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Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Initiation of 5-Year Status Review of the Eskimo curlew (Numenius borealis)

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Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior.


Notice; request for information.

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We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce our intention to conduct a 5-year status review under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended, for the Eskimo curlew. A 5-year status review is based on the best scientific and commercial data available at the time of the review. We are requesting submission of any new information that has become available since the last review of the species in 2016.


To ensure consideration, we must receive your comments and information by September 27, 2021. However, we will accept information about the species at any time.


Please submit your information by one of the following methods:

  • Email:; or
  • U.S. mail: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Attention: Dan Rizzolo, Fisheries and Ecological Services, 101 12th Avenue, Fairbanks, Alaska 99701.

For more about submitting information, see Request for Information in the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section.

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Dan Rizzolo, by telephone at 907-456-0227. Individuals who are hearing impaired or speech impaired may call the Federal Relay Service at 800-877-8339 for TTY assistance.

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We are initiating a 5-year status review under the ESA for the Eskimo curlew (Numenius borealis). A 5-year status review is based on the best scientific and commercial data available at the time of the review; therefore, we are requesting submission of any new information on this species that has become available since the last 5-year review was conducted in 2016.

Why do we conduct 5-year reviews?

Under the ESA, we maintain Lists of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants (which we collectively refer to as the List) in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) at 50 CFR 17.11 (for animals) and 17.12 (for plants). Section 4(c)(2)(A) of the ESA requires us to review each listed species' status at least once every 5 years. Further, our regulations at 50 CFR 424.21 require that we publish a notice in the Federal Register announcing those species under active review. For additional information about 5-year reviews, go to​endangered/​what-we-do/​recovery-overview.html.

What information do we consider in our reviews?

In conducting these reviews, we consider the best scientific and commercial data that have become available since the listing determination or most recent status review, such as:

(1) The biology of the species, including but not limited to population trends, distribution, abundance, demographics, and genetics;

(2) Habitat conditions, including but not limited to amount, distribution, and suitability;

(3) Conservation measures that have been implemented that benefit the species;

(4) Threat status and trends in relation to the five listing factors (as defined in section 4(a)(1) of the ESA); and

(5) Other new information, data, or corrections, including but not limited to taxonomic or nomenclatural changes, identification of erroneous information contained in the List, and improved analytical methods.

Any new information will be considered during the 5-year review and will also be useful in evaluating the ongoing recovery programs for the species.

In the case of the Eskimo curlew, we concluded in our 2016 5-year review that the probability that the species remained extant was extremely low based on the scarcity of recent sightings and the length of time that has passed since the last sighting that was confirmed with physical evidence. We will therefore focus this 5-year review upon reported sightings or other recent information on the species' possible existence. Thus, we ask, in particular, for information on recent sightings, including indication as to whether corroborating evidence (such as photographs) is available.

Species Under Review

Entity listed: Eskimo curlew (Numenius borealis).

  • Where listed: Wherever found.
  • Classification: Endangered.
  • Date listed (publication date for final listing rule): March 11, 1967, under the Endangered Species Preservation Act of 1966.
  • Federal Register citation for final listing rule: 32 FR 4001.

Request for Information

To ensure that a 5-year review is complete and based on the best available scientific and commercial information, we request new information from all sources. See What Information Do We Consider in Our Review? for specific criteria. If you submit information, please support it with documentation such as maps, bibliographic references, methods used to gather and analyze the data, and/or copies of any pertinent publications, reports, or letters by knowledgeable sources.

Public Availability of Comments

Before including your address, phone number, email address, or other personal identifying information in your comments, you should be aware that your entire comment—including your personal identifying information—may be made publicly available at any time. While you can ask us in your comment to withhold your personal identifying information from public review, we cannot guarantee that we will be able to do so.

Completed and Active Reviews

A list of all completed and currently active 5-year status reviews addressing species for which the Alaska Region of the Service has the lead responsibility is available at​alaska/​pages/​endangered-species-program/​recovery-endangered-species.


This document is published under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.).

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Peter Fasbender,

Assistant Regional Director, Fisheries and Ecological Services, Alaska Region.

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[FR Doc. 2021-16076 Filed 7-27-21; 8:45 am]