Food and Drug Administration, HHS.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or Agency) is announcing an opportunity for public comment on the proposed collection of certain information by the Agency. Under the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (PRA), Federal Agencies are required to publish notice in the Federal Register concerning each proposed collection of information and to allow 60 days for public comment in response to the notice. This notice solicits comments on an experimental study of cigarette warnings that is being conducted in support of the graphic label statement provision of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (the Tobacco Control Act).
Submit either electronic or written comments on the collection of information by November 26, 2018.
You may submit comments as follows. Please note that late, untimely filed comments will not be considered. Electronic comments must be submitted on or before November 26, 2018. The https://www.regulations.gov electronic filing system will accept comments until 11:59 p.m. Eastern Time at the end of November 26, 2018. Comments received by mail/hand delivery/courier (for written/paper submissions) will be considered timely if they are postmarked or the delivery service acceptance receipt is on or before that date.
Submit electronic comments in the following way:
Federal eRulemaking Portal: https://www.regulations.gov. Follow the instructions for submitting comments. Comments submitted electronically, including attachments, to https://www.regulations.gov will be posted to the docket unchanged. Because your comment will be made public, you are solely responsible for ensuring that your comment does not include any confidential information that you or a third party may not wish to be posted, such as medical information, your or anyone else's Social Security number, or confidential business information, such as a manufacturing process. Please note that if you include your name, contact information, or other information that identifies you in the body of your comments, that information will be posted on https://www.regulations.gov.
- If you want to submit a comment with confidential information that you do not wish to be made available to the public, submit the comment as a written/paper submission and in the manner detailed (see “Written/Paper Submissions” and “Instructions”).
Submit written/paper submissions as follows:
Mail/Hand Delivery/Courier (for written/paper submissions): Dockets Management Staff (HFA-305), Food and Drug Administration, 5630 Fishers Lane, Rm. 1061, Rockville, MD 20852.
- For written/paper comments submitted to the Dockets Management Staff, FDA will post your comment, as well as any attachments, except for information submitted, marked and identified, as confidential, if submitted as detailed in “Instructions.”
Instructions: All submissions received must include the Docket No. FDA-2018-N-3552 for “Experimental Study of Cigarette Warnings.” Received comments, those filed in a timely manner (see ADDRESSES), will be placed in the docket and, except for those submitted as “Confidential Submissions,” publicly viewable at https://www.regulations.gov or at the Start Printed Page 48626Dockets Management Staff between 9 a.m. and 4 p.m., Monday through Friday.
- Confidential Submissions—To submit a comment with confidential information that you do not wish to be made publicly available, submit your comments only as a written/paper submission. You should submit two copies total. One copy will include the information you claim to be confidential with a heading or cover note that states “THIS DOCUMENT CONTAINS CONFIDENTIAL INFORMATION.” The Agency will review this copy, including the claimed confidential information, in its consideration of comments. The second copy, which will have the claimed confidential information redacted/blacked out, will be available for public viewing and posted on https://www.regulations.gov. Submit both copies to the Dockets Management Staff. If you do not wish your name and contact information to be made publicly available, you can provide this information on the cover sheet and not in the body of your comments and you must identify this information as “confidential.” Any information marked as “confidential” will not be disclosed except in accordance with 21 CFR 10.20 and other applicable disclosure law. For more information about FDA's posting of comments to public dockets, see 80 FR 56469, September 18, 2015, or access the information at: https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2015-09-18/pdf/2015-23389.pdf.
Docket: For access to the docket to read background documents or the electronic and written/paper comments received, go to https://www.regulations.gov and insert the docket number, found in brackets in the heading of this document, into the “Search” box and follow the prompts and/or go to the Dockets Management Staff, 5630 Fishers Lane, Rm. 1061, Rockville, MD 20852.
Start Further Info
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:
Amber Sanford, Office of Operations, Food and Drug Administration, Three White Flint North, 10A-12M, 11601 Landsdown St., North Bethesda, MD 20852, 301-796-8867, PRAStaff@fda.hhs.gov.
End Further Info
Start Supplemental Information
Under the PRA (44 U.S.C. 3501-3520), Federal Agencies must obtain approval from the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for each collection of information they conduct or sponsor. “Collection of information” is defined in 44 U.S.C. 3502(3) and 5 CFR 1320.3(c) and includes Agency requests or requirements that members of the public submit reports, keep records, or provide information to a third party. Section 3506(c)(2)(A) of the PRA (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)) requires Federal Agencies to provide a 60-day notice in the Federal Register concerning each proposed collection of information before submitting the collection to OMB for approval. To comply with this requirement, FDA is publishing notice of the proposed collection of information set forth in this document.
With respect to the following collection of information, FDA invites comments on these topics: (1) Whether the proposed collection of information is necessary for the proper performance of FDA's functions, including whether the information will have practical utility; (2) the accuracy of FDA's estimate of the burden of the proposed collection of information, including the validity of the methodology and assumptions used; (3) ways to enhance the quality, utility, and clarity of the information to be collected; and (4) ways to minimize the burden of the collection of information on respondents, including through the use of automated collection techniques, when appropriate, and other forms of information technology.
Experimental Study of Cigarette Warnings
OMB Control Number 0910—NEW
The Tobacco Control Act (Pub. L. 111-31) amends the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act to grant FDA authority to regulate the manufacture, marketing, and distribution of tobacco products to protect the public health and to reduce tobacco use by minors. Section 201 of the Tobacco Control Act amends section 4 of the Federal Cigarette Labeling and Advertising Act (FCLAA) (15 U.S.C. 1333) to require FDA to issue regulations that require color graphics depicting the negative health consequences of smoking to accompany the label statements specified in subsection 4(a)(1) of the FCLAA. Section 202(b) of the Tobacco Control Act further amends section 4 of the FCLAA by adding that the Secretary of Health and Human Services (Secretary), through notice and comment rulemaking, may adjust the text of any of the label requirements if the Secretary finds that such a change would promote greater public understanding of the risks associated with the use of tobacco products.
In the Federal Register of June 22, 2011 (76 FR 36628), FDA issued a final rule entitled “Required Warnings for Cigarette Packages and Advertisements,” which specified nine images to accompany new textual warning statements for cigarettes. Although the rule was scheduled to become effective 15 months after it was issued, a panel of the U.S. Court of Appeals of the District of Columbia held, on August 24, 2012, that the rule in its current form violated the First Amendment. In a letter to Congress on March 15, 2013, the Attorney General reported FDA's intention to undertake research to support a new rulemaking consistent with the Tobacco Control Act. Various phases of research have been underway since 2013. The next phase of the research includes the study proposed here, which is an effort by FDA to collect data concerning responses to cigarette warnings placed on cigarette packages and advertisements for cigarettes.
The health risks associated with the use of cigarettes are significant and far-reaching. Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States and is responsible for more than 480,000 deaths per year. Smoking causes more deaths each year than human immunodeficiency virus, illegal drug use, alcohol use, motor vehicle injuries, and firearm-related incidents combined (Ref. 1). In addition to lung cancer, heart disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, smoking also causes numerous other serious health conditions including several types of cancer, premature birth, low birth weight, respiratory illnesses, clogged arteries, reduced blood flow, diabetes, and vision conditions such as age-related macular degeneration and cataracts (Ref. 2).
Approximately 37.8 million U.S. adults smoke cigarettes (Ref. 3) and 8.6 million Americans have at least one serious illness caused by smoking cigarettes (Ref. 4). Results from the 2016 National Survey on Drug Use and Health demonstrate that, each day in the United States, more than 2,300 youth under age 18 smoke their first cigarette, and nearly 400 youth become daily cigarette smokers (Ref. 5). If the current trajectory of smoking rates continues, 5.6 million children alive today will die prematurely as a result of smoking (Ref. 2). Providing the public with accurate information regarding the health consequences of cigarette use is critical in achieving FDA's mission to protect the public health.
This Experimental Study of Cigarette Warnings is a voluntary online experiment. The purpose of the study is to assess whether new cigarette warnings increase public understanding of the negative health consequences of cigarette smoking. The study will collect Start Printed Page 48627data from various groups of consumers, including adolescent current cigarette smokers aged 13 to 17 years, adolescent non-smokers who are susceptible to initiation of cigarette smoking aged 13 to 17 years, young adult current cigarette smokers and non-smokers aged 18 to 24 years, and older adult current cigarette smokers and non-smokers aged 25 years and older. The results will inform the Agency's efforts to implement the mandatory graphic warning label statements as required by section 4(d) of FCLAA.
Study Overview: In this study, adolescent current cigarette smokers, adolescent non-smokers who are susceptible to initiation of cigarette smoking, young adult current cigarette smokers and non-smokers, and older adult current cigarette smokers and non-smokers will be recruited from an existing internet panel of more than 1.2 million people and screened for inclusion into the study. Participants who meet the inclusion criteria will be randomized into 1 of 17 conditions. In each condition, respondents will view one cigarette warning. In the 16 treatment conditions, participants will view 1 graphic health warning, containing a warning statement accompanied by a concordant color graphic depicting the negative health consequences of smoking described in the statement. In the control condition, participants will be randomized to view one of the four current Surgeon General's warnings, representing the current state of cigarette warnings in the United States. In all conditions, participants will view their assigned warnings both on a mock cigarette package and a mock cigarette advertisement, presented in a randomized order.
There will be three sessions. During Session 1, participants will complete a baseline assessment about their beliefs about the negative health consequences of cigarette smoking. Next, they will be exposed to the stimuli (i.e., the warning based on condition assignment) and complete a set of items assessing (a) if the information presented in the warning was new; (b) self-reported learning from the warning; (c) if the warning was easy to understand; (d) if the warning was perceived to be a fact or an opinion; (e) if the warning was informative; (f) if the warning grabbed their attention; and (g) if the warning made them think about the health risks of cigarette smoking. During Session 2 (1 to 2 days after Session 1), participants will be exposed to the same stimuli again (i.e., the warning based on condition assignment from Session 1), and complete a set of items assessing beliefs about the negative health consequences caused by cigarette smoking. During Session 3 (approximately 14 days after Session 2), participants will complete a delayed post-test on beliefs about the negative health consequences caused by cigarette smoking and items assessing recall of the warning.
Prior to the main data collection, 2 sequential pretests, each with 50 participants, will take place to ensure correct programming of Session 1 and to identify any issues with the study design and implementation.
Study outcomes include comparisons to assess the extent to which exposure to the graphic health warnings, relative to the text-only Surgeon General's warnings, provide new information, increase self-reported learning, change beliefs about the negative health consequences of cigarette smoking, increase thinking about the risks of smoking, as well as the extent to which the warnings are informative, easy to understand, factual, attention grabbing, and recalled.
FDA estimates the burden of this collection of information as follows:
Table 1—Estimated Annual Reporting Burden 1
|Activity||Number of respondents||Number of responses per respondent||Total annual responses||Average burden per response 2||Total hours|
|Adult—Screener for pretest||456||1||456||0.03 hours (2 minutes)||14|
|Adult—Pretest||68||1||68||0.20 hours (12 minutes)||14|
|Adult—Screener for main data collection||51,054||1||51,054||0.03 hours (2 minutes)||1,532|
|Adult—Main data collection (3 sessions)||7,460||1||7,460||0.42 hours (25 minutes)||3,133|
|Total Adult Hours||4,693|
|Adolescent—Screener for pretest||410||1||410||0.03 hours (2 minutes)||12|
|Adolescent—Pretest||32||1||32||0.20 hours (12 minutes)||6|
|Adolescent—Screener for main data collection||29,487||1||29,487||0.03 hours (2 minutes)||885|
|Adolescent—Main data collection (3 sessions)||2,300||1||2,300||0.42 hours (25 minutes)||966|
|Total Adolescent Hours||1,869|
|Total Burden Hours||6,562|
|1 There are no capital costs or operating and maintenance costs associated with this collection of information.|
|2 The hours per response are rounded to two decimal places.|
FDA's burden estimate is based on prior experience with research that is similar to this proposed study (OMB control number 0910-0848). Screening potential participants for the 2 pretests will occur with 866 respondents (456 adults and 410 adolescents) identified and recruited through the internet panel. Participants will complete the screening questionnaire through an email invitation. This brief screening will take an average of 2 minutes (0.03 hours) per respondent. If, based on this screening, participants qualify for the study, they will be automatically directed to begin the pretest. As previously mentioned, each of the 2 pretests conducted will consist of 50 respondents (34 adults and 16 adolescents in each) (100 total) during a single session and, we estimate an average of 12 minutes (0.20 hours) per respondent.
Screening potential participants for the main data collection will occur with 80,541 respondents (51,054 adults and 29,487 adolescents) identified and Start Printed Page 48628recruited through the same internet panel as used for the pretests. Participants will complete the screener questionnaire through an email invitation. This brief screening will take an average of 2 minutes (0.03 hours) per respondent. If, based on this screening, participants qualify for the study, they will be directed to begin Session 1. Recent national estimates of the numbers of adolescent current cigarette smokers, adolescents who are susceptible to initiation of cigarette smoking, young adult current cigarette smokers, and older adult current cigarette smokers informed the estimates of 14.6 percent qualification rate for adults and 7.8 percent qualification rate for adolescents. Applying these estimates and other assumptions from previous experience conducting similar studies to the number of adolescents and adults to be screened results in the desired sample size for the main data collection of 9,760 participants, of which 7,460 will be adults and 2,300 will be adolescents. The three sessions of the main data collection will take an average of 12 minutes (0.20 hours) for Session 1, 8 minutes (0.13 hours) for Session 2, and 5 minutes (0.08 hours) for Session 3, for a total of an estimated 25 minutes (0.42 hours) per respondent. The total estimated burden for the data collection is 6,561 hours (4,692 hours for adults + 1,869 hours for adolescents).
The following references are on display at the Dockets Management Staff (see ADDRESSES) and are available for viewing by interested persons between 9 a.m. and 4 p.m., Monday through Friday; they are also available electronically at https://www.regulations.gov.
1. Murphy, S.L., J. Xu, K.D. Kochanek. “Deaths: Final Data for 2010”. National Vital Statistics Reports, 61(4):37-41, 2013.
2. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. “The Health Consequences of Smoking: 50 Years of Progress. A Report of the Surgeon General.” Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health; 2014.
3. Jamal, A., E. Phillips, A.S. Gentzke, et al. “Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults—United States, 2016”. MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 67:53-59, 2018.
4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “Cigarette Smoking-Attributable Morbidity—United States, 2000”. MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 52(35):842-844, 2003
5. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). See Table 4.10A in ” 2016 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Detailed Tables.” Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality; 2017.
End Supplemental Information
Dated: September 21, 2018.
Associate Commissioner for Policy.
[FR Doc. 2018-20913 Filed 9-25-18; 8:45 am]
BILLING CODE 4164-01-P