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The Vanguard Group, Inc., et al.

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Start Preamble September 8, 2017.


Securities and Exchange Commission (“Commission”).



Notice of an application for an order under section 6(c) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (the “Act”) for an exemption from sections 2(a)(32), 5(a)(1), 22(d), and 22(e) of the Act and rule 22c-1 under the Act, under sections 6(c) and 17(b) of the Act for an exemption from sections 17(a)(1) and 17(a)(2) of the Act, and under section 12(d)(1)(J) for an exemption from sections 12(d)(1)(A) and 12(d)(1)(B) of the Act. The requested order would permit (a) actively-managed series of certain open-end management investment companies (“Funds”) to issue shares redeemable in large aggregations only (“Creation Units”); (b) secondary market transactions in Fund shares to occur at negotiated market prices rather than at net asset value (“NAV”); (c) certain Funds to pay redemption proceeds, under certain circumstances, more than seven days after the tender of Creation Units for redemption; (d) certain affiliated persons of a Fund to deposit securities into, and receive securities from, the Fund in connection with the purchase and redemption of Creation Units; and (e) certain registered management investment companies and unit investment trusts outside of the same group of investment companies as the Funds (“Acquiring Funds”) to acquire shares of the Funds.


The Vanguard Group, Inc. (“Initial Adviser”), a Pennsylvania corporation registered as an investment adviser under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940, Vanguard Marketing Corporation (“Distributor”), a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Initial Adviser and a broker-dealer registered under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (“Exchange Act”), and Vanguard Admiral Funds, Vanguard Bond Index Funds, Vanguard California Tax-Free Funds, Vanguard Charlotte Funds, Vanguard Chester Funds, Vanguard Convertible Securities Fund, Vanguard Explorer Fund, Vanguard Fenway Funds, Vanguard Fixed Income Securities Funds, Vanguard Horizon Funds, Vanguard Index Funds, Vanguard International Equity Index Funds, Vanguard Malvern Funds, Vanguard Massachusetts Tax-Exempt Funds, Vanguard Money Market Reserves, Vanguard Montgomery Funds, Vanguard Morgan Growth Fund, Vanguard Municipal Bond Funds, Vanguard New Jersey Tax-Free Funds, Vanguard New York Tax-Free Funds, Vanguard Ohio Tax-Free Funds, Vanguard Pennsylvania Tax-Free Funds, Vanguard Quantitative Funds, Vanguard Scottsdale Funds, Vanguard Specialized Funds, Vanguard STAR Funds, Vanguard Tax-Managed Funds, Vanguard Trustees' Equity Fund, Vanguard Valley Forge Funds, Vanguard Variable Insurance Funds, Vanguard Wellesley Income Fund, Vanguard Wellington Fund, Vanguard Whitehall Funds, Vanguard Windsor Funds, and Vanguard World Fund, each a Delaware statutory trust registered under the Act as an open-end management investment company with multiple series (each a “Trust,” and together, the “Trusts”).

Filing Date:

The application was filed on August 17, 2016, and amended on May 19, 2017, August 22, 2017, and September 7, 2017.

Hearing or Notification of Hearing:

An order granting the requested relief will be issued unless the Commission orders a hearing. Interested persons may request a hearing by writing to the Commission's Secretary and serving applicants with a copy of the request, personally or by mail. Hearing requests should be received by the Commission by 5:30 p.m. on October 3, 2017, and should be accompanied by proof of service on applicants, in the form of an affidavit, or for lawyers, a certificate of service. Pursuant to rule 0-5 under the Act, hearing requests should state the nature of the writer's interest, any facts bearing upon the desirability of a hearing on the matter, the reason for the request, and the issues contested. Persons who wish to be notified of a hearing may request notification by writing to the Commission's Secretary.


Secretary, Securities and Exchange Commission, 100 F Street NE., Washington, DC 20549-1090; Applicants: Brian P. Murphy, Esq., The Vanguard Group, Inc., Mail Stop V26, P.O. Box 2600, Valley Forge, PA 19482-2600.

Start Further Info


Asen Parachkevov, Senior Counsel, or Daniele Marchesani, Assistant Chief Counsel, at (202) 551-6821 (Division of Investment Management, Chief Counsel's Office).

End Further Info End Preamble Start Supplemental Information


The following is a summary of the application. The complete application may be obtained via the Commission's Web site by searching for the file Start Printed Page 43268number, or for an applicant using the Company name box, at​search/​search.htm or by calling (202) 551-8090.

Summary of the Application

1. Applicants request an order that would allow Funds to operate as actively-managed exchange traded funds (“ETFs”).[1] Fund shares will be purchased and redeemed at their NAV in Creation Units only. All orders to purchase Creation Units and all redemption requests will be placed by or through an “Authorized Participant,” which will have signed a participant agreement with the Distributor. Shares will be listed and traded individually on a national securities exchange, where share prices will be based on the current bid/offer market. Any order granting the requested relief would be subject to the terms and conditions stated in the application.

2. Each Fund will consist of a portfolio of securities, instruments, other assets or positions (“Portfolio Positions”). Each Fund will disclose on its Web site the identities and quantities of the Portfolio Positions that will form the basis for the Fund's calculation of NAV at the end of the day.

3. Shares will be purchased and redeemed in Creation Units and generally on an in-kind basis. Except where the purchase or redemption will include cash under the limited circumstances specified in the application, purchasers will be required to purchase Creation Units by depositing specified instruments (“Deposit Instruments”), and shareholders redeeming their shares will receive specified instruments (“Redemption Instruments”). The Deposit Instruments and the Redemption Instruments will each correspond pro rata to the positions in the Fund's portfolio (including cash positions) except as specified in the application.

4. Because shares will not be individually redeemable, applicants request an exemption from section 5(a)(1) and section 2(a)(32) of the Act that would permit the Funds to register as open-end management investment companies and issue shares that are redeemable in Creation Units only.

5. Applicants also request an exemption from section 22(d) of the Act and rule 22c-1 under the Act as secondary market trading in shares will take place at negotiated prices, not at a current offering price described in a Fund's prospectus, and not at a price based on NAV. Applicants state that (a) secondary market trading in shares does not involve a Fund as a party and will not result in dilution of an investment in shares, and (b) to the extent different prices exist during a given trading day, or from day to day, such variances occur as a result of third-party market forces, such as supply and demand. Therefore, applicants assert that secondary market transactions in shares will not lead to discrimination or preferential treatment among purchasers. Finally, applicants represent that share market prices will be disciplined by arbitrage opportunities, which should prevent shares from trading at a material discount or premium from NAV.

6. With respect to Funds that hold non-U.S. Portfolio Positions and that effect creations and redemptions of Creation Units in kind, applicants request relief from the requirement imposed by section 22(e) in order to allow such Funds to pay redemption proceeds within fifteen calendar days following the tender of Creation Units for redemption. Applicants assert that the requested relief would not be inconsistent with the spirit and intent of section 22(e) to prevent unreasonable, undisclosed or unforeseen delays in the actual payment of redemption proceeds.

7. Applicants request an exemption to permit Acquiring Funds to acquire Fund shares beyond the limits of section 12(d)(1)(A) of the Act; and the Funds, and any principal underwriter for the Funds, and/or any broker or dealer registered under the Exchange Act, to sell shares to Acquiring Funds beyond the limits of section 12(d)(1)(B) of the Act. The application's terms and conditions are designed to, among other things, help prevent any potential (i) undue influence over a Fund through control or voting power, or in connection with certain services, transactions, and underwritings, (ii) excessive layering of fees, and (iii) overly complex fund structures, which are the concerns underlying the limits in sections 12(d)(1)(A) and (B) of the Act.

8. Applicants request an exemption from sections 17(a)(1) and 17(a)(2) of the Act to permit persons that are affiliated persons, or second tier affiliates, of the Funds, solely by virtue of certain ownership interests, to effectuate purchases and redemptions in-kind. The deposit procedures for in-kind purchases of Creation Units and the redemption procedures for in-kind redemptions of Creation Units will be the same for all purchases and redemptions and Deposit Instruments and Redemption Instruments will be valued in the same manner as those Portfolio Positions currently held by the Funds. Applicants also seek relief from the prohibitions on affiliated transactions in section 17(a) to permit a Fund to sell its shares to and redeem its shares from an Acquiring Fund, and to engage in the accompanying in-kind transactions with the Acquiring Fund.[2] The purchase of Creation Units by an Acquiring Fund directly from a Fund will be accomplished in accordance with the policies of the Acquiring Fund and will be based on the NAVs of the Funds.

9. Section 6(c) of the Act permits the Commission to exempt any persons or transactions from any provision of the Act if such exemption is necessary or appropriate in the public interest and consistent with the protection of investors and the purposes fairly intended by the policy and provisions of the Act. Section 12(d)(1)(J) of the Act provides that the Commission may exempt any person, security, or transaction, or any class or classes of persons, securities, or transactions, from any provision of section 12(d)(1) if the exemption is consistent with the public interest and the protection of investors. Section 17(b) of the Act authorizes the Commission to grant an order permitting a transaction otherwise prohibited by section 17(a) if it finds that (a) the terms of the proposed transaction are fair and reasonable and do not involve overreaching on the part of any person concerned; (b) the proposed transaction is consistent with the policies of each registered investment company involved; and (c) the proposed transaction is consistent with the general purposes of the Act.

Start Signature
Start Printed Page 43269

For the Commission, by the Division of Investment Management, under delegated authority.

Eduardo A. Aleman,

Assistant Secretary.

End Signature End Supplemental Information


1.  Applicants request that the order apply to future series of the Trusts and other open-end management investment companies or series thereof that currently exist or that may be created in the future (each, included in the term “Fund”), each of which will operate as an actively-managed ETF. Any series of the Trusts, or of other open-end management investment companies, that have multiple share classes will not be able to rely on the order. Any Fund will (a) be advised by the Initial Adviser or an entity controlling, controlled by, or under common control with the Initial Adviser (each such entity or any successor thereto is included in the term “Adviser”) and (b) comply with the terms and conditions of the application. For purposes of the requested order, the term “successor” is limited to an entity that results from a reorganization into another jurisdiction or a change in the type of business organization.

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2.  The requested relief would apply to direct sales of shares in Creation Units by a Fund to an Acquiring Fund and redemptions of those shares. Applicants, moreover, are not seeking relief from section 17(a) for, and the requested relief will not apply to, transactions where a Fund could be deemed an affiliated person, or a second-tier affiliate, of an Acquiring Fund because an investment adviser to the Funds is also an investment adviser to the Acquiring Fund.

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[FR Doc. 2017-19474 Filed 9-13-17; 8:45 am]