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Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Kauai Islandwide Recovery Plan

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Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior.


Notice of document availability for review and public comment.


We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, announce the availability of the Draft Kauai Islandwide Recovery Plan under the Endangered Species Act. This draft recovery plan addresses 175 listed species occurring on the island of Kauai, Hawaii, 111 of which are endemic to Kauai. The draft recovery plan includes specific goals, objectives, and criteria that should be met to remove the Kauai endemic species from the Federal List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants. For the listed species that occur on multiple Hawaiian islands, the draft recovery plan describes those actions specific to Kauai; complete recovery actions and recovery criteria for these species will be covered in a subsequent multi-island recovery plan. We request review and comment on this draft recovery plan from local, State, and Federal agencies and the public. We will also accept any new information on the species' status throughout their range.


In order to be considered, comments on the draft recovery plan must be received on or before July 29, 2020. However, we will accept information about any species at any time.


An electronic copy of the draft recovery plan is available at our website at​endangered/​species/​recovery-plans.html and​pacific/​ecoservices/​endangered/​recovery/​plans.html. If you wish to comment on the plan, you may submit your comments in writing by any one of the following methods:

(1) You may submit written comments and materials to Field Supervisor, Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 300 Ala Moana Boulevard, Room 3122, Honolulu, HI 96850.

(2) You may submit written comments to our Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office by fax at (808)792-9581.

(3) You may send comments by email to

For additional information about submitting comments, see the “Request for Public Comments” section below.

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Gregory Koob, Deputy Field Supervisor, by mail at the above Honolulu address, or by telephone at (808)792-9400. Individuals who are hearing impaired may call the Federal Relay Service at 800-877-8339 for TTY assistance.

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We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, announce the availability of the Draft Kauai Islandwide Recovery Plan under the Endangered Species Act (Act; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.). This draft recovery plan addresses 175 listed species occurring on the island of Kauai, Hawaii, 111 of which are endemic to Kauai. The draft recovery plan includes specific goals, objectives, and criteria that should be met to remove the Kauai endemic species from the Federal List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants. For the listed species that occur on multiple Hawaiian islands, the draft recovery plan describes those actions specific to Kauai; complete recovery actions and recovery criteria for these species will be covered in a subsequent multi-island recovery plan. We request review and comment on this draft recovery plan from local, State, and Federal agencies and the public. We will also accept any new information on any species' status throughout its range.


Recovery of endangered or threatened animals and plants to the point where they are again secure, self-sustaining members of their ecosystems is a primary goal of our endangered species program and the Act (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.). Recovery means improvement of the status of listed species to the point at which listing is no longer appropriate under the criteria set out in section 4(a)(1) of the Act. The Act requires the development of recovery plans for listed species, unless such a plan would not promote the conservation of a particular species.

Species Addressed in Recovery Plan

This draft recovery plan addresses 175 species, as listed in the table below. Many of these species have been addressed previously in earlier recovery plans; this plan will update and supersede the Kauai-specific actions in those documents, and is intended to provide a single unified reference for the recovery of all listed species on Kauai.

Scientific nameCommon nameListing statusKauai endemicMost recent recovery plan
Acaena exiguaLiliwaiEndangeredNoD
Achyranthes muticaNo common nameEndangeredNoA
Adenophorus periensFern, pendant kihiEndangeredNoA
Alectryon macrococcusMahoeEndangeredNoD
Asplenium dielerectumDiellia, asplenium-leavedEndangeredNoA
Asplenium dielmannii [=Diellia mannii]No common nameEndangeredYes——
Asplenium dielpallidum [=Diellia pallida]No common nameEndangeredYesE
Astelia waialealaePainiuEndangeredYes——
Bonamia menziesiiNo common nameEndangeredNoA
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Brighamia insignisOluluEndangeredNoE
Canavalia napaliensisAwikiwikiEndangeredYes——
Canavalia pubescensAwikiwikiEndangeredNo——
Charpentiera densifloraPapalaEndangeredYes——
Ctenitis squamigeraPauoaEndangeredNoC
Cyanea asarifoliaHahaEndangeredYesE
Cyanea dolichopodaHahaEndangeredYes——
Cyanea eleeleensisHahaEndangeredYes——
Cyanea kolekoleensisHahaEndangeredYes——
Cyanea kuhihewaHaiwaleEndangeredYes——
Cyanea rectaHahaThreatenedYesF
Cyanea remyiHahaEndangeredYesF
Cyanea undulataNo common nameEndangeredYesG
Cyperus pennatiformisNo common nameEndangeredNoA
Cyperus trachysanthosPuukaaEndangeredNoA
Cyrtandra cyaneoidesMapeleEndangeredYesF
Cyrtandra limahuliensisHaiwaleThreatenedYesE
Cyrtandra oenobarbaHaiwaleEndangeredYes——
Cyrtandra palikuHaiwaleEndangeredYes——
Delissea rhytidospermaNo common nameEndangeredNoE
Delissea rivularisOhaEndangeredYesF
Diplazium molokaienseNo common nameEndangeredNoC
Doryopteris angelicaNo common nameEndangeredYes——
Dryopteris crinalis var. podosorusPalapalai aumakuaEndangeredYes——
Dubautia imbricata subsp. imbricataNaenaeEndangeredYes——
Dubautia kalalauensisNaenaeEndangeredYes——
Dubautia kenwoodiiNaenaeEndangeredYes——
Dubautia latifoliaKoholapehuEndangeredYesE
Dubautia pauciflorulaNaenaeEndangeredYesG
Dubautia plantaginea subsp. magnifoliaNaenaeEndangeredYes——
Dubautia waialealaeNaenaeEndangeredYes——
Euphorbia eleanoriae [=Chamaesyce eleanoriae]AkokoEndangeredYes——
Euphorbia haeleeleanaAkokoEndangeredNoA
Euphorbia halemanui [=Chamaesyce halemanui]AkokoEndangeredYesE
Euphorbia remyi var. kauaiensis [=Chamaesyce remyi var. kauaiensis]AkokoEndangeredYes——
Euphorbia remyi var. remyi [=Chamaesyce remyi var. remyiiAkokoEndangeredYes——
Exocarpos luteolusHeauEndangeredYesE
Flueggea neowawraeaMehamehameEndangeredNoA
Gardenia remyiNanuEndangeredNo——
Geranium kauaienseNohoanuEndangeredYes——
Gouania meyeniiNo common nameEndangeredNoH
Haplostachys haplostachyaNo common nameEndangeredNoI
Hesperomannia lydgateiNo common nameEndangeredYesG
Hibiscadelphus distansKauai hau kuahiwiEndangeredYesJ
Hibiscadelphus woodiiHau kuahiwiEndangeredYesF
Hibiscus brackenridgeiMao hau hele, (=native yellow hibiscus)EndangeredNoA
Hibiscus clayiClay's hibiscusEndangeredYesE
Hibiscus waimeae subsp. hanneraeKokio keokeoEndangeredYesF
Huperzia manniiWawaeioleEndangeredNoD
Huperzia nutansWawaeioleEndangeredNoH
Ischaemum byroneHilo ischaemumEndangeredNoK
Isodendrion laurifoliumAupakaEndangeredNoA
Isodendrion longifoliumAupakaThreatenedNoA
Joinvillea ascendens subsp. ascendensOheEndangeredNo——
Kadua cookiana [=Hedyotis cookiana]AwiwiEndangeredNoE
Kadua fluviatilis [=Hedyotis fluviatilis]KamapuaaEndangeredNo——
Kadua st.-johnii [=Hedyotis st.-johnii]No common nameEndangeredYesE
Kanaloa kahoolawensisKohe malama malama o kanaloaEndangeredNoB
Keysseria ericiNo common nameEndangeredYes——
Keysseria helenaeNo common nameEndangeredYes——
Kokia kauaiensisKokioEndangeredYesF
Labordia helleriKamakahalaEndangeredYes——
Labordia lydgateiKamakahalaEndangeredYesG
Labordia pumilaKamakahalaEndangeredYes——
Labordia tinifolia var. wahiawaensisKamakahalaEndangeredYesF
Lipochaeta fauriei [=Melanthera fauriei]NeheEndangeredYesE
Lipochaeta micrantha [=Melanthera micrantha]NeheEndangeredYesE
Lipochaeta waimeaensis [=Melanthera waimeaensis]NeheEndangeredYesE
Lobelia niihauensisNo common nameEndangeredNoH
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Lysimachia daphnoidesLehua makanoeEndangeredYes——
Lysimachia inikiNo common nameEndangeredYes——
Lysimachia pendensNo common nameEndangeredYes——
Lysimachia scopulensisNo common nameEndangeredYes——
Lysimachia venosaNo common nameEndangeredYes——
Melicope degeneriAlaniEndangeredYes——
Melicope haupuensisAlaniEndangeredYesE
Melicope knudseniiAlaniEndangeredNoE
Melicope pallidaAlaniEndangeredNoE
Melicope paniculataAlaniEndangeredYes——
Melicope puberulaAlaniEndangeredYes——
Melicope quadrangularisAlaniEndangeredYesE
Mezoneuron kavaienseUhiuhiEndangeredNoL
Myrsine fosbergiiKoleaEndangeredNo——
Myrsine knudseniiKoleaEndangeredYes——
Myrsine linearifoliaKoleaThreatenedYesF
Myrsine meziiKoleaEndangeredYes——
Nothocestrum latifoliumAieaEndangeredNo——
Nothocestrum peltatumAieaEndangeredYesE
Panicum niihauenseLauehuEndangeredNoA
Peucedanum sandwicenseMakouThreatenedNoE
Phyllostegia knudseniiNo common nameEndangeredYesF
Phyllostegia renovansNo common nameEndangeredYes——
Phyllostegia waimeaeNo common nameEndangeredYesE
Phyllostegia wawranaNo common nameEndangeredYesF
Pittosporum napalienseHoawaEndangeredYes——
Plantago princepsKuahiwi laukahiEndangeredNoA
Platanthera holochilaNo common nameEndangeredNoA
Platydesma rostrataPilokea lauliiEndangeredYes——
Poa manniiMann's bluegrassEndangeredYesE
Poa sandvicensisHawaiian bluegrassEndangeredYesE
Poa siphonoglossaNo common nameEndangeredYesE
Polyscias bisattenuata [=Tetraplasandra bisattenuata]No common nameEndangeredYes——
Polyscias flynnii [=Tetraplasandra flynnii]No common nameEndangeredYes——
Polyscias racemosa [=Munroidendron racemosum]No common nameEndangeredYesE
Pritchardia hardyiLouluEndangeredYes——
Pritchardia napaliensisLouluEndangeredYesF
Pritchardia viscosaLouluEndangeredYesF
Psychotria grandifloraKopikoEndangeredYes——
Psychotria hobdyiKopikoEndangeredYes——
Pteralyxia kauaiensisKauluEndangeredYesE
Ranunculus mauiensisMakouEndangeredNo——
Remya kauaiensisNo common nameEndangeredYesE
Remya montgomeryiNo common nameEndangeredYesE
Scaevola coriaceaNaupaka, dwarfEndangeredNoD
Schenkia sebaeoidesAwiwiEndangeredNoA
Schiedea apokremnosMaolioliEndangeredYesE
Schiedea attenuataNo common nameEndangeredYes——
Schiedea helleriNo common nameEndangeredYesF
Schiedea kauaiensisNo common nameEndangeredYesF
Schiedea lychnoides [=Alsinidendron lychnoides]KuawawaenohuEndangeredYesF
Schiedea membranaceaNo common nameEndangeredYesF
Schiedea nuttaliiNo common nameEndangeredNoA
Schiedea spergulina var. leiopodaNo common nameEndangeredYesE
Schiedea spergulina var. spergulinaNo common nameThreatenedYesE
Schiedea stellarioidesLaulihilihiEndangeredYesF
Schiedea viscosa [=Alsinidendron viscosum]No common nameEndangeredYesF
Sesbania tomentosaOhaiEndangeredNoA
Silene lanceolataNo common nameEndangeredNoM
Solanum incompletumPopolo ku maiEndangeredNoA
Solanum nelsoniiPopoloEndangeredNo——
Solanum sandwicensePopolo aiakeakuaEndangeredNoE
Spermolepis hawaiiensisNo common nameEndangeredNoA
Stenogyne campanulataNo common nameEndangeredYesE
Stenogyne kealiaeNo common nameEndangeredYes——
Viola helenaeNo common nameEndangeredYesG
Viola kauaiensis var. wahiawaensisNani waialealeEndangeredYesF
Wilkesia hobdyiDwarf iliauEndangeredYesE
Xylosma crenatumNo common nameEndangeredYesE
Zanthoxylum hawaiienseAeEndangeredNoK
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Manduca blackburniBlackburn's sphinx mothEndangeredNoN
Drosophila musaphiliaHawaiian picture-wing flyEndangeredYes——
Drosophila sharpiHawaiian picture-wing flyEndangeredYes——
Spelaeorchestia koloanaKauai cave amphipodEndangeredYesO
Adelocosa anopsKauai cave wolf spiderEndangeredYesO
Erinna newcombiNewcomb's snailThreatenedYesP
Megalagrion xanthomelasOrangeblack Hawaiian damselflyEndangeredNo——
Megalagrion pacificumPacific Hawaiian damselflyEndangeredNo——
Himantopus mexicanus knudseniHawaiian stiltEndangeredNoQ
Oceanodroma castroAkeake, Band-rumped storm-petrel (Hawaii Distinct Population Segment)EndangeredNo——
Loxops caeruleirostrisAkekee (honeycreeper)EndangeredYes——
Oreomystis bairdiAkikiki (honeycreeper)EndangeredYesR*
Fulica alaiAlae keokeo, Hawaiian cootEndangeredNoQ
Gallinula galeata sandvicensisAlae ula, Hawaiian common gallinuleEndangeredNoQ
Puffinus newelliAo, Newell's shearwaterEndangeredNoS
Chelonia mydasGreen turtleThreatenedNoT
Myadestes myadestinusKamao, large Kauai thrushEndangeredYesR
Akialoa stejnegeriKauai akialoaEndangeredYesR
Hemignathus hanapepeKauai nukupuuEndangeredYesR
Anas wyvillianaKoloa maoli, Hawaiian duckEndangeredNoQ
Anas laysanensisLaysan duckEndangeredNoU
Branta sandvicensisNene, Hawaiian gooseEndangeredNoV
Moho braccatusOo aa, Kauai ooEndangeredYesR
Lasiurus cinereus semotusOpeapea, Hawaiian hoary batEndangeredNoW
Psittirostra psittaceaOuEndangeredNoR
Myadestes palmeriSmall Kauai thrushEndangeredYesR
Pterodroma sandwichensisHawaiian petrelEndangeredNoS
A: Recovery Plan for the Multi-Island Plants (FWS 1999)
B: Addendum to the Recovery Plan for the Multi-Island Plants (FWS 2002)
C: Final Recovery Plan for Four Species of Hawaiian Ferns (FWS 1998a)
D: Recovery Plan for the Maui Plant Cluster (FWS 1997)
E: Recovery Plan for the Kauai Plant Cluster (FWS 1995)
F: Kauai II: Addendum to the Recovery Plan for the Kauai Plant Cluster (FWS 1998b)
G: Recovery Plan for the Wahiawa Plant Cluster (FWS 1994)
H: Recovery Plan for the Oahu Plants (FWS 1998c)
I: Draft Recovery Plan for Haplostachys haplostachya and Stenogyne angustifolia (FWS 1993)
J: Recovery Plan for Hibiscadelphus distans (FWS 1996a)
K: Recovery Plan for the Big Island Plant Cluster (FWS 1996b)
L: Recovery Plan for Caesalpinia kavaiensis and Kokia drynarioides (FWS 1994)
M: Recovery plan for the Molokai Plant Cluster (FWS 1996c)
N: Recovery Plan for Blackburn's Sphinx Moth (FWS 2005)
O: Final Recovery Plan for the Kauai Cave Arthropods (FWS 2006a)
P: Final Recovery Plan for Newcomb's Snail (FWS 2006b)
Q: Recovery Plan for Hawaiian Waterbirds, Second Revision (FWS 2011)
R: Revised Recovery Plan for Hawaiian Forest Birds (FWS 2006c)
S: Hawaiian Dark-rumped Petrel and Newell's Manx Shearwater Recovery Plan (FWS 1983)
T: Recovery Plan for U.S. Pacific Populations of the Green Turtle (NMFS and FWS 1998)
U: Revised Recovery Plan for the Laysan Duck (FWS 2009)
V: Draft Revised Recovery Plan for the Nene or Hawaiian Goose (FWS 2004)
W: Recovery Plan for the Hawaiian Hoary Bat (FWS 1998d)
*: Addressed only as candidate species.

Major threats to the various Kauai species addressed in this draft recovery plan include habitat degradation, predation and herbivory by nonnative mammals and invertebrates, disease spread by nonnative species, and competition with invasive nonnative plant species.

Recovery Plan Goals

The objective of a recovery plan is to provide a framework for the recovery of a listed species so that protection under the Act is no longer necessary. A recovery plan includes scientific information about the species and provides criteria and actions necessary for us to be able to reclassify the species or remove it from the Federal List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants. Recovery plans help guide our recovery efforts by describing actions we consider necessary for the species' conservation, and by estimating time and costs for implementing needed recovery measures.

The draft recovery plan recommends a combination of islandwide recovery actions (e.g., biosecurity), management Start Printed Page 23992of ecosystem-level threats within specific geographic management units, and species-specific recovery actions such as propagation and reintroduction.

Request for Public Comments

Section 4(f) of the Act requires us to provide public notice and an opportunity for public review and comment during recovery plan development. It is also our policy to request peer review of recovery plans (July 1, 1994; 59 FR 34270). In an appendix to the approved recovery plan, we will summarize and respond to the issues raised by the public and peer reviewers. Substantive comments may or may not result in changes to the recovery plan; comments regarding recovery plan implementation will be forwarded as appropriate to Federal or other entities so that they can be taken into account during the course of implementing recovery actions.

We request written comments on the draft recovery plan. Before we approve the plan, we will consider all comments we receive by the date specified in DATES. Methods of submitting comments are described in ADDRESSES.

Public Availability of Comments

Before including your address, phone number, email address, or other personal identifying information in your comment, you should be aware that your entire comment—including your personal identifying information—may be made publicly available at any time. While you can ask us in your comment to withhold your personal identifying information from public review, we cannot guarantee that we will be able to do so.


The authority for this action is section 4(f) of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.).

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Mary Abrams,

Acting Regional Director, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

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[FR Doc. 2020-09177 Filed 4-29-20; 8:45 am]