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Medical Devices; Radiology Devices; Classification of the Radiological Computer-Assisted Diagnostic Software for Lesions Suspicious for Cancer

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Start Preamble

AGENCY:

Food and Drug Administration, HHS.

ACTION:

Final amendment; final order.

SUMMARY:

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is classifying the radiological computer-assisted diagnostic (CADx) software for lesions suspicious for cancer into class II (special controls). The special controls that apply to the device type are identified in this order and will be part of the codified language for the radiological CADx software for lesions suspicious for cancer's classification. We are taking this action because we have determined that classifying the device into class II (special controls) will provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device. We believe this action will also enhance patients' access to beneficial innovative devices, in part by reducing regulatory burdens.

DATES:

This order is effective January 22, 2020. The classification was applicable on July 19, 2017.

Start Further Info

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:

Ryan Lubert, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Ave., Bldg. 66, Rm. 3574, Silver Spring, MD, 20993-0002, 240-402-6357, ryan.lubert@fda.hhs.gov.

End Further Info End Preamble Start Supplemental Information

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:

I. Background

Upon request, FDA has classified the CADx software for lesions suspicious for cancer as class II (special controls), which we have determined will provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness. In addition, we believe this action will enhance patients' access to beneficial innovation, in part by reducing regulatory burdens by placing the device into a lower device class than the automatic class III assignment.

The automatic assignment of class III occurs by operation of law and without any action by FDA, regardless of the level of risk posed by the new device. Any device that was not in commercial distribution before May 28, 1976, is Start Printed Page 3541automatically classified as, and remains within, class III and requires premarket approval unless and until FDA takes an action to classify or reclassify the device (see 21 U.S.C. 360c(f)(1)). We refer to these devices as “postamendments devices” because they were not in commercial distribution prior to the date of enactment of the Medical Device Amendments of 1976, which amended the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act).

FDA may take a variety of actions in appropriate circumstances to classify or reclassify a device into class I or II. We may issue an order finding a new device to be substantially equivalent under section 513(i) of the FD&C Act to a predicate device that does not require premarket approval (see 21 U.S.C. 360c(i)). We determine whether a new device is substantially equivalent to a predicate by means of the procedures for premarket notification under section 510(k) of the FD&C Act (21 U.S.C. 360(k)) and part 807 (21 CFR part 807).

FDA may also classify a device through “De Novo” classification, a common name for the process authorized under section 513(f)(2) of the FD&C Act. Section 207 of the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 established the first procedure for De Novo classification (Pub. L. 105-115). Section 607 of the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act modified the De Novo application process by adding a second procedure (Pub. L. 112-144). A device sponsor may utilize either procedure for De Novo classification.

Under the first procedure, the person submits a 510(k) for a device that has not previously been classified. After receiving an order from FDA classifying the device into class III under section 513(f)(1) of the FD&C Act, the person then requests a classification under section 513(f)(2).

Under the second procedure, rather than first submitting a 510(k) and then a request for classification, if the person determines that there is no legally marketed device upon which to base a determination of substantial equivalence, that person requests a classification under section 513(f)(2) of the FD&C Act.

Under either procedure for De Novo classification, FDA is required to classify the device by written order within 120 days. The classification will be according to the criteria under section 513(a)(1) of the FD&C Act. Although the device was automatically within class III, the De Novo classification is considered to be the initial classification of the device.

We believe this De Novo classification will enhance patients' access to beneficial innovation, in part by reducing regulatory burdens. When FDA classifies a device into class I or II via the De Novo process, the device can serve as a predicate for future devices of that type, including for 510(k)s (see 21 U.S.C. 360c(f)(2)(B)(i)). As a result, other device sponsors do not have to submit a De Novo request or premarket approval application in order to market a substantially equivalent device (see 21 U.S.C. 360c(i), defining “substantial equivalence”). Instead, sponsors can use the 510(k) process, when necessary, to market their device.

II. De Novo Classification

On April 7, 2017, Quantitative Insights Inc. submitted a request for De Novo classification of the QuantX. FDA reviewed the request in order to classify the device under the criteria for classification set forth in section 513(a)(1) of the FD&C Act.

We classify devices into class II if general controls by themselves are insufficient to provide reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness, but there is sufficient information to establish special controls that, in combination with the general controls, provide reasonable assurance of the safety and effectiveness of the device for its intended use (see 21 U.S.C. 360c(a)(1)(B)). After review of the information submitted in the request, we determined that the device can be classified into class II with the establishment of special controls. FDA has determined that these special controls, in addition to the general controls, will provide reasonable assurance of the safety and effectiveness of the device.

Therefore, on July 19, 2017, FDA issued an order to the requester classifying the device into class II. In this final order, FDA is codifying the classification of the device by adding 21 CFR 892.2060.[1] We have named the generic type of device radiological computer-assisted diagnostic (CADx) software for lesions suspicious for cancer, and it is identified as an image processing device intended to aid in the characterization of lesions as suspicious for cancer identified on acquired medical images such as magnetic resonance, mammography, radiography, or computed tomography. The device characterizes lesions based on features or information extracted from the images and provides information about the lesion(s) to the user. Diagnostic and patient management decisions are made by the clinical user.

FDA has identified the following risks to health associated specifically with this type of device and the measures required to mitigate these risks in table 1.

Table 1—Radiological CADx Software for Lesions Suspicious for Cancer Risks and Mitigation Measures

Identified riskMitigation measures
Incorrect lesion(s) characterization leading to false positive results may result in incorrect patient management with possible adverse effects such as unnecessary treatment, unnecessary additional medical imaging and/or unnecessary additional diagnostic workup such as biopsyCertain design verification and validation activities identified in special control (1) and Certain labeling information identified in special control (2).
Incorrect lesion(s) characterization leading to false negative results may lead to complications, including incorrect diagnosis and delay in disease managementCertain design verification and validation activities identified in special control (1) and Certain labeling information identified in special control (2).
The device could be misused to analyze images from an unintended patient population or on images acquired with incompatible imaging hardware or incompatible image acquisition parameters, leading to inappropriate diagnostic information being displayed to the userCertain design verification and validation activities identified in special control (1) and Certain labeling information identified in special control (2).
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Device failure could lead to the absence of results, delay of results or incorrect results, which could likewise lead to inaccurate patient assessmentCertain design verification and validation activities identified in special control (1) and Certain labeling information identified in special control (2).

FDA has determined that special controls, in combination with the general controls, address these risks to health and provide reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness. In order for a device to fall within this classification, and thus avoid automatic classification in class III, it would have to comply with the special controls named in this final order. The necessary special controls appear in the regulation codified by this order. This device is subject to premarket notification requirements under section 510(k) of the FD&C Act.

At the time of classification, radiological CADx software for lesions suspicious for cancer are for prescription use only. Prescription devices are exempt from the requirement for adequate directions for use for the layperson under section 502(f)(1) of the FD&C Act (21 U.S.C. 352(f)(1)) and 21 CFR 801.5, as long as the conditions of 21 CFR 801.109 are met.

III. Analysis of Environmental Impact

The Agency has determined under 21 CFR 25.34(b) that this action is of a type that does not individually or cumulatively have a significant effect on the human environment. Therefore, neither an environmental assessment nor an environmental impact statement is required.

IV. Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995

This final order establishes special controls that refer to previously approved collections of information found in other FDA regulations and guidance. These collections of information are subject to review by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) under the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. 3501-3521). The collections of information in the guidance document “De Novo Classification Process (Evaluation of Automatic Class III Designation)” have been approved under OMB control number 0910-0844; the collections of information in part 814, subparts A through E, regarding premarket approval, have been approved under OMB control number 0910-0231; the collections of information in part 807, subpart E, regarding premarket notification submissions, have been approved under OMB control number 0910-0120; the collections of information in part 820, regarding the quality system regulation, have been approved under OMB control number 0910-0073; and the collections of information in parts 801 and 809, regarding labeling, have been approved under OMB control number 0910-0485.

Start List of Subjects

List of Subjects in 21 CFR Part 892

  • Medical devices
  • Radiation protection
  • X-rays
End List of Subjects

Therefore, under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and under authority delegated to the Commissioner of Food and Drugs, 21 CFR part 892 is amended as follows:

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PART 892—RADIOLOGY DEVICES

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1. The authority citation for part 892 continues to read as follows:

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Authority: 21 U.S.C. 351, 360, 360c, 360e, 360j, 360 l, 371.

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2. Add § 892.2060 to subpart B to read as follows:

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Radiological computer-assisted diagnostic software for lesions suspicious of cancer.

(a) Identification. A radiological computer-assisted diagnostic software for lesions suspicious of cancer is an image processing prescription device intended to aid in the characterization of lesions as suspicious for cancer identified on acquired medical images such as magnetic resonance, mammography, radiography, or computed tomography. The device characterizes lesions based on features or information extracted from the images and provides information about the lesion(s) to the user. Diagnostic and patient management decisions are made by the clinical user.

(b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The special controls for this device are:

(1) Design verification and validation must include:

(i) A detailed description of the image analysis algorithms including, but not limited to, a detailed description of the algorithm inputs and outputs, each major component or block, and algorithm limitations.

(ii) A detailed description of pre-specified performance testing protocols and dataset(s) used to assess whether the device will improve reader performance as intended.

(iii) Results from performance testing protocols that demonstrate that the device improves reader performance in the intended use population when used in accordance with the instructions for use. The performance assessment must be based on appropriate diagnostic accuracy measures (e.g., receiver operator characteristic plot, sensitivity, specificity, predictive value, and diagnostic likelihood ratio). The test dataset must contain sufficient numbers of cases from important cohorts (e.g., subsets defined by clinically relevant confounders, effect modifiers, concomitant diseases, and subsets defined by image acquisition characteristics) such that the performance estimates and confidence intervals of the device for these individual subsets can be characterized for the intended use population and imaging equipment.

(iv) Standalone performance testing protocols and results of the device.

(v) Appropriate software documentation (e.g., device hazard analysis; software requirements specification document; software design specification document; traceability analysis; and description of verification and validation activities including system level test protocol, pass/fail criteria, results, and cybersecurity).

(2) Labeling must include:

(i) A detailed description of the patient population for which the device is indicated for use.

(ii) A detailed description of the intended reading protocol.

(iii) A detailed description of the intended user and recommended user training.

(iv) A detailed description of the device inputs and outputs.

(v) A detailed description of compatible imaging hardware and imaging protocols.

(vi) Warnings, precautions, and limitations, including situations in which the device may fail or may not operate at its expected performance level (e.g., poor image quality or for certain subpopulations), as applicable.Start Printed Page 3543

(vii) Detailed instructions for use.

(viii) A detailed summary of the performance testing, including: Test methods, dataset characteristics, results, and a summary of sub-analyses on case distributions stratified by relevant confounders (e.g., lesion and organ characteristics, disease stages, and imaging equipment).

Start Signature

Dated: January 9, 2020.

Lowell J. Schiller,

Principal Associate Commissioner for Policy.

End Signature End Supplemental Information

Footnotes

1.  FDA notes that the “ACTION” caption for this final order is styled as “Final amendment; final order,” rather than “Final order.” Beginning in December 2019, this editorial change was made to indicate that the document “amends” the Code of Federal Regulations. The change was made in accordance with the Office of Federal Register's (OFR) interpretations of the Federal Register Act (44 U.S.C. chapter 15), its implementing regulations (1 CFR 5.9 and parts 21 and 22), and the Document Drafting Handbook.

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[FR Doc. 2020-00497 Filed 1-21-20; 8:45 am]

BILLING CODE 4164-01-P