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Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for General Service Fluorescent Lamps and Incandescent Reflector Lamps

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Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy.


Final rule.


The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA), as amended, prescribes energy conservation standards for various consumer products and certain commercial and industrial equipment, including general service fluorescent lamps (GSFLs) and incandescent reflector lamps (IRLs). EPCA also requires the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine whether more-stringent standards would be technologically feasible and economically justified, and would save a significant amount of energy. In this final rule, DOE is adopting more-stringent energy conservation standards for GSFLs. It has determined that the amended energy conservation standards for these products would result in significant conservation of energy, and are technologically feasible and economically justified. DOE concluded in this final rule that amending energy conservation standards for IRLs would not be economically justified.


The effective date of this rule is March 27, 2015. Compliance with the amended standards established for GSFLs and IRLs in this final rule is January 26, 2018.


The docket, which includes Federal Register notices, public meeting attendee lists and transcripts, comments, and other supporting documents/materials, is available for review at All documents in the docket are listed in the index. However, some documents listed in the index, such as those containing information that is exempt from public disclosure, may not be publicly available.

A link to the docket Web page can be found at:​buildings/​appliance_​standards/​rulemaking.aspx/​ruleid/​24. The Web page will contain simple instructions on how to access all documents, including public comments, in the docket.

For further information on how to review the docket, contact Ms. Brenda Edwards at (202) 586-2945 or by email:

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Ms. Lucy deButts, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, EE-2J, 1000 Independence Avenue SW., Washington, DC 20585-0121. Telephone: (202) 287-1604. Email:

Ms. Elizabeth Kohl, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of the General Counsel, GC-71, 1000 Independence Avenue SW., Washington, DC 20585-0121. Telephone: (202) 586-7796. Email:

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Table of Contents

I. Summary of the Final Rule and Its Benefits

A. Benefits and Costs to Consumers

B. Impact on Manufacturers

C. National Benefits

D. Conclusion

II. Introduction

A. Authority

B. Background

1. Current Standards

2. Corrections to Codified Standards

3. History of Standards Rulemaking for General Service Fluorescent Lamps and Incandescent Reflector Lamps

4. Test Procedure

a. Standby and Off Mode Energy Consumption

III. General Discussion

A. Product Classes and Scope of Coverage

B. Technological Feasibility

1. General

2. Maximum Technologically Feasible Levels

C. Energy Savings

1. Determination of Savings

2. Significance of Savings

D. Economic Justification

1. Specific Criteria

a. Economic Impact on Manufacturers and Consumers

b. Savings in Operating Costs Compared to Increase in Price

c. Energy Savings

d. Lessening of Utility or Performance of Products

e. Impact of Any Lessening of Competition

f. Need for National Energy Conservation

g. Other Factors

2. Rebuttable Presumption

IV. Issues Affecting Rulemaking Schedule

V. Issues Affecting Scope

A. Clarifications of General Service Fluorescent Lamp Definition

B. General Service Fluorescent Lamp Scope of Coverage

1. Additional General Service Fluorescent Lamp Types

2. Additional General Service Fluorescent Lamp Wattages

C. Incandescent Reflector Lamp Scope of Coverage

1. Incandescent Reflector Lamp Types

2. Incandescent Reflector Wattages

D. Summary of Scope of Coverage

VI. Methodology and Discussion

A. Market and Technology Assessment

1. General Service Fluorescent Lamp Technology Options

a. Highly Emissive Coatings

b. Higher Efficiency Lamp Fill Gas Composition

c. Higher Efficiency Phosphors

d. Summary of GSFL Technology Options

2. Incandescent Reflector Lamp Technology Options

a. Thinner Filaments

b. Efficient Filament Coiling

c. Efficient Filament Orientation

d. Higher Efficiency Inert Fill Gas

e. Higher Pressure Tungsten-Halogen Lamps

f. Infrared Glass Coatings

g. Efficient Filament Placement

h. Integrally Ballasted Low Voltage Lamps

i. Summary of IRL Technology Options

B. Screening Analysis

1. General Service Fluorescent Lamp Design Options

2. Incandescent Reflector Lamp Design Options

a. Higher Temperature Operation

b. Thinner Filaments

c. Higher Efficiency Reflector Coatings

d. Higher Pressure Tungsten-Halogen Lamps

C. Product Classes

1. General Service Fluorescent Lamp Product Classes

a. Two-Foot U-Shaped Lamps

b. Long-Life Lamps

c. Summary of GSFL Product Classes

2. Incandescent Reflector Lamp Product Classes

a. Rated Voltage

b. Modified Spectrum

c. Summary of IRL Product Classes

D. Engineering Analysis

1. General Approach

2. General Service Fluorescent Lamp Engineering

a. Data Approach

b. Representative Product Classes

c. Baseline Lamps

d. More Efficacious Substitutes

e. General Service Fluorescent Lamp Systems

f. Max Tech

g. Efficacy Levels

h. Scaling to Other Product Classes

i. Rare Earth Phosphors

3. Incandescent Reflector Lamp Engineering

a. Representative Product Classes

b. Baseline Lamps

c. More Efficacious Substitutes

d. Max Tech

e. Efficacy Levels

f. Scaling to Other Product Classes

g. Xenon

h. Proprietary Technology

E. Product Pricing Determination

F. Energy Use

1. Operating Hours

2. Lighting Controls

a. General Service Fluorescent Lamp Lighting Controls

b. Incandescent Reflector Lamp Lighting ControlsStart Printed Page 4043

G. Life-Cycle Cost Analysis and Payback Period Analysis

1. Consumer Product Price

2. Sales Tax

3. Installation Cost

4. Annual Energy Use

5. Product Energy Consumption Rate

6. Electricity Prices

7. Electricity Price Projections

8. Replacement and Disposal Costs

9. Lamp Purchase Events

10. Product Lifetime

a. Lamp Lifetime

b. Ballast Lifetime

11. Discount Rates

12. Analysis Period

13. Compliance Date of Standards

14. Incandescent Reflector Lamp Life-Cycle Cost Results in the NOPR

H. Consumer Subgroup Analysis

I. Shipments Analysis

J. National Impact Analysis—National Energy Savings and Net Present Value Analysis

1. National Energy Savings

2. Net Present Value of Consumer Benefit

a. Total Annual Installed Cost

b. Total Annual Operating Cost Savings

K. Manufacturer Impact Analysis

1. Manufacturer Production Costs

2. Shipment Projections

3. Markup Scenarios

4. Product and Capital Conversion Costs

5. Other Comments From Interested Parties

a. High Cost to Manufacturers versus Relatively Low Energy Savings

b. Impacts on Competition

c. Impact of GSFL and IRL Standards on Alternative Lighting Technologies

6. Manufacturer Interviews

L. Emissions Analysis

M. Monetizing Carbon Dioxide and Other Emissions Impacts

1. Social Cost of Carbon

a. Monetizing Carbon Dioxide Emissions

b. Development of Social Cost of Carbon Values

c. Current Approach and Key Assumptions

2. Valuation of Other Emissions Reductions

N. Utility Impact Analysis

O. Employment Impact Analysis

P. Proposed Standards in April 2014 NOPR

1. GSFLs Proposed Standards

2. IRL Proposed Standards

VII. Analytical Results

A. Trial Standard Levels

B. Economic Justification and Energy Savings

1. Economic Impacts on Individual Consumers

a. Life-Cycle Cost and Payback Period

b. Consumer Subgroup Analysis

c. Rebuttable-Presumption Payback

2. Economic Impacts on Manufacturers

a. Industry Cash-Flow Analysis Results

b. Impacts on Employment

c. Impacts on Manufacturing Capacity

d. Impacts on Subgroups of Manufacturers

e. Cumulative Regulatory Burden

3. National Impact Analysis

a. Significance of Energy Savings

b. Net Present Value of Consumer Costs and Benefits

c. Alternative Scenario Analyses

d. Indirect Impacts on Employment

4. Impact on Utility or Performance of Equipment