

As required by section 175A of the CAA, Illinois has adopted a contingency plan for the St. Louis area to address possible future ozone air quality problems. The contingency plan adopted by Illinois has two levels of response, Level I and Level II.

A Level I response will be triggered in the event that: (1) The fourth highest 8-hour ozone concentration at any monitoring site in the St. Louis area exceeds 84 parts per billion (ppb) in any year, or (2) if VOC or NOX emissions increase more than 5% above the levels contained in the attainment year emissions inventory. IEPA will work with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources to evaluate the causes of high ozone levels or the emissions trends and to determine appropriate control measures needed to ensure continued attainment of the ozone standard. Control measures selected under a Level I trigger will be adopted within 18 months after a determination is made and implemented within 24 months of adoption.

A Level II response will be triggered in the event that a violation of the 8-hour standard is monitored within the St. Louis area. To select appropriate corrective measures, IEPA will work with Missouri to conduct a comprehensive study to determine the causes of the violation and the control measures necessary to mitigate the problem. Implementation of necessary controls in response to a Level II trigger will take place as expeditiously as possible, but in no event later than 18 months after IEPA makes a determination, based on quality-assured ambient monitoring data, that a violation of the NAAQS has occurred.

IEPA included the following list of potential contingency measures in its maintenance plan:

i. Multi-Pollutant Program for electric generating units;

ii. NOX RACT;

iii. Clean Air Transport Rule;Start Printed Page 79591

iv. Best Available Retrofit Technology;

v. Broader geographic applicability of existing measures;

vi. Tier 2 Vehicle Standards and Low Sulfur Fuel;

vii. Heavy Duty Diesel Standards and Low Sulfur Diesel Fuel;

viii. High-enhanced I/M;

ix. Federal railroad/locomotive standards;

x. Federal commercial marine vessel engine standards;

xi. Portable fuel containers;

xii. Architectural/Industrial Maintenance (AIM) Coatings rule;

xiii. Commercial and Consumer Products rule; and

xiv. Aerosol coatings rule.

To qualify as a contingency measure, emissions reductions from that measure must not be factored into the emissions projections used in the maintenance plan.

g. Provisions for Future Updates of the Ozone Maintenance Plan

As required by section 175A(b) of the CAA, IEPA commits to submit to the EPA an updated ozone maintenance plan eight years after redesignation of the St. Louis area to cover an additional ten-year period beyond the initial ten-year maintenance period. As required by section 175A of the CAA, Illinois has committed to retain the VOC and NOX control measures contained in the SIP prior to redesignation. Illinois also states that any revision to the control measures included as part of the maintenance plan will be submitted to EPA for approval as a SIP revision, and will be accompanied by a showing that such changes will not interfere with maintenance of the NAAQS.

EPA has concluded that the maintenance plan adequately addresses the five basic components of a maintenance plan: attainment inventory, maintenance demonstration, monitoring network, verification of continued attainment, and a contingency plan. Thus EPA proposes to find that the maintenance plan SIP revision submitted by Illinois for the St. Louis area meets the requirements of section 175A of the CAA.

B. Adequacy of the MVEBs

Under the CAA, states are required to submit, at various times, control strategy SIP revisions and ozone maintenance plans for ozone nonattainment areas and for areas seeking redesignations to attainment of the ozone standard. These emission control strategy SIP revisions (e.g., RFP and attainment demonstration SIP revisions) and ozone maintenance plans create MVEBs based on on-road mobile source emissions for criteria pollutants and/or their precursors to address pollution from cars and trucks. The MVEBs are the portions of the total allowable emissions that are allocated to highway and transit vehicle use that, together with emissions from other sources in the area, will provide for attainment or maintenance.

Under 40 CFR part 93, a MVEB for an area seeking a redesignation to attainment is established for the last year of the maintenance plan. The MVEB serves as a ceiling on emissions from an area's planned transportation system. The MVEB concept is further explained in the preamble to the November 24, 1993, transportation conformity rule (58 FR 62188).

Under section 176(c) of the CAA, transportation plans and transportation improvement programs (TIPs) must “conform” to (i.e., be consistent with) the SIP. Conformity to the SIP means that transportation activities will not cause new air quality violations, worsen existing air quality violations, delay timely attainment of the NAAQS or delay an interim milestone. If a transportation plan or TIP does not conform, most new transportation projects that would expand the capacity of roadways cannot go forward. Regulations at 40 CFR part 93 set forth EPA policy, criteria, and procedures for demonstrating and assuring conformity of such transportation activities to a SIP.

When reviewing SIP revisions containing MVEBs, including attainment strategies, rate-of-progress plans, and maintenance plans, EPA must affirmatively approve and find that the MVEBs are “adequate” for use in determining transportation conformity. Once EPA affirmatively approves or finds the submitted MVEBs to be adequate for transportation conformity purposes, the MVEBs must be used by state and Federal agencies in determining whether proposed transportation projects conform to the SIP as required by section 176(c) of the CAA. EPA's substantive criteria for determining the adequacy of MVEBs are set out in 40 CFR 93.118(e)(4).

EPA's process for determining adequacy of a MVEB consists of three basic steps: (1) Providing public notification of a SIP submission; (2) providing the public the opportunity to comment on the MVEB during a public comment period; and, (3) EPA's finding of adequacy. The process of determining the adequacy of submitted SIP MVEBs is codified at 40 CFR 93.118.

The maintenance plan submitted by Illinois for the St. Louis area contains new VOC and NOX MVEBs for the Illinois portion of the area for the years 2008 and 2025. The availability of the SIP submission with these 2008 and 2025 MVEBs was announced for public comment on EPA's Adequacy Web site on September 26, 2011, at: http://www.epa.gov/​otaq/​stateresources/​transconf/​currsips.htm. The EPA public comment period on adequacy of the 2008 and 2025 MVEBs for the Illinois portion of the St. Louis area closed on October 26, 2011. No comments on the submittal were received during the adequacy comment period. The submitted maintenance plan, which included the MVEBs, was endorsed by the Governor (or his or her designee) and was subject to a State public hearing. The MVEBs were developed as part of an interagency consultation process which includes Federal, State, and local agencies. The MVEBs were clearly identified and precisely quantified. These MVEBs, when considered together with all other emissions sources, are consistent with maintenance of the 1997 8-hour ozone standard.

EPA, through this rulemaking, has found adequate and is proposing to approve the MVEBs for use to determine transportation conformity in the Illinois portion of the St. Louis area because EPA has determined that the area can maintain attainment of the 1997 8-hour ozone NAAQS for the relevant maintenance period with mobile source emissions at the levels of the MVEBs. IEPA has determined the 2008 MVEBs for the Illinois portion of the St. Louis area to be 17.27 tpd for VOC and 52.57 tpd for NOX. IEPA has determined the 2025 MVEBs for the Illinois portion of the St. Louis area to be 5.68 tpd for VOC and 15.22 tpd for NOX. These MVEBs are consistent with the on-road mobile source VOC and NOX emissions for 2008 and 2025, as summarized in Table 8 above. Illinois has demonstrated that the St. Louis area can maintain the 1997 8-hour ozone NAAQS with mobile source emissions in the Illinois portion of the area of 16.53 tpd and 7.70 tpd of VOC and 30.84 tpd and 10.34 tpd of NOX in 2008 and 2025, respectively, since emissions will remain under attainment year emission levels.

Because the MVEBs are based on the MOVES model, the grace period before MOVES is required for new conformity determinations for the Illinois portion of the St. Louis area ends on the effective date of this approval. See Question 11 of the Policy Guidance on the Use of MOVES2010 for SIP Development (http://epa.gov/​otaq/​models/​moves/​420b09046.pdf).Start Printed Page 79592

C. 2002 Comprehensive Emissions Inventory

As discussed above, section 182(a)(1) of the CAA requires states with ozone nonattainment areas to submit comprehensive, accurate and current inventories of actual emissions from all sources in the nonattainment area. On June 21, 2006, IEPA submitted a 2002 emissions inventory to meet this requirement. On September 16, 2011, IEPA supplemented this submittal by replacing on-road emissions estimates derived using the MOBILE6 model with on-road emissions estimates derived using EPA's MOVES model. Emissions contained in the comprehensive 2002 inventory cover the general source categories of point sources, area sources, on-road mobile sources, and non-road mobile sources. All emission summaries were accompanied by source-specific descriptions of emission calculation procedures and sources of input data.

IEPA prepared the point source inventory using source reported actual 2002 emissions data from annual emissions reports. Where necessary, the emissions were adjusted for a typical summer day at each emission unit within the source. The annual emissions reports provided ozone season hourly emissions and operating schedules that enabled the calculation of ozone season weekday emissions.

Illinois used several methodologies to estimate area source activity levels and emissions including applying local activity levels, apportioning national or statewide activity levels to the local level, using per capita emission factors, using per employee emission factors, and using data from inventories complied by others. Sources used by IEPA to determine activity/commodity level data and emission information include: EPA's AP-42, EPA's FIRE emission factor database, data from Federal and state agencies including EPA, the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, IDOT, the Illinois Bureau of the Budget, the Illinois Department of Conservation, the Illinois Secretary of State, the Illinois Department of Revenue, and the Illinois Department of Agriculture. The documentation supplied in the submittal shows how the county-specific emissions were calculated for each area source category.

Non-road mobile source emissions were generated using the NONROAD model version 2.20a. In addition, emissions estimates were developed for commercial marine vessels, aircraft, and railroads, three non-road categories not included in the NONROAD model.

On-road mobile emissions were prepared by IEPA using EPA's MVOES emissions model and daily VMT data provided by IDOT.

IEPA's submittal documents 2002 emissions in the Illinois portion of the St. Louis area in units of tons per summer day. The 2002 summer day emissions of VOC and NOX are summarized in Table 2, above. EPA is proposing to approve this 2002 inventory as meeting the section 182(a)(1) comprehensive emissions inventory requirement.

VI. Summary of Actions

After evaluating the redesignation request submitted by Illinois, EPA concludes that the request meets the redesignation criteria set forth in section 107(d)(3)(E) of the CAA. Therefore, EPA is proposing to approve the redesignation of the Illinois portion of the St. Louis area from nonattainment to attainment for the 1997 8-hour ozone NAAQS. EPA is also proposing to approve the maintenance plan SIP revision for the Illinois portion of the St. Louis area. EPA's proposed approval of the maintenance plan is based on the State's demonstration that the plan meets the requirements of section 175A of the CAA, as described more fully above. EPA is also proposing to approve IEPA's 2002 comprehensive emissions inventory for the Illinois portion of the St. Louis area as meeting the requirements of section 182(a)(1) of the CAA. Finally, EPA finds adequate under 40 CFR 93.118(e) and is proposing to approve the State's 2008 and 2025 MVEBs for the Illinois portion of the St. Louis area.

VII. Statutory and Executive Order Reviews

Under the CAA, redesignation of an area to attainment and the accompanying approval of a maintenance plan under section 107(d)(3)(E) are actions that affect the status of a geographical area and do not impose any additional regulatory requirements on sources beyond those imposed by state law. A redesignation to attainment does not in and of itself create any new requirements, but rather results in the applicability of requirements contained in the CAA for areas that have been redesignated to attainment. Moreover, the Administrator is required to approve a SIP submission that complies with the provisions of the CAA and applicable Federal regulations. 42 U.S.C. 7410(k); 40 CFR 52.02(a). Thus, in reviewing SIP submissions, EPA's role is to approve state choices, provided that they meet the criteria of the CAA. Accordingly, these actions do not impose additional requirements beyond those imposed by state law and the CAA. For that reason, these actions:

  • Are not “significant regulatory actions” subject to review by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993);
  • Do not impose an information collection burden under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act (44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.);
  • Are certified as not having a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities under the Regulatory Flexibility Act (5 U.S.C. 601 et seq.);
  • Do not contain any unfunded mandate or significantly or uniquely affect small governments, as described in the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995 (Pub. L. 104-4);
  • Do not have Federalism implications as specified in Executive Order 13132 (64 FR 43255, August 10, 1999);
  • Are not an economically significant regulatory action based on health or safety risks subject to Executive Order 13045 (62 FR 19885, April 23, 1997);
  • Are not a significant regulatory action subject to Executive Order 13211 (66 FR 28355, May 22, 2001);
  • Are not subject to requirements of section 12(d) of the National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995 (15 U.S.C. 272 note) because application of those requirements would be inconsistent with the CAA; and
  • Do not provide EPA with the discretionary authority to address, as appropriate, disproportionate human health or environmental effects, using practicable and legally permissible methods, under Executive Order 12898 (59 FR 7629, February 16, 1994).

In addition, this rule does not have tribal implications as specified by Executive Order 13175 (65 FR 67249, November 9, 2000), because redesignation is an action that affects the status of a geographical area and does not impose any new regulatory requirements on tribes, impact any existing sources of air pollution on tribal lands, nor impair the maintenance of ozone national ambient air quality standards in tribal lands.

Start List of Subjects

List of Subjects

End List of Subjects Start Signature

Dated: December 14, 2011.

Susan Hedman,

Regional Administrator, Region 5.

End Signature End Supplemental Information

Footnotes

1.  The design value is the highest three-year average of the fourth-highest daily maximum 8-hour average for all monitors within the area.

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2.  On October 27, 1998 (63 FR 57356), EPA issued a NOX SIP Call requiring the District of Columbia and 22 states to reduce emissions of NOX in order to reduce the transport of ozone and ozone precursors. In compliance with EPA's NOX SIP Call, IEPA developed rules governing the control of NOX emissions from Electric Generating Units (EGUs), major non-EGU industrial boilers, major cement kilns, and internal combustion engines. EPA approved the Illinois rules as fulfilling Phase I of the NOX SIP Call on June 28, 2001 (66 FR 34382) and November 21, 2001 (66 FR 56454), and as meeting Phase II of the NOX SIP Call on June 26, 2009 (74 FR 30466).

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[FR Doc. 2011-32828 Filed 12-21-11; 8:45 am]

BILLING CODE 6560-50-P